Abstract

A nanowire (NW) structure provides an alternative scheme for deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes (DUV-LEDs) that promises high material quality and better light extraction efficiency (LEE). In this report, we investigate the influence of the tapering angle of closely packed AlGaN NWs, which is found to exist naturally in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown NW structures, on the LEE of NW DUV-LEDs. It is observed that, by having a small tapering angle, the vertical extraction is greatly enhanced for both transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) polarizations. Most notably, the vertical extraction of TM emission increased from 4.8% to 24.3%, which makes the LEE reasonably large to achieve high-performance DUV-LEDs. This is because the breaking of symmetry in the vertical direction changes the propagation of the light significantly to allow more coupling into radiation modes. Finally, we introduce errors to the NW positions to show the advantages of the tapered NW structures can be projected to random closely packed NW arrays. The results obtained in this paper can provide guidelines for designing efficient NW DUV-LEDs.

© 2018 Chinese Laser Press

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  24. K. H. Li, X. Liu, Q. Wang, S. Zhao, and Z. Mi, “Ultralow-threshold electrically injected AlGaN nanowire ultraviolet lasers on Si operating at low temperature,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 140–144 (2015).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  34. T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. H. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 171105 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  35. S. G. Johnson, S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751–5758 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  36. D. R. Solli and J. M. Hickmann, “Study of the properties of 2D photonic crystal structures as a function of the air-filling fraction and refractive index contrast,” Opt. Mater. 33, 523–526 (2011).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  38. Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “Theoretical investigation of a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab with truncated cone air holes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1661–1663 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  39. J. W. Kim, J. H. Jang, M. C. Oh, J. W. Shin, D. H. Cho, J. H. Moon, and J. I. Lee, “FDTD analysis of the light extraction efficiency of OLEDs with a random scattering layer,” Opt. Express 22, 498–507 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2018 (1)

M. Djavid, D. D. Choudhary, M. Rajan Philip, T. H. Q. Bui, O. Akinnuoye, T. T. Pham, and H. P. T. Nguyen, “Effects of optical absorption in deep ultraviolet nanowire light-emitting diodes,” Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 28, 106–110 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

S. M. Sadaf, S. Zhao, Y. Wu, Y. H. Ra, X. Liu, S. Vanka, and Z. Mi, “An AlGaN core-shell tunnel junction nanowire light-emitting diode operating in the ultraviolet-C band,” Nano Lett. 17, 1212–1218 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Janjua, H. Sun, C. Zhao, D. H. Anjum, F. Wu, A. A. Alhamoud, X. Li, A. M. Albadri, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “Self-planarized quantum-disks-in-nanowires ultraviolet-B emitters utilizing pendeo-epitaxy,” Nanoscale 9, 7805–7813 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Janjua, H. D. Sun, C. Zhao, D. H. Anjum, D. Priante, A. A. Alhamoud, F. Wu, X. H. Li, A. M. Albadri, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “Droop-free AlxGa1−xN/AlyGa1−yN quantum-disks-in-nanowires ultraviolet LED emitting at 337  nm on metal/silicon substrates,” Opt. Express 25, 1381–1390 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

S. Zhao, S. Y. Woo, S. M. Sadaf, Y. Wu, A. Pofelski, D. A. Laleyan, R. T. Rashid, Y. Wang, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of Al-rich AlGaN nanowires for deep ultraviolet optoelectronics,” APL Mater. 4, 086115 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. D. Sun, A. Piquette, M. Raukas, and T. D. Moustakas, “Enhancement of yellow light extraction efficiency of Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ ceramic converters using a 2-D TiO2 hexagonal-lattice nanocylinder photonic crystal layer,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 4500310 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. J. Hopkins, J. L. Cooper, L. T. M. Profeta, and A. R. Ford, “Portable deep-ultraviolet (DUV) Raman for standoff detection,” Appl. Spectrosc. 70, 861–873 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. J. Chen, C. Ji, Y. Xiang, X. N. Kang, B. Shen, and T. J. Yu, “Angular distribution of polarized light and its effect on light extraction efficiency in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 24, A935–A942 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Djavid and Z. T. Mi, “Enhancing the light extraction efficiency of AlGaN deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes by using nanowire structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 051102 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Zhao, S. M. Sadaf, S. Vanka, Y. Wang, R. Rashid, and Z. Mi, “Sub-milliwatt AlGaN nanowire tunnel junction deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes on silicon operating at 242  nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 201106 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

J. Rass, T. Kolbe, N. L. Ploch, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Enslin, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, A. Mogilatenko, J. Glaab, C. Stoelmacker, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “High power UV-B LEDs with long lifetime,” Proc. SPIE 9363, 93631K (2015).
[Crossref]

K. H. Li, X. Liu, Q. Wang, S. Zhao, and Z. Mi, “Ultralow-threshold electrically injected AlGaN nanowire ultraviolet lasers on Si operating at low temperature,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 140–144 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Y. Woo, J. Kang, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “An electrically injected AlGaN nanowire laser operating in the ultraviolet-C band,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 043101 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. F. Zhu and N. Tansu, “Effect of packing density and packing geometry on light extraction of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with microsphere arrays,” Photon. Res. 3, 184–191 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

T. F. Kent, S. D. Carnevale, A. T. M. Sarwar, P. J. Phillips, R. F. Klie, and R. C. Myers, “Deep ultraviolet emitting polarization induced nanowire light emitting diodes with AlxGa1-xN active regions,” Nanotechnology 25, 455201 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. W. Kim, J. H. Jang, M. C. Oh, J. W. Shin, D. H. Cho, J. H. Moon, and J. I. Lee, “FDTD analysis of the light extraction efficiency of OLEDs with a random scattering layer,” Opt. Express 22, 498–507 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

H. Y. Ryu, I. G. Choi, H. S. Choi, and J. I. Shim, “Investigation of light extraction efficiency in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 062101 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Pierret, C. Bougerol, S. Murcia-Mascaros, A. Cros, H. Renevier, B. Gayral, and B. Daudin, “Growth, structural and optical properties of AlGaN nanowires in the whole composition range,” Nanotechnology 24, 115704 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Y. Yue, K. Li, F. M. Kong, J. Zhao, and W. Li, “Analysis on the light extraction efficiency of GaN-based nanowires light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 697–704 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

S. Fernandez-Garrido, X. Kong, T. Gotschke, R. Calarco, L. Geelhaar, A. Trampert, and O. Brandt, “Spontaneous nucleation and growth of GaN nanowires: the fundamental role of crystal polarity,” Nano Lett. 12, 6119–6125 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

S. D. Carnevale, J. Yang, P. J. Phillips, M. J. Mills, and R. C. Myers, “Three-dimensional GaN/AIN nanowire heterostructures by separating nucleation and growth processes,” Nano Lett. 11, 866–871 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. A. Wurtele, T. Kolbe, M. Lipsz, A. Kulberg, M. Weyers, M. Kneissl, and M. Jekel, “Application of GaN-based ultraviolet-C light emitting diodes—UV LEDs—for water disinfection,” Water Res. 45, 1481–1489 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. R. Solli and J. M. Hickmann, “Study of the properties of 2D photonic crystal structures as a function of the air-filling fraction and refractive index contrast,” Opt. Mater. 33, 523–526 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

J. Zhang, H. P. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 111105 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. H. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 171105 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

R. G. Banal, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Optical anisotropy in [0001]-oriented AlxGa1-xN/AlN quantum wells (x > 0.69),” Phys. Rev. B 79, 121308 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. J. Choi, J. H. Kim, and H. H. Lee, “Deep-UV curing of poly(4-vinyl phenol) gate dielectric for hysteresis-free organic thin-film transistors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30, 454–456 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3, 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs—designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 262–286 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Simultaneous inhibition and redistribution of spontaneous light emission in photonic crystals,” Science 308, 1296–1298 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “Theoretical investigation of a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab with truncated cone air holes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1661–1663 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell’s equations in a planewave basis,” Opt. Express 8, 173–190 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 563–565 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

S. G. Johnson, S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751–5758 (1999).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

D. E. Aspnes and A. A. Studna, “Dielectric functions and optical-parameters of Si, Ge, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb from 1.5 to 6.0  eV,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 985–1009 (1983).
[Crossref]

1946 (1)

E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).
[Crossref]

Adachi, S.

S. Adachi, Optical Constants of Crystalline and Amorphous Semiconductors: Numerical Data and Graphical Information (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999).

Akahane, Y.

Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “Theoretical investigation of a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab with truncated cone air holes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1661–1663 (2003).
[Crossref]

Akinnuoye, O.

M. Djavid, D. D. Choudhary, M. Rajan Philip, T. H. Q. Bui, O. Akinnuoye, T. T. Pham, and H. P. T. Nguyen, “Effects of optical absorption in deep ultraviolet nanowire light-emitting diodes,” Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 28, 106–110 (2018).
[Crossref]

Albadri, A. M.

B. Janjua, H. Sun, C. Zhao, D. H. Anjum, F. Wu, A. A. Alhamoud, X. Li, A. M. Albadri, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “Self-planarized quantum-disks-in-nanowires ultraviolet-B emitters utilizing pendeo-epitaxy,” Nanoscale 9, 7805–7813 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Janjua, H. D. Sun, C. Zhao, D. H. Anjum, D. Priante, A. A. Alhamoud, F. Wu, X. H. Li, A. M. Albadri, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “Droop-free AlxGa1−xN/AlyGa1−yN quantum-disks-in-nanowires ultraviolet LED emitting at 337  nm on metal/silicon substrates,” Opt. Express 25, 1381–1390 (2017).
[Crossref]

Alhamoud, A. A.

B. Janjua, H. D. Sun, C. Zhao, D. H. Anjum, D. Priante, A. A. Alhamoud, F. Wu, X. H. Li, A. M. Albadri, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “Droop-free AlxGa1−xN/AlyGa1−yN quantum-disks-in-nanowires ultraviolet LED emitting at 337  nm on metal/silicon substrates,” Opt. Express 25, 1381–1390 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Janjua, H. Sun, C. Zhao, D. H. Anjum, F. Wu, A. A. Alhamoud, X. Li, A. M. Albadri, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “Self-planarized quantum-disks-in-nanowires ultraviolet-B emitters utilizing pendeo-epitaxy,” Nanoscale 9, 7805–7813 (2017).
[Crossref]

Alyamani, A. Y.

B. Janjua, H. Sun, C. Zhao, D. H. Anjum, F. Wu, A. A. Alhamoud, X. Li, A. M. Albadri, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “Self-planarized quantum-disks-in-nanowires ultraviolet-B emitters utilizing pendeo-epitaxy,” Nanoscale 9, 7805–7813 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Janjua, H. D. Sun, C. Zhao, D. H. Anjum, D. Priante, A. A. Alhamoud, F. Wu, X. H. Li, A. M. Albadri, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “Droop-free AlxGa1−xN/AlyGa1−yN quantum-disks-in-nanowires ultraviolet LED emitting at 337  nm on metal/silicon substrates,” Opt. Express 25, 1381–1390 (2017).
[Crossref]

Anjum, D. H.

B. Janjua, H. D. Sun, C. Zhao, D. H. Anjum, D. Priante, A. A. Alhamoud, F. Wu, X. H. Li, A. M. Albadri, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “Droop-free AlxGa1−xN/AlyGa1−yN quantum-disks-in-nanowires ultraviolet LED emitting at 337  nm on metal/silicon substrates,” Opt. Express 25, 1381–1390 (2017).
[Crossref]

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Hu, E. L.

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Janjua, B.

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[Crossref]

B. Janjua, H. Sun, C. Zhao, D. H. Anjum, F. Wu, A. A. Alhamoud, X. Li, A. M. Albadri, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “Self-planarized quantum-disks-in-nanowires ultraviolet-B emitters utilizing pendeo-epitaxy,” Nanoscale 9, 7805–7813 (2017).
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Jo, M.

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A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 563–565 (2001).
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S. G. Johnson, S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751–5758 (1999).
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T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. H. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 171105 (2010).
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S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell’s equations in a planewave basis,” Opt. Express 8, 173–190 (2001).
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S. G. Johnson, S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751–5758 (1999).
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H. Hirayama, T. Takano, J. Sakai, T. Mino, K. Tsubaki, N. Maeda, M. Jo, Y. Kanazawa, I. Ohshima, T. Matsumoto, and N. Kamata, “Realization of over 10% EQE AlGaN deep-UV LED by using transparent p-AlGaN contact layer,” in 2016 International Semiconductor Laser Conference (IEEE, 2016), pp. 1–2.

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H. Hirayama, T. Takano, J. Sakai, T. Mino, K. Tsubaki, N. Maeda, M. Jo, Y. Kanazawa, I. Ohshima, T. Matsumoto, and N. Kamata, “Realization of over 10% EQE AlGaN deep-UV LED by using transparent p-AlGaN contact layer,” in 2016 International Semiconductor Laser Conference (IEEE, 2016), pp. 1–2.

Kang, J.

S. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Y. Woo, J. Kang, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “An electrically injected AlGaN nanowire laser operating in the ultraviolet-C band,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 043101 (2015).
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Kang, X. N.

Kawakami, Y.

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T. F. Kent, S. D. Carnevale, A. T. M. Sarwar, P. J. Phillips, R. F. Klie, and R. C. Myers, “Deep ultraviolet emitting polarization induced nanowire light emitting diodes with AlxGa1-xN active regions,” Nanotechnology 25, 455201 (2014).
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S. J. Choi, J. H. Kim, and H. H. Lee, “Deep-UV curing of poly(4-vinyl phenol) gate dielectric for hysteresis-free organic thin-film transistors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30, 454–456 (2009).
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Kim, J. W.

Klie, R. F.

T. F. Kent, S. D. Carnevale, A. T. M. Sarwar, P. J. Phillips, R. F. Klie, and R. C. Myers, “Deep ultraviolet emitting polarization induced nanowire light emitting diodes with AlxGa1-xN active regions,” Nanotechnology 25, 455201 (2014).
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T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. H. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 171105 (2010).
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J. Rass, T. Kolbe, N. L. Ploch, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Enslin, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, A. Mogilatenko, J. Glaab, C. Stoelmacker, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “High power UV-B LEDs with long lifetime,” Proc. SPIE 9363, 93631K (2015).
[Crossref]

M. A. Wurtele, T. Kolbe, M. Lipsz, A. Kulberg, M. Weyers, M. Kneissl, and M. Jekel, “Application of GaN-based ultraviolet-C light emitting diodes—UV LEDs—for water disinfection,” Water Res. 45, 1481–1489 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. H. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 171105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kolbe, T.

J. Rass, T. Kolbe, N. L. Ploch, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Enslin, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, A. Mogilatenko, J. Glaab, C. Stoelmacker, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “High power UV-B LEDs with long lifetime,” Proc. SPIE 9363, 93631K (2015).
[Crossref]

M. A. Wurtele, T. Kolbe, M. Lipsz, A. Kulberg, M. Weyers, M. Kneissl, and M. Jekel, “Application of GaN-based ultraviolet-C light emitting diodes—UV LEDs—for water disinfection,” Water Res. 45, 1481–1489 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. H. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 171105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kolodziejski, L. A.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 563–565 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. G. Johnson, S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751–5758 (1999).
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Kong, X.

S. Fernandez-Garrido, X. Kong, T. Gotschke, R. Calarco, L. Geelhaar, A. Trampert, and O. Brandt, “Spontaneous nucleation and growth of GaN nanowires: the fundamental role of crystal polarity,” Nano Lett. 12, 6119–6125 (2012).
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J. Rass, T. Kolbe, N. L. Ploch, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Enslin, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, A. Mogilatenko, J. Glaab, C. Stoelmacker, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “High power UV-B LEDs with long lifetime,” Proc. SPIE 9363, 93631K (2015).
[Crossref]

Kulberg, A.

M. A. Wurtele, T. Kolbe, M. Lipsz, A. Kulberg, M. Weyers, M. Kneissl, and M. Jekel, “Application of GaN-based ultraviolet-C light emitting diodes—UV LEDs—for water disinfection,” Water Res. 45, 1481–1489 (2011).
[Crossref]

Laleyan, D. A.

S. Zhao, S. Y. Woo, S. M. Sadaf, Y. Wu, A. Pofelski, D. A. Laleyan, R. T. Rashid, Y. Wang, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of Al-rich AlGaN nanowires for deep ultraviolet optoelectronics,” APL Mater. 4, 086115 (2016).
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Lapeyrade, M.

J. Rass, T. Kolbe, N. L. Ploch, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Enslin, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, A. Mogilatenko, J. Glaab, C. Stoelmacker, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “High power UV-B LEDs with long lifetime,” Proc. SPIE 9363, 93631K (2015).
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T. F. Kent, S. D. Carnevale, A. T. M. Sarwar, P. J. Phillips, R. F. Klie, and R. C. Myers, “Deep ultraviolet emitting polarization induced nanowire light emitting diodes with AlxGa1-xN active regions,” Nanotechnology 25, 455201 (2014).
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S. M. Sadaf, S. Zhao, Y. Wu, Y. H. Ra, X. Liu, S. Vanka, and Z. Mi, “An AlGaN core-shell tunnel junction nanowire light-emitting diode operating in the ultraviolet-C band,” Nano Lett. 17, 1212–1218 (2017).
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T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. H. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 171105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

K. H. Li, X. Liu, Q. Wang, S. Zhao, and Z. Mi, “Ultralow-threshold electrically injected AlGaN nanowire ultraviolet lasers on Si operating at low temperature,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 140–144 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

S. Zhao, S. Y. Woo, S. M. Sadaf, Y. Wu, A. Pofelski, D. A. Laleyan, R. T. Rashid, Y. Wang, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of Al-rich AlGaN nanowires for deep ultraviolet optoelectronics,” APL Mater. 4, 086115 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Zhao, S. M. Sadaf, S. Vanka, Y. Wang, R. Rashid, and Z. Mi, “Sub-milliwatt AlGaN nanowire tunnel junction deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes on silicon operating at 242  nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 201106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Weisbuch, C.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wernicke, T.

J. Rass, T. Kolbe, N. L. Ploch, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Enslin, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, A. Mogilatenko, J. Glaab, C. Stoelmacker, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “High power UV-B LEDs with long lifetime,” Proc. SPIE 9363, 93631K (2015).
[Crossref]

Weyers, M.

J. Rass, T. Kolbe, N. L. Ploch, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Enslin, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, A. Mogilatenko, J. Glaab, C. Stoelmacker, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “High power UV-B LEDs with long lifetime,” Proc. SPIE 9363, 93631K (2015).
[Crossref]

M. A. Wurtele, T. Kolbe, M. Lipsz, A. Kulberg, M. Weyers, M. Kneissl, and M. Jekel, “Application of GaN-based ultraviolet-C light emitting diodes—UV LEDs—for water disinfection,” Water Res. 45, 1481–1489 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. H. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 171105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3, 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wiesmann, C.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs—designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 262–286 (2009).
[Crossref]

Woo, S. Y.

S. Zhao, S. Y. Woo, S. M. Sadaf, Y. Wu, A. Pofelski, D. A. Laleyan, R. T. Rashid, Y. Wang, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of Al-rich AlGaN nanowires for deep ultraviolet optoelectronics,” APL Mater. 4, 086115 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Y. Woo, J. Kang, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “An electrically injected AlGaN nanowire laser operating in the ultraviolet-C band,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 043101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, F.

B. Janjua, H. Sun, C. Zhao, D. H. Anjum, F. Wu, A. A. Alhamoud, X. Li, A. M. Albadri, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “Self-planarized quantum-disks-in-nanowires ultraviolet-B emitters utilizing pendeo-epitaxy,” Nanoscale 9, 7805–7813 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Janjua, H. D. Sun, C. Zhao, D. H. Anjum, D. Priante, A. A. Alhamoud, F. Wu, X. H. Li, A. M. Albadri, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “Droop-free AlxGa1−xN/AlyGa1−yN quantum-disks-in-nanowires ultraviolet LED emitting at 337  nm on metal/silicon substrates,” Opt. Express 25, 1381–1390 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

S. M. Sadaf, S. Zhao, Y. Wu, Y. H. Ra, X. Liu, S. Vanka, and Z. Mi, “An AlGaN core-shell tunnel junction nanowire light-emitting diode operating in the ultraviolet-C band,” Nano Lett. 17, 1212–1218 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Zhao, S. Y. Woo, S. M. Sadaf, Y. Wu, A. Pofelski, D. A. Laleyan, R. T. Rashid, Y. Wang, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of Al-rich AlGaN nanowires for deep ultraviolet optoelectronics,” APL Mater. 4, 086115 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wurtele, M. A.

M. A. Wurtele, T. Kolbe, M. Lipsz, A. Kulberg, M. Weyers, M. Kneissl, and M. Jekel, “Application of GaN-based ultraviolet-C light emitting diodes—UV LEDs—for water disinfection,” Water Res. 45, 1481–1489 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xiang, Y.

Yang, J.

S. D. Carnevale, J. Yang, P. J. Phillips, M. J. Mills, and R. C. Myers, “Three-dimensional GaN/AIN nanowire heterostructures by separating nucleation and growth processes,” Nano Lett. 11, 866–871 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z. H.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. H. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 171105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yu, T. J.

Yue, Q. Y.

Q. Y. Yue, K. Li, F. M. Kong, J. Zhao, and W. Li, “Analysis on the light extraction efficiency of GaN-based nanowires light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 697–704 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, H. P. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 111105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C.

B. Janjua, H. Sun, C. Zhao, D. H. Anjum, F. Wu, A. A. Alhamoud, X. Li, A. M. Albadri, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “Self-planarized quantum-disks-in-nanowires ultraviolet-B emitters utilizing pendeo-epitaxy,” Nanoscale 9, 7805–7813 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Janjua, H. D. Sun, C. Zhao, D. H. Anjum, D. Priante, A. A. Alhamoud, F. Wu, X. H. Li, A. M. Albadri, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “Droop-free AlxGa1−xN/AlyGa1−yN quantum-disks-in-nanowires ultraviolet LED emitting at 337  nm on metal/silicon substrates,” Opt. Express 25, 1381–1390 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhao, H. P.

J. Zhang, H. P. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 111105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

Q. Y. Yue, K. Li, F. M. Kong, J. Zhao, and W. Li, “Analysis on the light extraction efficiency of GaN-based nanowires light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 697–704 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, S.

S. M. Sadaf, S. Zhao, Y. Wu, Y. H. Ra, X. Liu, S. Vanka, and Z. Mi, “An AlGaN core-shell tunnel junction nanowire light-emitting diode operating in the ultraviolet-C band,” Nano Lett. 17, 1212–1218 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Zhao, S. M. Sadaf, S. Vanka, Y. Wang, R. Rashid, and Z. Mi, “Sub-milliwatt AlGaN nanowire tunnel junction deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes on silicon operating at 242  nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 201106 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Zhao, S. Y. Woo, S. M. Sadaf, Y. Wu, A. Pofelski, D. A. Laleyan, R. T. Rashid, Y. Wang, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of Al-rich AlGaN nanowires for deep ultraviolet optoelectronics,” APL Mater. 4, 086115 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. H. Li, X. Liu, Q. Wang, S. Zhao, and Z. Mi, “Ultralow-threshold electrically injected AlGaN nanowire ultraviolet lasers on Si operating at low temperature,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 140–144 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Y. Woo, J. Kang, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “An electrically injected AlGaN nanowire laser operating in the ultraviolet-C band,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 043101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhu, P. F.

APL Mater. (1)

S. Zhao, S. Y. Woo, S. M. Sadaf, Y. Wu, A. Pofelski, D. A. Laleyan, R. T. Rashid, Y. Wang, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of Al-rich AlGaN nanowires for deep ultraviolet optoelectronics,” APL Mater. 4, 086115 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

H. Y. Ryu, I. G. Choi, H. S. Choi, and J. I. Shim, “Investigation of light extraction efficiency in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 062101 (2013).
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J. Zhang, H. P. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 111105 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Djavid and Z. T. Mi, “Enhancing the light extraction efficiency of AlGaN deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes by using nanowire structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 051102 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Zhao, S. M. Sadaf, S. Vanka, Y. Wang, R. Rashid, and Z. Mi, “Sub-milliwatt AlGaN nanowire tunnel junction deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes on silicon operating at 242  nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 201106 (2016).
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[Crossref]

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. H. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 171105 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Y. Woo, J. Kang, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “An electrically injected AlGaN nanowire laser operating in the ultraviolet-C band,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 043101 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
[Crossref]

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Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

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[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Q. Y. Yue, K. Li, F. M. Kong, J. Zhao, and W. Li, “Analysis on the light extraction efficiency of GaN-based nanowires light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 697–704 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

H. D. Sun, A. Piquette, M. Raukas, and T. D. Moustakas, “Enhancement of yellow light extraction efficiency of Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ ceramic converters using a 2-D TiO2 hexagonal-lattice nanocylinder photonic crystal layer,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 4500310 (2016).
[Crossref]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs—designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 262–286 (2009).
[Crossref]

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S. M. Sadaf, S. Zhao, Y. Wu, Y. H. Ra, X. Liu, S. Vanka, and Z. Mi, “An AlGaN core-shell tunnel junction nanowire light-emitting diode operating in the ultraviolet-C band,” Nano Lett. 17, 1212–1218 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. D. Carnevale, J. Yang, P. J. Phillips, M. J. Mills, and R. C. Myers, “Three-dimensional GaN/AIN nanowire heterostructures by separating nucleation and growth processes,” Nano Lett. 11, 866–871 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Fernandez-Garrido, X. Kong, T. Gotschke, R. Calarco, L. Geelhaar, A. Trampert, and O. Brandt, “Spontaneous nucleation and growth of GaN nanowires: the fundamental role of crystal polarity,” Nano Lett. 12, 6119–6125 (2012).
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Nanoscale (1)

B. Janjua, H. Sun, C. Zhao, D. H. Anjum, F. Wu, A. A. Alhamoud, X. Li, A. M. Albadri, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “Self-planarized quantum-disks-in-nanowires ultraviolet-B emitters utilizing pendeo-epitaxy,” Nanoscale 9, 7805–7813 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nanotechnology (2)

A. Pierret, C. Bougerol, S. Murcia-Mascaros, A. Cros, H. Renevier, B. Gayral, and B. Daudin, “Growth, structural and optical properties of AlGaN nanowires in the whole composition range,” Nanotechnology 24, 115704 (2013).
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[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3, 163–169 (2009).
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[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Simulated NW DUV-LED structure. (b) 3D schematic of the NW array composed of a hexagonal periodic structure of 121 NWs. (c) RI of GaN, AlGaN, and silicon substrate. (d) Cross-sectional scanning electron microscope image of MBE-grown NWs [22].
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Comparison of the band structures of NW arrays with θ=0° and 5.25°. Horizontal red lines indicate the frequency of concern.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. LEE versus tapering angle θ for (a) TE polarized emission and (b) TM polarized emission.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Electric field intensity distribution for (a) cross-sectional view and (b) top view for TE and TM modes in a conventional cylindrical structure (θ=0°) and a structure with tapering angle (θ=5.25°).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Far-field intensity distribution of (a) TE polarization mode and (b) TM polarization mode for θ=0°, 2.5°, and 5.25°.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Comparison of Bloch mode profiles of NW array with the tapering angles of 0° and 5.25°.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Influence of the positional error on the LEE of (a) 5.25° tapering angle TE polarized emission, (b) 5.25° tapering angle TM polarized emission, (c) 0° tapering angle TE polarized emission, and (d) 0° tapering angle TM polarized emission.

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