Abstract

We show that a metasurface composed of a subwavelength metallic slit array embedded in an asymmetric dielectric environment can exhibit either extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) or extraordinary optical diffraction (EOD). The cascaded refractive indices of the dielectrics can leverage multiple decaying passages into variant subsections with different diffraction order combinations according to the diffraction order chart in the k-vector space, providing a flexible mean to tailor resonance decaying pathways of the metallic slit cavity mode by changing the wavevector of the incident light. As a result, either the zeroth transmission or 1st reflection efficiencies can be enhanced to near unity by the excitation of the localized slit cavity mode, leading to either EOT or EOD in a single structure, depending on the illumination angle. Based on this appealing feature, a multifunctional metasurface that can switch its functionality between transmission filter, mirror, and off-axis lens is demonstrated. Our findings provide a convenient way to construct multifunctional miniaturized optical components on a single planar device.

© 2018 Chinese Laser Press

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Corrections

23 May 2018: A typographical correction was made to the author listing.


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References

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2017 (7)

W. Zhu, M. Jiang, H. Guan, J. Yu, H. Lu, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Tunable spin splitting of Laguerre-Gaussian beams in graphene metamaterials,” Photon. Res. 5, 684–688 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Cao, Y. Li, X. Zhang, and Y. Zou, “Theoretical study of tunable chirality from graphene integrated achiral metasurfaces,” Photon. Res. 5, 441–449 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z.-L. Deng and G. Li, “Metasurface optical holography,” Mater. Today Phys. 3, 16–32 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Ra’di, D. L. Sounas, and A. Alù, “Metagratings: beyond the limits of graded metasurfaces for wave front control,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 067404 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. M. Estakhri, V. Neder, M. W. Knight, A. Polman, and A. Alù, “Visible light, wide-angle graded metasurface for back reflection,” ACS Photon. 4, 228–235 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, J. Jin, M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, P. Gao, Z. Zhao, Y. Wang, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Ultrahigh-capacity dynamic holographic displays via anisotropic nanoholes,” Nanoscale 9, 1409–1415 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, Y. Horie, S. M. Kamali, and A. Faraon, “Planar metasurface retroreflector,” Nat. Photonics 11, 415–420 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (15)

R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. F. Yu, A. E. Miroshnichenko, L. A. Krivitsky, Y. H. Fu, V. Valuckas, L. Gonzaga, Y. T. Toh, A. Y. S. Kay, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “Generalized Brewster effect in dielectric metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10362 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z.-L. Deng, S. Zhang, and G. P. Wang, “Wide-angled off-axis achromatic metasurfaces for visible light,” Opt. Express 24, 23118–23128 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Wen, S. Chen, F. Yue, K. Chan, M. Chen, M. Ardron, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. B. Pun, G. Li, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Metasurface device with helicity-dependent functionality,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 321–327 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Ren, X. Li, Q. Zhang, and M. Gu, “On-chip noninterference angular momentum multiplexing of broadband light,” Science 352, 805–809 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. E. Chong, L. Wang, I. Staude, A. R. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, G. S. Subramania, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Efficient polarization-insensitive complex wavefront control using Huygens’ metasurfaces based on dielectric resonant meta-atoms,” ACS Photon. 3, 514–519 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Min, J. Liu, T. Lei, G. Si, Z. Xie, J. Lin, L. Du, and X. Yuan, “Plasmonic nano-slits assisted polarization selective detour phase meta-hologram,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 978–985 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Ambrosio, P. Kanhaiya, and F. Capasso, “Broadband and chiral binary dielectric meta-holograms,” Sci. Adv. 2, e1501258 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, and F. Capasso, “Super-dispersive off-axis meta-lenses for compact high resolution spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 16, 3732–3737 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Wan, J. Gao, and X. Yang, “Full-color plasmonic metasurface holograms,” ACS Nano 10, 10671–10680 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Li, L. Chen, Y. Li, X. Zhang, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, Y. Wang, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Multicolor 3D meta-holography by broadband plasmonic modulation,” Sci. Adv. 2, e1601102 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Q. Mehmood, S. Mei, S. Hussain, K. Huang, S. Y. Siew, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, X. Ling, H. Liu, J. Teng, A. Danner, S. Zhang, and C.-W. Qiu, “Visible-frequency metasurface for structuring and spatially multiplexing optical vortices,” Adv. Mater. 28, 2533–2539 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z.-L. Deng, S. Zhang, and G. P. Wang, “A facile grating approach towards broadband, wide-angle and high-efficiency holographic metasurfaces,” Nanoscale 8, 1588–1594 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. J. Wong, Y.-L. Xu, J. Kim, K. O’Brien, Y. Wang, L. Feng, and X. Zhang, “Lasing and anti-lasing in a single cavity,” Nat. Photonics 10, 796–801 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352, 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Zhou, W. Cao, B. Dong, T. Reissman, W. Zhang, and C. Sun, “Additive manufacturing of a 3D terahertz gradient-refractive index lens,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 1034–1040 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (13)

S. Ding and G. P. Wang, “Extraordinary reflection and transmission with direction dependent wavelength selectivity based on parity-time-symmetric multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 023104 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. G. Cai, Y. B. Li, W. X. Jiang, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Generation of spatial Bessel beams using holographic metasurface,” Opt. Express 23, 7593–7601 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, X. Li, X. Song, B. Bai, Y. Wang, and T. Zentgraf, “Broadband hybrid holographic multiplexing with geometric metasurfaces,” Adv. Mater. 27, 6444–6449 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Yue, B. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8241 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad and F. Capasso, “Broadband multifunctional efficient meta-gratings based on dielectric waveguide phase shifters,” Nano Lett. 15, 6709–6715 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1, e1500396 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Tang, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, Y. Wang, M. Pu, X. Li, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Ultrabroadband superoscillatory lens composed by plasmonic metasurfaces for subdiffraction light focusing,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 713–719 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Luo, “Principles of electromagnetic waves in metasurfaces,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 58, 594201 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhao, M. Pu, H. Gao, J. Jin, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Multispectral optical metasurfaces enabled by achromatic phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15781 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Multiwavelength achromatic metasurfaces by dispersive phase compensation,” Science 347, 1342–1345 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High-transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 412–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z.-L. Deng, N. Yogesh, X.-D. Chen, W.-J. Chen, J.-W. Dong, Z. Ouyang, and G. P. Wang, “Full controlling of Fano resonances in metal-slit superlattice,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18461 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13, 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Meinzer, W. L. Barnes, and I. R. Hooper, “Plasmonic meta-atoms and metasurfaces,” Nat. Photonics 8, 889–898 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345, 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339, 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. T. Chen, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, Y.-W. Huang, G. Sun, I. D. Chiang, C. Y. Liao, W.-L. Hsu, H. T. Lin, S. Sun, L. Zhou, A. Q. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband meta-hologram with polarization-controlled dual images,” Nano Lett. 14, 225–230 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Antoniou, and F. Capasso, “Nanostructured holograms for broadband manipulation of vector beams,” Nano Lett. 13, 4269–4274 (2013).
[Crossref]

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F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12, 1702–1706 (2012).
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L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12, 5750–5755 (2012).
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F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 4932–4936 (2012).
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A. Alù, G. D’Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, and M. Bloemer, “Plasmonic Brewster angle: broadband extraordinary transmission through optical gratings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 123902 (2011).
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1979 (1)

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F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12, 1702–1706 (2012).
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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
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A. Alù, G. D’Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, and M. Bloemer, “Plasmonic Brewster angle: broadband extraordinary transmission through optical gratings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 123902 (2011).
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M. Khorasaninejad, A. Ambrosio, P. Kanhaiya, and F. Capasso, “Broadband and chiral binary dielectric meta-holograms,” Sci. Adv. 2, e1501258 (2016).
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J. Lin, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Antoniou, and F. Capasso, “Nanostructured holograms for broadband manipulation of vector beams,” Nano Lett. 13, 4269–4274 (2013).
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F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 4932–4936 (2012).
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A. Alù, G. D’Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, and M. Bloemer, “Plasmonic Brewster angle: broadband extraordinary transmission through optical gratings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 123902 (2011).
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D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345, 298–302 (2014).
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Cai, B.

Cai, B. G.

Cao, T.

Cao, W.

F. Zhou, W. Cao, B. Dong, T. Reissman, W. Zhang, and C. Sun, “Additive manufacturing of a 3D terahertz gradient-refractive index lens,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 1034–1040 (2016).
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M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352, 1190–1194 (2016).
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M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, and F. Capasso, “Super-dispersive off-axis meta-lenses for compact high resolution spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 16, 3732–3737 (2016).
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N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13, 139–150 (2014).
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J. Lin, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Antoniou, and F. Capasso, “Nanostructured holograms for broadband manipulation of vector beams,” Nano Lett. 13, 4269–4274 (2013).
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P. Genevet, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, and F. Capasso, “Holographic detection of the orbital angular momentum of light with plasmonic photodiodes,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1278 (2012).
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F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 4932–4936 (2012).
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F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12, 1702–1706 (2012).
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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
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D. Wen, S. Chen, F. Yue, K. Chan, M. Chen, M. Ardron, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. B. Pun, G. Li, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Metasurface device with helicity-dependent functionality,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 321–327 (2016).
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D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Yue, B. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8241 (2015).
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Cheah, K. W.

D. Wen, S. Chen, F. Yue, K. Chan, M. Chen, M. Ardron, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. B. Pun, G. Li, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Metasurface device with helicity-dependent functionality,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 321–327 (2016).
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D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Yue, B. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8241 (2015).
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L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
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X. Li, L. Chen, Y. Li, X. Zhang, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, Y. Wang, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Multicolor 3D meta-holography by broadband plasmonic modulation,” Sci. Adv. 2, e1601102 (2016).
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D. Wen, S. Chen, F. Yue, K. Chan, M. Chen, M. Ardron, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. B. Pun, G. Li, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Metasurface device with helicity-dependent functionality,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 321–327 (2016).
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D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Yue, B. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8241 (2015).
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D. Wen, S. Chen, F. Yue, K. Chan, M. Chen, M. Ardron, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. B. Pun, G. Li, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Metasurface device with helicity-dependent functionality,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 321–327 (2016).
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D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Yue, B. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8241 (2015).
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L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
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Chen, W. T.

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, and F. Capasso, “Super-dispersive off-axis meta-lenses for compact high resolution spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 16, 3732–3737 (2016).
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M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352, 1190–1194 (2016).
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W. T. Chen, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, Y.-W. Huang, G. Sun, I. D. Chiang, C. Y. Liao, W.-L. Hsu, H. T. Lin, S. Sun, L. Zhou, A. Q. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband meta-hologram with polarization-controlled dual images,” Nano Lett. 14, 225–230 (2013).
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Chen, W.-J.

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D. Wen, S. Chen, F. Yue, K. Chan, M. Chen, M. Ardron, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. B. Pun, G. Li, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Metasurface device with helicity-dependent functionality,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 321–327 (2016).
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D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Yue, B. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8241 (2015).
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X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
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L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12, 5750–5755 (2012).
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Z.-L. Deng, N. Yogesh, X.-D. Chen, W.-J. Chen, J.-W. Dong, Z. Ouyang, and G. P. Wang, “Full controlling of Fano resonances in metal-slit superlattice,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18461 (2015).
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Dong, B.

F. Zhou, W. Cao, B. Dong, T. Reissman, W. Zhang, and C. Sun, “Additive manufacturing of a 3D terahertz gradient-refractive index lens,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 1034–1040 (2016).
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R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. F. Yu, A. E. Miroshnichenko, L. A. Krivitsky, Y. H. Fu, V. Valuckas, L. Gonzaga, Y. T. Toh, A. Y. S. Kay, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “Generalized Brewster effect in dielectric metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10362 (2016).
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W. T. Chen, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, Y.-W. Huang, G. Sun, I. D. Chiang, C. Y. Liao, W.-L. Hsu, H. T. Lin, S. Sun, L. Zhou, A. Q. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband meta-hologram with polarization-controlled dual images,” Nano Lett. 14, 225–230 (2013).
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T. Zentgraf, J. Valentine, N. Tapia, J. Li, and X. Zhang, “An optical ‘Janus’ device for integrated photonics,” Adv. Mater. 22, 2561–2564 (2010).
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W. Wan, J. Gao, and X. Yang, “Full-color plasmonic metasurface holograms,” ACS Nano 10, 10671–10680 (2016).
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X. Zhang, J. Jin, M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, P. Gao, Z. Zhao, Y. Wang, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Ultrahigh-capacity dynamic holographic displays via anisotropic nanoholes,” Nanoscale 9, 1409–1415 (2017).
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D. Tang, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, Y. Wang, M. Pu, X. Li, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Ultrabroadband superoscillatory lens composed by plasmonic metasurfaces for subdiffraction light focusing,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 713–719 (2015).
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M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1, e1500396 (2015).
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W. T. Chen, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, Y.-W. Huang, G. Sun, I. D. Chiang, C. Y. Liao, W.-L. Hsu, H. T. Lin, S. Sun, L. Zhou, A. Q. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband meta-hologram with polarization-controlled dual images,” Nano Lett. 14, 225–230 (2013).
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Z.-L. Deng, S. Zhang, and G. P. Wang, “A facile grating approach towards broadband, wide-angle and high-efficiency holographic metasurfaces,” Nanoscale 8, 1588–1594 (2016).
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Z.-L. Deng, S. Zhang, and G. P. Wang, “Wide-angled off-axis achromatic metasurfaces for visible light,” Opt. Express 24, 23118–23128 (2016).
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Z.-L. Deng, N. Yogesh, X.-D. Chen, W.-J. Chen, J.-W. Dong, Z. Ouyang, and G. P. Wang, “Full controlling of Fano resonances in metal-slit superlattice,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18461 (2015).
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Wang, M.

R.-H. Fan, R.-W. Peng, X.-R. Huang, J. Li, Y. Liu, Q. Hu, M. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Transparent metals for ultrabroadband electromagnetic waves,” Adv. Mater. 24, 1980–1986 (2012).
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X. Zhang, J. Jin, M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, P. Gao, Z. Zhao, Y. Wang, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Ultrahigh-capacity dynamic holographic displays via anisotropic nanoholes,” Nanoscale 9, 1409–1415 (2017).
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X. Li, L. Chen, Y. Li, X. Zhang, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, Y. Wang, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Multicolor 3D meta-holography by broadband plasmonic modulation,” Sci. Adv. 2, e1601102 (2016).
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D. Tang, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, Y. Wang, M. Pu, X. Li, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Ultrabroadband superoscillatory lens composed by plasmonic metasurfaces for subdiffraction light focusing,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 713–719 (2015).
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Z. Zhao, M. Pu, H. Gao, J. Jin, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Multispectral optical metasurfaces enabled by achromatic phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15781 (2015).
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L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, X. Li, X. Song, B. Bai, Y. Wang, and T. Zentgraf, “Broadband hybrid holographic multiplexing with geometric metasurfaces,” Adv. Mater. 27, 6444–6449 (2015).
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M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1, e1500396 (2015).
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D. Wen, S. Chen, F. Yue, K. Chan, M. Chen, M. Ardron, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. B. Pun, G. Li, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Metasurface device with helicity-dependent functionality,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 321–327 (2016).
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D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Yue, B. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8241 (2015).
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T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
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Wong, P. W. H.

D. Wen, S. Chen, F. Yue, K. Chan, M. Chen, M. Ardron, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. B. Pun, G. Li, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Metasurface device with helicity-dependent functionality,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 321–327 (2016).
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D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Yue, B. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8241 (2015).
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Wong, Z. J.

Z. J. Wong, Y.-L. Xu, J. Kim, K. O’Brien, Y. Wang, L. Feng, and X. Zhang, “Lasing and anti-lasing in a single cavity,” Nat. Photonics 10, 796–801 (2016).
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Xiao, S.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11, 426–431 (2012).
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X. Li, S. Xiao, B. Cai, Q. He, T. J. Cui, and L. Zhou, “Flat metasurfaces to focus electromagnetic waves in reflection geometry,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4940–4942 (2012).
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C. Min, J. Liu, T. Lei, G. Si, Z. Xie, J. Lin, L. Du, and X. Yuan, “Plasmonic nano-slits assisted polarization selective detour phase meta-hologram,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 978–985 (2016).
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S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11, 426–431 (2012).
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Z. J. Wong, Y.-L. Xu, J. Kim, K. O’Brien, Y. Wang, L. Feng, and X. Zhang, “Lasing and anti-lasing in a single cavity,” Nat. Photonics 10, 796–801 (2016).
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Yang, J.

M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1, e1500396 (2015).
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Yang, K.-Y.

W. T. Chen, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, Y.-W. Huang, G. Sun, I. D. Chiang, C. Y. Liao, W.-L. Hsu, H. T. Lin, S. Sun, L. Zhou, A. Q. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband meta-hologram with polarization-controlled dual images,” Nano Lett. 14, 225–230 (2013).
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Yang, L.

Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 495–520 (2014).
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Yang, X.

W. Wan, J. Gao, and X. Yang, “Full-color plasmonic metasurface holograms,” ACS Nano 10, 10671–10680 (2016).
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Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 495–520 (2014).
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Z.-L. Deng, N. Yogesh, X.-D. Chen, W.-J. Chen, J.-W. Dong, Z. Ouyang, and G. P. Wang, “Full controlling of Fano resonances in metal-slit superlattice,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18461 (2015).
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Yu, N.

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13, 139–150 (2014).
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F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12, 1702–1706 (2012).
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F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 4932–4936 (2012).
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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
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R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. F. Yu, A. E. Miroshnichenko, L. A. Krivitsky, Y. H. Fu, V. Valuckas, L. Gonzaga, Y. T. Toh, A. Y. S. Kay, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “Generalized Brewster effect in dielectric metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10362 (2016).
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Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High-transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 412–418 (2015).
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Yuan, X.

C. Min, J. Liu, T. Lei, G. Si, Z. Xie, J. Lin, L. Du, and X. Yuan, “Plasmonic nano-slits assisted polarization selective detour phase meta-hologram,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 978–985 (2016).
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Yue, E.

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Yue, B. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8241 (2015).
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Yue, F.

D. Wen, S. Chen, F. Yue, K. Chan, M. Chen, M. Ardron, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. B. Pun, G. Li, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Metasurface device with helicity-dependent functionality,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 321–327 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Yue, B. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8241 (2015).
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Zentgraf, T.

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, X. Li, X. Song, B. Bai, Y. Wang, and T. Zentgraf, “Broadband hybrid holographic multiplexing with geometric metasurfaces,” Adv. Mater. 27, 6444–6449 (2015).
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L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
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L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12, 5750–5755 (2012).
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X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
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T. Zentgraf, J. Valentine, N. Tapia, J. Li, and X. Zhang, “An optical ‘Janus’ device for integrated photonics,” Adv. Mater. 22, 2561–2564 (2010).
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Zhang, H.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
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Zhang, J.

Zhang, L.

M. Q. Mehmood, S. Mei, S. Hussain, K. Huang, S. Y. Siew, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, X. Ling, H. Liu, J. Teng, A. Danner, S. Zhang, and C.-W. Qiu, “Visible-frequency metasurface for structuring and spatially multiplexing optical vortices,” Adv. Mater. 28, 2533–2539 (2016).
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H. Ren, X. Li, Q. Zhang, and M. Gu, “On-chip noninterference angular momentum multiplexing of broadband light,” Science 352, 805–809 (2016).
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Zhang, S.

M. Q. Mehmood, S. Mei, S. Hussain, K. Huang, S. Y. Siew, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, X. Ling, H. Liu, J. Teng, A. Danner, S. Zhang, and C.-W. Qiu, “Visible-frequency metasurface for structuring and spatially multiplexing optical vortices,” Adv. Mater. 28, 2533–2539 (2016).
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D. Wen, S. Chen, F. Yue, K. Chan, M. Chen, M. Ardron, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. B. Pun, G. Li, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Metasurface device with helicity-dependent functionality,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 321–327 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z.-L. Deng, S. Zhang, and G. P. Wang, “Wide-angled off-axis achromatic metasurfaces for visible light,” Opt. Express 24, 23118–23128 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z.-L. Deng, S. Zhang, and G. P. Wang, “A facile grating approach towards broadband, wide-angle and high-efficiency holographic metasurfaces,” Nanoscale 8, 1588–1594 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Yue, B. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8241 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12, 5750–5755 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, T.

M. Q. Mehmood, S. Mei, S. Hussain, K. Huang, S. Y. Siew, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, X. Ling, H. Liu, J. Teng, A. Danner, S. Zhang, and C.-W. Qiu, “Visible-frequency metasurface for structuring and spatially multiplexing optical vortices,” Adv. Mater. 28, 2533–2539 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

F. Zhou, W. Cao, B. Dong, T. Reissman, W. Zhang, and C. Sun, “Additive manufacturing of a 3D terahertz gradient-refractive index lens,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 1034–1040 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, J. Jin, M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, P. Gao, Z. Zhao, Y. Wang, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Ultrahigh-capacity dynamic holographic displays via anisotropic nanoholes,” Nanoscale 9, 1409–1415 (2017).
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T. Cao, Y. Li, X. Zhang, and Y. Zou, “Theoretical study of tunable chirality from graphene integrated achiral metasurfaces,” Photon. Res. 5, 441–449 (2017).
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Z. J. Wong, Y.-L. Xu, J. Kim, K. O’Brien, Y. Wang, L. Feng, and X. Zhang, “Lasing and anti-lasing in a single cavity,” Nat. Photonics 10, 796–801 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Li, L. Chen, Y. Li, X. Zhang, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, Y. Wang, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Multicolor 3D meta-holography by broadband plasmonic modulation,” Sci. Adv. 2, e1601102 (2016).
[Crossref]

R.-H. Fan, R.-W. Peng, X.-R. Huang, J. Li, Y. Liu, Q. Hu, M. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Transparent metals for ultrabroadband electromagnetic waves,” Adv. Mater. 24, 1980–1986 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Zentgraf, J. Valentine, N. Tapia, J. Li, and X. Zhang, “An optical ‘Janus’ device for integrated photonics,” Adv. Mater. 22, 2561–2564 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Z.

X. Zhang, J. Jin, M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, P. Gao, Z. Zhao, Y. Wang, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Ultrahigh-capacity dynamic holographic displays via anisotropic nanoholes,” Nanoscale 9, 1409–1415 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Li, L. Chen, Y. Li, X. Zhang, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, Y. Wang, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Multicolor 3D meta-holography by broadband plasmonic modulation,” Sci. Adv. 2, e1601102 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1, e1500396 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhao, M. Pu, H. Gao, J. Jin, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Multispectral optical metasurfaces enabled by achromatic phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15781 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Tang, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, Y. Wang, M. Pu, X. Li, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Ultrabroadband superoscillatory lens composed by plasmonic metasurfaces for subdiffraction light focusing,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 713–719 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zheng, G.

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Yue, B. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8241 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhong, S.

Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, F.

F. Zhou, W. Cao, B. Dong, T. Reissman, W. Zhang, and C. Sun, “Additive manufacturing of a 3D terahertz gradient-refractive index lens,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 1034–1040 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

W. T. Chen, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, Y.-W. Huang, G. Sun, I. D. Chiang, C. Y. Liao, W.-L. Hsu, H. T. Lin, S. Sun, L. Zhou, A. Q. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband meta-hologram with polarization-controlled dual images,” Nano Lett. 14, 225–230 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11, 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Li, S. Xiao, B. Cai, Q. He, T. J. Cui, and L. Zhou, “Flat metasurfaces to focus electromagnetic waves in reflection geometry,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4940–4942 (2012).
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Zhu, A. Y.

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352, 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High-transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 412–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhu, W.

Zou, Y.

ACS Nano (1)

W. Wan, J. Gao, and X. Yang, “Full-color plasmonic metasurface holograms,” ACS Nano 10, 10671–10680 (2016).
[Crossref]

ACS Photon. (2)

K. E. Chong, L. Wang, I. Staude, A. R. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, G. S. Subramania, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Efficient polarization-insensitive complex wavefront control using Huygens’ metasurfaces based on dielectric resonant meta-atoms,” ACS Photon. 3, 514–519 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. M. Estakhri, V. Neder, M. W. Knight, A. Polman, and A. Alù, “Visible light, wide-angle graded metasurface for back reflection,” ACS Photon. 4, 228–235 (2017).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic of the metasurface structure that can exhibit EOT, TIR, or EOD, depending on the incident angle. The index of the upper layer, slit area, and lower layer is n 1 = 2 , n 2 = 1.4 , and n 3 = 1 , respectively. (b) Diffraction order chart in k-vector space of the structure in (a). Solid lines represent the RWAs with orders ± 0 , ± 1 , and ± 2 , while the dashed lines represent TWAs with orders ± 0 , ± 1 .
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Analytical results of (a) zeroth reflectance R 0 , (b) zeroth transmittance T 0 , and (c)  1 st reflectance R 1 , respectively, of the metasurface for varying incident angle θ and wavelength λ . The three abrupt color changing contours in (a) automatically show the critical angles for TIR, the 1 st RWA, and the 1 st TWA, respectively, as marked in the figure, and they split the whole phase map into different subareas that contain combinations of different propagating channels (also denoted in the figure). In subarea ①, there are r 0 and t 0 channels; R 0 exhibits a dip in (a), while T 0 exhibits a peak in (b) under the resonance condition of the slit cavity mode. In subarea ②, there is only a r 0 channel; R 0 is unity in the whole subarea. In subarea ③, there are r 0 and r 1 channels; R 0 exhibits a dip in (a), while R 1 exhibits a peak in (c) under the resonance condition of the slit cavity mode.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Reflection ( R 0 , R 1 ) and transmission ( T 0 ) spectra of the metasurface composed of real metal (silver), for different incident angles (a)  θ = 0 ° , (b)  θ = 15 ° , (c)  θ = 35 ° , (d)  θ = 45 ° , and (e)  θ = 60 ° , respectively. Dashed curves show the corresponding analytical results of the PEC metasurface for comparison.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Reflection ( R 0 , R 1 ) and transmission ( T 0 ) as a function of the incident angle θ at the working wavelength λ = 3.3    μm for the periodic slit array of which the zoom-in structure is shown in the upper panel. Dashed curves show the corresponding analytical results of PEC metasurface for comparison. (b)–(f) Field patterns ( | H z | ) of a Gaussian beam with λ = 3.3    μm illuminating the metasurface (the area marked by the red dashed frame) with different incident angles: (b) 0°, (c) 15°, (d) 35°, (e) 45°, and (f) 55.6°, respectively.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Schematic of the modulated metasurface with a gradient grating profile with a zoomed-in structure on the upper panel. (b)–(f) Field patterns ( | H z | ) of a Gaussian beam with λ = 3.3    μm illuminating the modulated metasurface (the area marked by the red dashed frame) with different incident angles: (b) 0°, (c) 15°, (d) 35°, (e) 45°, and (f) 55.6°, respectively. In (b) and (c), the incident beam also undergoes EOT. In (d), the incident beam still undergoes TIR. In (e) and (f), the incident beam undergoes the focusing capability, with near-total suppression of the zeroth diffraction order.

Equations (29)

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R 0 = | ϵ 1 ϵ 2 n 2 k 0 k z 0 ( 1 ) w p sin c ( k x 0 w 2 ) ( a 0 + + a 0 ) 1 | 2 ,
T 0 = | e i k z 0 ( 3 ) h ϵ 3 ϵ 2 n 2 k 0 k z 0 ( 3 ) w p sin c ( k x 0 w 2 ) ( a 0 + e i n 2 k 0 h + a 0 e i n 2 k 0 h ) | 2 ,
R 1 = | ϵ 1 ϵ 2 n 2 k 0 k z , 1 ( 1 ) w p sin c ( k x , 1 w 2 ) ( a 0 + + a 0 ) | 2 ,
( a 0 + a 0 ) ( m 11 m 12 m 21 m 22 ) = ( 2 sin c ( k x 0 w / 2 ) 0 ) ,
m 11 = ϵ 1 ϵ 2 w p m = n 2 k 0 k z m ( 1 ) sin c 2 ( k x m w 2 ) + 1 ,
m 12 = ϵ 1 ϵ 2 w p m = n 2 k 0 k z m ( 1 ) sin c 2 ( k x m w 2 ) 1 ,
m 21 = e i n 2 k 0 h [ ϵ 3 ϵ 2 w p m = n 2 k 0 k z m ( 3 ) sin c 2 ( k x m w 2 ) 1 ] ,
m 22 = e i n 2 k 0 h [ ϵ 3 ϵ 2 w p n = n 2 k 0 k z m ( 3 ) sin c 2 ( k x m w 2 ) + 1 ] ,
H 1 y = H 0 ( e i k x 0 x + i k z 0 ( 1 ) z m = r n e i k x m x i k z m ( 1 ) z ) ,
E 1 x = k z 0 ( 1 ) H 0 ω ϵ 1 ϵ 0 ( e i k x 0 x + i k z 0 ( 1 ) z + m = r n k z m ( 1 ) k z 0 ( 1 ) e i k x m x i k z m ( 1 ) z ) ,
H 3 y = H 0 m = t m e i k x m x + i k z m ( 3 ) z ,
E 3 x = k z 0 ( 3 ) H 0 ω ϵ 3 ϵ 0 m = t n k z m ( 3 ) k z 0 ( 3 ) e i k x m x + i k z m ( 3 ) z ,
H y = H 0 rect ( x / w ) ( a 0 + e i n 2 k 0 z a 0 e i n 2 k 0 z ) , for 0 < z < h ,
E x = n 2 k 0 H 0 ω ϵ 2 ϵ 0 rect ( x / w ) ( a 0 + e i n 2 k 0 z + a 0 e i n 2 k 0 z ) , for 0 z h ,
e i k x 0 x m = r m e i k x m x = rect ( x / w ) ( a 0 + a 0 ) ,
e i k x 0 x + m = r m k z m ( 1 ) k z 0 ( 1 ) e i k x m x = ϵ 1 ϵ 2 n 2 k 0 k z 0 ( 1 ) rect ( x / w ) ( a 0 + + a 0 ) ,
m = t m e i k x m x + i k z m ( 3 ) h = rect ( x / w ) ( a 0 + e i n 2 k 0 h a 0 e i n 2 k 0 h ) ,
m = t m k z m ( 3 ) k z 0 ( 3 ) e i k x m x + i k z m ( 3 ) h = ϵ 3 ϵ 2 n 2 k 0 k z 0 ( 3 ) rect ( x / w ) ( a 0 + e i n 2 k 0 h + a 0 e i n 2 k 0 h ) .
p δ m 0 + k z m ( 1 ) k z 0 ( 1 ) p r m = ϵ 1 ϵ 2 n 2 k 0 k z 0 ( 1 ) w sin c ( k x m w 2 ) ( a 0 + + a 0 ) ,
k z m ( 3 ) k z 0 ( 3 ) p t m e i k z m ( 3 ) h = ϵ 3 ϵ 2 n 2 k 0 k z 0 ( 3 ) w sin c ( k x m w 2 ) ( a 0 + e i n 2 k 0 h + a 0 e i n 2 k 0 h ) .
r m = k z 0 ( 1 ) k z m ( 1 ) δ m 0 + ϵ 1 ϵ 2 n 2 k 0 k z m ( 1 ) w p sin c ( k x m w 2 ) ( a 0 + + a 0 ) ,
t m = e i k z m ( 3 ) h ϵ 3 ϵ 2 n 2 k 0 k z m ( 3 ) w p sin c ( k x m w 2 ) ( a 0 + e i n 2 k 0 h + a 0 e i n 2 k 0 h ) .
sin c ( k x 0 w 2 ) = m = r m sin c ( k x m w 2 ) + a 0 + a 0 ,
0 = m = t m e i k z m ( 3 ) h sin c ( k x m w 2 ) ( a 0 + e i n 2 k 0 h a 0 e i n 2 k 0 h ) .
2 sin c ( k x 0 w 2 ) = ϵ 1 ϵ 2 w p ( a 0 + + a 0 ) m = n 2 k 0 k z m ( 1 ) sin c 2 ( k x m w 2 ) + ( a 0 + a 0 ) ,
0 = ϵ 3 ϵ 2 w p ( a 0 + e i n 2 k 0 h + a 0 e i n 2 k 0 h ) m = n 2 k 0 k z m ( 3 ) sin c 2 ( k x m w 2 ) ( a 0 + e i n 2 k 0 h a 0 e i n 2 k 0 h ) .
r 0 = ϵ 1 ϵ 2 n 2 k 0 k z 0 ( 1 ) w p sin c ( k x 0 w 2 ) ( a 0 + + a 0 ) 1 ,
t 0 = e i k z 0 ( 3 ) h ϵ 3 ϵ 2 n 2 k 0 k z 0 ( 3 ) w p sin c ( k x 0 w 2 ) ( a 0 + e i n 2 k 0 h + a 0 e i n 2 k 0 h ) ,
r 1 = ϵ 1 ϵ 2 n 2 k 0 k z , 1 ( 1 ) w p sin c ( k x , 1 w 2 ) ( a 0 + + a 0 ) .

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