Abstract

The mode-locked laser diode has emerged as a promising candidate as a signal source for photonic radar systems, wireless data transmission, and frequency comb spectroscopy. They have the advantages of small size, low cost, high reliability, and low power consumption, thanks to semiconductor technology. Mode-locked lasers based on silicon photonics advance these qualities by the use of highly advanced silicon manufacturing technology. This paper will begin by giving an overview of mode-locked laser diode literature, and then focus on mode-locked lasers on silicon. The dependence of mode-locked laser performance on design details is presented.

© 2018 Chinese Laser Press

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2017 (1)

Z. Wang, K. Van Gasse, V. Moskalenko, S. Latkowski, E. Bente, B. Kuyken, and G. Roelkens, “A III-V-on-Si ultra-dense comb laser,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16260 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

M. L. Davenport, S. Skendzic, N. Volet, J. C. Hulme, M. J. R. Heck, and J. E. Bowers, “Heterogeneous silicon/III-V semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 78–88 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Coddington, I. Newbury, and N. Swann, “Dual-comb spectroscopy,” Optica 3, 414–426 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Bhardwaj, M. Larson, M. Moewe, and Y. Feng, “Low-loss InGaAsP/InP surface ridge waveguides for photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1403–1405 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

2014 (7)

V. Moskalenko, S. Latkowski, S. Tahvili, T. de Vries, M. Smit, and E. Bente, “Record bandwidth and sub-picosecond pulses from a monolithically integrated mode-locked quantum well ring laser,” Opt. Express 22, 28865–28874 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Joshi, C. Calò, N. Chimot, M. Radziunas, R. Arkhipov, S. Barbet, A. Accard, A. Ramdane, and F. Lelarge, “Quantum dash based single section mode locked lasers for photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 22, 11254–11266 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Srinivasan, A. Arrighi, M. J. R. Heck, J. Hutchinson, E. Norberg, G. Fish, and J. E. Bowers, “Harmonically mode-locked hybrid silicon laser with intra-cavity filter to suppress supermode noise,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 8–15 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Piels, J. F. Bauters, M. L. Davenport, M. J. R. Heck, and J. E. Bowers, “Low-loss silicon nitride AWG demultiplexer heterogeneously integrated with hybrid III-V/silicon photodetectors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 817–823 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Hou, M. Haji, and J. H. Marsh, “240  GHz pedestal-free colliding-pulse mode-locked laser with a wide operation range,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 115804 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 83001 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507, 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

D. P. Sapkota, M. S. Kayastha, and K. Wakita, “Analysis of linewidth enhancement factor for compressively strained AlGaInAs and InGaAsP quantum well lasers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 45, 35–43 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Hou, M. Haji, and J. H. Marsh, “Monolithic mode-locked laser with an integrated optical amplifier for low-noise and high-power operation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1100808 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Sun, L. Zhou, J. Xie, Z. Zou, L. Lu, H. Zhu, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Tunable silicon Fabry–Perot comb filters formed by Sagnac loop mirrors,” Opt. Lett. 38, 567–569 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

L. Hou, M. Haji, J. H. Marsh, and A. C. Bryce, “490  fs pulse generation from a passive C-band AlGaInAs/InP quantum well mode-locked laser,” Opt. Lett. 37, 773–775 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. T. Callahan, M. L. Dennis, and T. R. Clark, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion,” Johns Hopkins APL Tech. Dig. 30, 280–286 (2012).

A. Biberman, M. J. Shaw, E. Timurdogan, J. B. Wright, and M. R. Watts, “Ultralow-loss silicon ring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 37, 39–41 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Hou, M. Haji, J. Akbar, A. C. Bryce, and J. H. Marsh, “160-GHz 1.55-um colliding-pulse mode-locked AlGaInAs/InP laser with high power and low divergence angle,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1057–1059 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Akbar, L. Hou, M. Haji, M. J. Strain, J. H. Marsh, A. C. Bryce, and A. E. Kelly, “High power (130  mW) 40  GHz 1.55  μm mode-locked distributed Bragg reflector lasers with integrated optical amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 37, 344–346 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

2010 (1)

M. Dontabactouny, C. Rosenberg, E. Semenova, D. Larsson, K. Yvind, R. Piron, F. Grillot, O. Dehaese, N. Chevalier, and S. Loualiche, “10-GHz 1.59-μm quantum dash passively mode-locked two-section lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7720, 77201A (2010).

2009 (2)

M. J. R. Heck, A. Renault, E. A. J. M. Bente, Y.-S. Oei, M. K. Smit, K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, S. Anantathanasarn, and R. Notzel, “Passively mode-locked 4.6 and 10.5  GHz quantum dot laser diodes around 1.55  um with large operating regime,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 634–643 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Scollo, H.-J. Lohe, F. Robin, D. Erni, E. Gini, and H. Jackel, “Mode-locked InP-based laser diode with a monolithic integrated UTC absorber for subpicosecond pulse generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 322–335 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

2007 (1)

2006 (4)

Y. Barbarin, E. A. J. M. Bente, M. J. R. Heck, Y. S. Oei, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Characterization of a 15  GHz integrated bulk InGaAsP passively modelocked ring laser at 1.53 μm,” Opt. Express 14, 9716–9727 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. J. Plant, J. T. Gopinath, B. Chann, D. J. Ripin, R. K. Huang, and P. W. Juodawlkis, “250  mW, 1.5  m monolithic passively mode-locked slab-coupled optical waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 31, 223–225 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Ji, N. Chubun, R. G. Broeke, J. Cao, Y. Du, S. J. B. Yoo, K. Y. Liou, J. R. Lothian, S. Vatanapradit, S. N. G. Chu, B. Patel, W. S. Hobson, and W. T. Tsang, “Synchronized transform-limited operation of 10-GHz colliding pulse mode-locked laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 625–627 (2006).
[Crossref]

U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 429, 67–120 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

D. Larsson, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Wide-band residual phase-noise measurements on 40-GHz monolithic mode-locked lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2388–2390 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

R. Kaiser, B. Huttl, H. Heidrich, S. Fidorra, W. Rehbein, H. Stolpe, R. Stenzel, W. Ebert, and G. Sahin, “Tunable monolithic mode-locked lasers on InP with low timing jitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 634–636 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (3)

S. Arahira, Y. Katoh, and Y. Ogawa, “20  GHz subpicosecond monolithic modelocked laser diode,” Electron. Lett. 36, 454–456 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. Fan, C. Wu, M. El-Aasser, N. K. Dutta, U. Koren, and A. B. Piccirilli, “Colliding pulse mode-locked laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 972–973 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. L. Hall, “Optical frequency measurement: 40 years of technology revolutions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1136–1144 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J. Minch, S. H.-H. Park, T. Keating, and S. L.-L. Chuang, “Theory and experiment of InGaAsP and InGaAlAs long-wavelength strained quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 771–782 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

J. H. Marsh, F. Camacho, E. A. Avrutin, and A. C. Bryce, “Passive modelocking in semiconductor lasers with monolithically integrated passive waveguides,” IEEE Proc. J. Optoelectron. 145, 43–46 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

K. Sato, I. Kotaka, Y. Kondo, and M. Yamamoto, “Actively mode-locked strained-InGaAsP multiquantum-well lasers integrated with electroabsorption modulators and distributed Bragg reflectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 557–565 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

J. F. Martins-Filho, E. A. Avrutin, C. N. Ironside, and J. S. Roberts, “Monolithic multiple colliding pulse mode-locked quantum-well lasers: experiment and theory,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 539–551 (1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (4)

W. Jiang, M. Shimizu, R. P. Mirin, T. E. Reynolds, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped mode-locked vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1937–1939 (1993).
[Crossref]

P. B. Hansen, G. Raybon, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, M. A. Newkirk, M.-D. Chien, B. Tell, and C. A. Burrus, “2  cm long monolithic multisection laser for active modelocking at 2.2  GHz,” Electron. Lett. 29, 739–741 (1993).
[Crossref]

P. B. Hansen, G. Raybon, U. Koren, P. P. Iannone, B. I. Miller, G. M. Young, M. A. Newkirk, and C. A. Burrus, “InGaAsP monolithic extended-cavity lasers with integrated saturable absorbers for active, passive, and hybrid mode locking at 8.6  GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1445–1447 (1993).
[Crossref]

S. Arahira, Y. Matsui, T. Kunii, S. Oshiba, and Y. Ogawa, “Transform-limited optical short-pulse generation at high repetition rate over 40  GHz from a monolithic passive mode-locked DBR laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1362–1365 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (2)

G. Fuchs, J. Hörer, A. Hangleiter, V. Härle, F. Scholz, R. W. Glew, and L. Goldstein, “Intervalence band absorption in strained and unstrained InGaAs multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 231–233 (1992).
[Crossref]

D. J. Derickson, R. J. Helkey, A. Mar, J. R. Karin, J. G. Wasserbauer, and J. E. Bowers, “Short pulse generation using multisegment mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2186–2202 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

L. F. Tiemeijer, P. J. A. Thijs, P. J. de Waard, J. J. M. Binsma, and T. V. Dongen, “Dependence of polarization, gain, linewidth enhancement factor, and K factor on the sign of the strain of InGaAs/InP strained-layer multiquantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2738–2740 (1991).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

J. E. Bowers, P. A. Morton, A. Mar, and S. W. Corzine, “Actively mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1426–1439 (1989).
[Crossref]

Accard, A.

S. Joshi, C. Calò, N. Chimot, M. Radziunas, R. Arkhipov, S. Barbet, A. Accard, A. Ramdane, and F. Lelarge, “Quantum dash based single section mode locked lasers for photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 22, 11254–11266 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Joshi, N. Chimot, R. Rosales, S. Barbet, A. Accard, A. Ramdane, and F. Lelarge, “Mode locked InAs/InP quantum dash based DBR laser monolithically integrated with a semiconductor optical amplifier,” in International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM) (2013).

Achouche, M.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 83001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Akbar, J.

Akrout, A.

Ambrosius, H.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 83001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ambrosius, H. P. M. M.

Anantathanasarn, S.

M. J. R. Heck, A. Renault, E. A. J. M. Bente, Y.-S. Oei, M. K. Smit, K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, S. Anantathanasarn, and R. Notzel, “Passively mode-locked 4.6 and 10.5  GHz quantum dot laser diodes around 1.55  um with large operating regime,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 634–643 (2009).
[Crossref]

Arahira, S.

S. Arahira, Y. Katoh, and Y. Ogawa, “20  GHz subpicosecond monolithic modelocked laser diode,” Electron. Lett. 36, 454–456 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Arahira, Y. Matsui, T. Kunii, S. Oshiba, and Y. Ogawa, “Transform-limited optical short-pulse generation at high repetition rate over 40  GHz from a monolithic passive mode-locked DBR laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1362–1365 (1993).
[Crossref]

Arkhipov, R.

Arrighi, A.

S. Srinivasan, A. Arrighi, M. J. R. Heck, J. Hutchinson, E. Norberg, G. Fish, and J. E. Bowers, “Harmonically mode-locked hybrid silicon laser with intra-cavity filter to suppress supermode noise,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 8–15 (2014).
[Crossref]

Aubin, G.

Augustin, L.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 83001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Avrutin, E. A.

J. H. Marsh, F. Camacho, E. A. Avrutin, and A. C. Bryce, “Passive modelocking in semiconductor lasers with monolithically integrated passive waveguides,” IEEE Proc. J. Optoelectron. 145, 43–46 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. F. Martins-Filho, E. A. Avrutin, C. N. Ironside, and J. S. Roberts, “Monolithic multiple colliding pulse mode-locked quantum-well lasers: experiment and theory,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 539–551 (1995).
[Crossref]

Bakker, A.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 83001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Barbarin, Y.

Barbet, S.

S. Joshi, C. Calò, N. Chimot, M. Radziunas, R. Arkhipov, S. Barbet, A. Accard, A. Ramdane, and F. Lelarge, “Quantum dash based single section mode locked lasers for photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 22, 11254–11266 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Joshi, N. Chimot, R. Rosales, S. Barbet, A. Accard, A. Ramdane, and F. Lelarge, “Mode locked InAs/InP quantum dash based DBR laser monolithically integrated with a semiconductor optical amplifier,” in International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM) (2013).

Barrios, P. J.

Bauters, J. F.

Bente, E.

Z. Wang, K. Van Gasse, V. Moskalenko, S. Latkowski, E. Bente, B. Kuyken, and G. Roelkens, “A III-V-on-Si ultra-dense comb laser,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16260 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Keyvaninia, S. Uvin, M. Tassaert, X. Fu, S. Latkowski, J. Mariën, L. Thomassen, F. Lelarge, G. Duan, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, J. Van Campenhout, E. Bente, and G. Roelkens, “Narrow-linewidth short-pulse III-V-on-silicon mode-locked lasers based on a linear and ring cavity geometry,” Opt. Express 23, 3221–3229 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Keyvaninia, S. Uvin, M. Tassaert, Z. Wang, X. Fu, S. Latkowski, J. Marien, L. Thomassen, F. Lelarge, G. Duan, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, E. Bente, and G. Roelkens, “III-V-on-silicon anti-colliding pulse-type mode-locked laser,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3057–3060 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 83001 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. Moskalenko, S. Latkowski, S. Tahvili, T. de Vries, M. Smit, and E. Bente, “Record bandwidth and sub-picosecond pulses from a monolithically integrated mode-locked quantum well ring laser,” Opt. Express 22, 28865–28874 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bente, E. A. J. M.

Berizzi, F.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507, 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bhardwaj, A.

A. Bhardwaj, M. Larson, M. Moewe, and Y. Feng, “Low-loss InGaAsP/InP surface ridge waveguides for photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 1403–1405 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. S. Parker, A. Bhardwaj, P. R. A. Binetti, Y. Hung, C. H. Lin, and L. A. Coldren, “Integrated 30  GHz passive ring mode-locked laser with gain flattening filter,” in IEEE International Semiconductor Laser Conference (ISLC) (2010), pp. 3–4.

Bhat, S.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 83001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Biberman, A.

A. Biberman, M. J. Shaw, E. Timurdogan, J. B. Wright, and M. R. Watts, “Ultralow-loss silicon ring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 37, 39–41 (2012).
[Crossref]

Binetti, P. R. A.

J. S. Parker, A. Bhardwaj, P. R. A. Binetti, Y. Hung, C. H. Lin, and L. A. Coldren, “Integrated 30  GHz passive ring mode-locked laser with gain flattening filter,” in IEEE International Semiconductor Laser Conference (ISLC) (2010), pp. 3–4.

Binsma, J. J. M.

L. F. Tiemeijer, P. J. A. Thijs, P. J. de Waard, J. J. M. Binsma, and T. V. Dongen, “Dependence of polarization, gain, linewidth enhancement factor, and K factor on the sign of the strain of InGaAs/InP strained-layer multiquantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2738–2740 (1991).
[Crossref]

Bitincka, E.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 83001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Blumenthal, D. J.

Bogaerts, W.

W. Bogaerts and S. K. Selvaraja, “Compact single-mode silicon hybrid rib/strip waveguide with adiabatic bends,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 422–432 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bogoni, A.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507, 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bolk, J.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 83001 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. S. Tahvili, Y. Barbarin, X. J. M. Leijtens, T. de Vries, E. Smalbrugge, J. Bolk, H. P. M. M. Ambrosius, M. K. Smit, and E. A. J. M. Bente, “Directional control of optical power in integrated InP/InGaAsP extended cavity mode-locked ring lasers,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2462–2464 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

M. L. Davenport, S. Skendzic, N. Volet, J. C. Hulme, M. J. R. Heck, and J. E. Bowers, “Heterogeneous silicon/III-V semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 78–88 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Srinivasan, E. Norberg, T. Komljenovic, M. Davenport, G. Fish, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon colliding-pulse mode-locked lasers with on-chip stabilization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 24–29 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Komljenovic, M. Davenport, J. Hulme, A. Y. Liu, C. T. Santis, A. Spott, S. Srinivasan, E. J. Stanton, C. Zhang, and J. E. Bowers, “Heterogeneous silicon photonic integrated circuits,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 20–35 (2015).

S. Srinivasan, A. Arrighi, M. J. R. Heck, J. Hutchinson, E. Norberg, G. Fish, and J. E. Bowers, “Harmonically mode-locked hybrid silicon laser with intra-cavity filter to suppress supermode noise,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 8–15 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Piels, J. F. Bauters, M. L. Davenport, M. J. R. Heck, and J. E. Bowers, “Low-loss silicon nitride AWG demultiplexer heterogeneously integrated with hybrid III-V/silicon photodetectors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 817–823 (2014).
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A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, K.-G. Gan, H. Park, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, D. J. Blumenthal, and J. E. Bowers, “A racetrack mode-locked silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 16, 1393–1398 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. R. Koch, A. W. Fang, O. Cohen, and J. E. Bowers, “Mode-locked silicon evanescent lasers,” Opt. Express 15, 11225–11233 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. Jiang, M. Shimizu, R. P. Mirin, T. E. Reynolds, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped mode-locked vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1937–1939 (1993).
[Crossref]

D. J. Derickson, R. J. Helkey, A. Mar, J. R. Karin, J. G. Wasserbauer, and J. E. Bowers, “Short pulse generation using multisegment mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2186–2202 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. E. Bowers, P. A. Morton, A. Mar, and S. W. Corzine, “Actively mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1426–1439 (1989).
[Crossref]

Broeke, R.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 83001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Broeke, R. G.

C. Ji, N. Chubun, R. G. Broeke, J. Cao, Y. Du, S. J. B. Yoo, K. Y. Liou, J. R. Lothian, S. Vatanapradit, S. N. G. Chu, B. Patel, W. S. Hobson, and W. T. Tsang, “Synchronized transform-limited operation of 10-GHz colliding pulse mode-locked laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 625–627 (2006).
[Crossref]

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L. Hou, M. Haji, J. H. Marsh, and A. C. Bryce, “490  fs pulse generation from a passive C-band AlGaInAs/InP quantum well mode-locked laser,” Opt. Lett. 37, 773–775 (2012).
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L. Hou, M. Haji, and J. H. Marsh, “240  GHz pedestal-free colliding-pulse mode-locked laser with a wide operation range,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 115804 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Hou, M. Haji, and J. H. Marsh, “Monolithic mode-locked laser with an integrated optical amplifier for low-noise and high-power operation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1100808 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Hou, M. Haji, J. Akbar, A. C. Bryce, and J. H. Marsh, “160-GHz 1.55-um colliding-pulse mode-locked AlGaInAs/InP laser with high power and low divergence angle,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1057–1059 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Akbar, L. Hou, M. Haji, M. J. Strain, J. H. Marsh, A. C. Bryce, and A. E. Kelly, “High power (130  mW) 40  GHz 1.55  μm mode-locked distributed Bragg reflector lasers with integrated optical amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 37, 344–346 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Hou, M. Haji, J. H. Marsh, and A. C. Bryce, “490  fs pulse generation from a passive C-band AlGaInAs/InP quantum well mode-locked laser,” Opt. Lett. 37, 773–775 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Hou, M. Haji, J. Akbar, B. Qiu, and A. C. Bryce, “Low divergence angle and low jitter 40  GHz AlGaInAs/InP 1.55  μm mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 36, 966–968 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Hou, M. Haji, B. Qiu, and A. C. Bryce, “Mode-locked laser array monolithically integrated with MMI combiner, SOA, and EA modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1064–1066 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. P. Green, M. Haji, L. Hou, G. Mezosi, R. Dylewicz, and A. E. Kelly, “Fast saturable absorption and 10  GHz wavelength conversion in Al-quaternary multiple quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19, 9737–9743 (2011).
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L. Hou, M. Haji, J. H. Marsh, and A. C. Bryce, “10  GHz AlGaInAs/InP 1.55  μm passively mode-locked laser with low divergence angle and timing jitter,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2011), paper Mo.1.LeSaleve.2.

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S. Srinivasan, A. Arrighi, M. J. R. Heck, J. Hutchinson, E. Norberg, G. Fish, and J. E. Bowers, “Harmonically mode-locked hybrid silicon laser with intra-cavity filter to suppress supermode noise,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 8–15 (2014).
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J. S. Parker, A. Bhardwaj, P. R. A. Binetti, Y. Hung, C. H. Lin, and L. A. Coldren, “Integrated 30  GHz passive ring mode-locked laser with gain flattening filter,” in IEEE International Semiconductor Laser Conference (ISLC) (2010), pp. 3–4.

S. Joshi, N. Chimot, R. Rosales, S. Barbet, A. Accard, A. Ramdane, and F. Lelarge, “Mode locked InAs/InP quantum dash based DBR laser monolithically integrated with a semiconductor optical amplifier,” in International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM) (2013).

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Figures (20)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the most common forms of fully integrated mode-locked laser cavity designs.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Pulse width of a selection of mode-locked laser diodes from the literature.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Peak power of a selection of lasers from the literature, including this work. The colored lines represent approximate trends; purple is for fully integrated lasers, and blue is for Fabry–Perot lasers. The silicon lasers were not considered part of the trend.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. 3 dB passively-mode locked RF linewidth of a selection of mode-locked lasers from the literature. The colored lines represent approximate trends; purple is for fully integrated lasers, and blue is for Fabry–Perot lasers. The silicon lasers and the two labeled outliers were not considered part of the trend.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Schematic of the laser test device used in the experimental optimization.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Cross section of the heterogeneous amplifier waveguide. H+ denotes the hydrogen implanted section of the mesa. Current flows down only the central non-implanted p-type InP. The width of the underlying silicon waveguide controls the confinement factor. SCH, separate-confinement heterostructure; MQW, multi-quantum well.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Dimensions of the heterogeneous transition.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Plan view schematics of the n-type transitions, showing (a) the n-type taper and (b) the n-type angle. In both cases, the p-type transition is the 30 μm three-section taper.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Pulse width versus the absorber length, plotted as a percentage fraction of the gain section length. In this case, with a 2-mm-long gain section, the absorber sections were 50, 100, 150, and 200 μm.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Impact on the pulse width of increasing confinement factor in the pumped current channel region of the quantum well. The quantum well confinement factor is plotted versus waveguide width in the inset.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Pulse width versus the quantum well compressive strain in the active region.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. Size comparison of the circular-bend loop mirror and the two spline-curve loop mirrors.
Fig. 13.
Fig. 13. LI characteristic of the three loop mirror split lasers, with the absorbers forward biased at the same current density as the gain sections.
Fig. 14.
Fig. 14. Simulated bend loss for the narrow 400-nm-wide and 500-nm-tall waveguide used for the directional coupler and loop mirror.
Fig. 15.
Fig. 15. Pulse width versus loop mirror minimum bend radius. The 25-μm-bend mirror has fully circular bends. The 5-μm- and 3-μm-bend mirrors have the spline curve. The 3-μm-bend mirror resulted in the shortest pulse from the entire study, at 900 fs. The “Best integrated InP” result refers to Ref. [52], and the “Best of all Si” result refers to [34].
Fig. 16.
Fig. 16. Autocorrelation trace (blue) and sech2 fit (red dashes) of the 3-μm-bend spline-curve-mirror laser producing a 900 fs pulse.
Fig. 17.
Fig. 17. RF tone from the 5-μm-bend spline curve mirror laser (red) and Voigt fit (blue), showing 1.1 kHz linewidth.
Fig. 18.
Fig. 18. Close-in view of the RF tone from the 5-μm-bend spline curve mirror laser showing the 1.1 kHz, 3 dB linewidth, along with some spurs at 2 and 4 kHz offset.
Fig. 19.
Fig. 19. Optical spectrum from the 3-μm-bend spline curve mirror laser while it was producing the 900 fs pulse. The 3-dB bandwidth of the comb is 2.96 nm.
Fig. 20.
Fig. 20. LI characteristic from the 3-μm-bend laser under 4.5  V reverse bias. The shortest pulse came at 89 mA bias current, when the CW power was 1.83 mW. This corresponds to 98 mW peak power.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Effect of Transition Design on Pulse Width

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