Abstract

To seek high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is critical but challenging for single-shot intense terahertz (THz) coherent detection. This paper presents an improved common-path spectral interferometer for single-shot THz detection with a single chirped pulse as the probe for THz electro-optic (EO) sampling. Here, the spectral interference occurs between the two orthogonal polarization components with a required relative time delay generated with only a birefringent plate after the EO sensor. Our experiments show that this interferometer can effectively suppress the noise usually suffered in a non-common-path interferometer. The measured single-shot SNR is up to 88.85, and the measured THz waveforms are independent of the orientation of the used ZnTe EO sensor, so it is easy to operate and the results are more reliable. These features mean that the interferometer is quite qualified for applications where strong THz pulses, usually with single-shot or low repetition rate, are indispensable.

© 2018 Chinese Laser Press

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2017 (2)

2016 (3)

Z. Jin, A. Wada, J. H. Shin, N. Yugami, and R. Kodama, “A single-shot terahertz time-domain,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 688, 012040 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Ibrahim, G. Sharma, K. Singh, and T. Ozaki, “Terahertz detection based on spectral-domain interferometry using Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” J. Infrared Millimeter Terahertz Waves 37, 837–845 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Zheng, Y. Cai, X. Pan, X. Zeng, J. Li, Y. Li, T. Zhu, Q. Lin, and S. Xu, “Two-step phase-shifting SPIDER,” Sci. Rep. 6, 33837 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

M. Teo Stephanie, K. Ofori-Okai Benjamin, A. Werley Christopher, and A. Nelson Keith, “Single-shot THz detection techniques optimized for multidimensional THz spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 051301 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

2008 (1)

J. Hebling, K. Yeh, M. Hoffmann, B. Bartal, and K. Nelson, “Generation of high-power terahertz pulses by tilted-pulse-front excitation and their application possibilities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 25, B6–B19 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

1999 (2)

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085–1094 (1999).
[Crossref]

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1191–1193 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

Z. Jiang and X. Zhang, “Electro-optic measurement of THz field pulses with a chirped optical beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1945–1947 (1998).
[Crossref]

Akiyama, K.

Al-Naib, I.

Bakker, H. J.

Baraniuk, R. G.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085–1094 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bartal, B.

J. Hebling, K. Yeh, M. Hoffmann, B. Bartal, and K. Nelson, “Generation of high-power terahertz pulses by tilted-pulse-front excitation and their application possibilities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 25, B6–B19 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bartels, L.

Bonn, M.

Brunner, F. D. J.

Cai, Y.

Chen, H.

Chen, Q.

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1191–1193 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fan, D.

Ferrer, A.

Feurer, T.

Gillespie, W. A.

Glownia, J. H.

Grübel, S.

Gupta, M.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085–1094 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hebling, J.

J. Hebling, K. Yeh, M. Hoffmann, B. Bartal, and K. Nelson, “Generation of high-power terahertz pulses by tilted-pulse-front excitation and their application possibilities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 25, B6–B19 (2008).
[Crossref]

Heinz, T. F.

Hoffmann, M.

J. Hebling, K. Yeh, M. Hoffmann, B. Bartal, and K. Nelson, “Generation of high-power terahertz pulses by tilted-pulse-front excitation and their application possibilities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 25, B6–B19 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ibrahim, A.

A. Ibrahim, G. Sharma, K. Singh, and T. Ozaki, “Terahertz detection based on spectral-domain interferometry using Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” J. Infrared Millimeter Terahertz Waves 37, 837–845 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Sharma, K. Singh, A. Ibrahim, I. Al-Naib, R. Morandotti, F. Vidal, and T. Ozaki, “Self-referenced spectral domain interferometry for improved signal-to-noise measurement of terahertz radiation,” Opt. Lett. 38, 2705–2707 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jamison, S. P.

Jaroszynski, D. A.

Jiang, Z.

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1191–1193 (1999).
[Crossref]

Z. Jiang and X. Zhang, “Electro-optic measurement of THz field pulses with a chirped optical beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1945–1947 (1998).
[Crossref]

Jin, Z.

Z. Jin, A. Wada, J. H. Shin, N. Yugami, and R. Kodama, “A single-shot terahertz time-domain,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 688, 012040 (2016).
[Crossref]

Johnson, J. A.

Johnson, S. L.

Kawada, Y.

Kim, K. Y.

Knoesel, E.

Koch, M.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085–1094 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kodama, R.

Z. Jin, A. Wada, J. H. Shin, N. Yugami, and R. Kodama, “A single-shot terahertz time-domain,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 688, 012040 (2016).
[Crossref]

Leemans, W. P.

Li, J.

Li, Y.

Lin, Q.

Lu, X.

Macleod, A. M.

Matlis, N. H.

Mittleman, D. M.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085–1094 (1999).
[Crossref]

Morandotti, R.

Nahata, A.

Nakanishi, A.

Neelamani, R.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085–1094 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nelson, K.

J. Hebling, K. Yeh, M. Hoffmann, B. Bartal, and K. Nelson, “Generation of high-power terahertz pulses by tilted-pulse-front excitation and their application possibilities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 25, B6–B19 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nelson, K. A.

Nelson Keith, A.

M. Teo Stephanie, K. Ofori-Okai Benjamin, A. Werley Christopher, and A. Nelson Keith, “Single-shot THz detection techniques optimized for multidimensional THz spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 051301 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nienhuys, H. K.

Ofori-Okai Benjamin, K.

M. Teo Stephanie, K. Ofori-Okai Benjamin, A. Werley Christopher, and A. Nelson Keith, “Single-shot THz detection techniques optimized for multidimensional THz spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 051301 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ozaki, T.

Pan, X.

Planken, P. C. M.

Plateau, G. R.

Reider, G. A.

Rodriguez, G.

Rudd, J. V.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085–1094 (1999).
[Crossref]

Shan, J.

Sharma, G.

Shin, J. H.

Z. Jin, A. Wada, J. H. Shin, N. Yugami, and R. Kodama, “A single-shot terahertz time-domain,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 688, 012040 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shkurinov, A.

X. Zhang, A. Shkurinov, and Y. Zhang, “Extreme terahertz science,” Nat. Photonics 11, 16–18 (2017).
[Crossref]

Singh, K.

Sun, F. G.

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1191–1193 (1999).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, H.

Taylor, A. J.

Teo Stephanie, M.

M. Teo Stephanie, K. Ofori-Okai Benjamin, A. Werley Christopher, and A. Nelson Keith, “Single-shot THz detection techniques optimized for multidimensional THz spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 051301 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tilborg, J. V.

Vidal, F.

Wada, A.

Z. Jin, A. Wada, J. H. Shin, N. Yugami, and R. Kodama, “A single-shot terahertz time-domain,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 688, 012040 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wakeham, G. P.

Weling, A. S.

Wenckebach, T.

Werley Christopher, A.

M. Teo Stephanie, K. Ofori-Okai Benjamin, A. Werley Christopher, and A. Nelson Keith, “Single-shot THz detection techniques optimized for multidimensional THz spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 051301 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, S.

Yasuda, T.

Yeh, K.

J. Hebling, K. Yeh, M. Hoffmann, B. Bartal, and K. Nelson, “Generation of high-power terahertz pulses by tilted-pulse-front excitation and their application possibilities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 25, B6–B19 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yellampalle, B.

Yugami, N.

Z. Jin, A. Wada, J. H. Shin, N. Yugami, and R. Kodama, “A single-shot terahertz time-domain,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 688, 012040 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zeng, X.

Zhang, D.

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, A. Shkurinov, and Y. Zhang, “Extreme terahertz science,” Nat. Photonics 11, 16–18 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1191–1193 (1999).
[Crossref]

Z. Jiang and X. Zhang, “Electro-optic measurement of THz field pulses with a chirped optical beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1945–1947 (1998).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

X. Zhang, A. Shkurinov, and Y. Zhang, “Extreme terahertz science,” Nat. Photonics 11, 16–18 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zheng, S.

Zhu, T.

S. Zheng, Y. Cai, X. Pan, X. Zeng, J. Li, Y. Li, T. Zhu, Q. Lin, and S. Xu, “Two-step phase-shifting SPIDER,” Sci. Rep. 6, 33837 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085–1094 (1999).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1191–1193 (1999).
[Crossref]

Z. Jiang and X. Zhang, “Electro-optic measurement of THz field pulses with a chirped optical beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1945–1947 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Infrared Millimeter Terahertz Waves (1)

A. Ibrahim, G. Sharma, K. Singh, and T. Ozaki, “Terahertz detection based on spectral-domain interferometry using Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” J. Infrared Millimeter Terahertz Waves 37, 837–845 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. (1)

J. Hebling, K. Yeh, M. Hoffmann, B. Bartal, and K. Nelson, “Generation of high-power terahertz pulses by tilted-pulse-front excitation and their application possibilities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 25, B6–B19 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Conf. Ser. (1)

Z. Jin, A. Wada, J. H. Shin, N. Yugami, and R. Kodama, “A single-shot terahertz time-domain,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 688, 012040 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

X. Zhang, A. Shkurinov, and Y. Zhang, “Extreme terahertz science,” Nat. Photonics 11, 16–18 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (8)

G. Sharma, K. Singh, I. Al-Naib, R. Morandotti, and T. Ozaki, “Terahertz detection using spectral domain interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4338–4340 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Sharma, K. Singh, A. Ibrahim, I. Al-Naib, R. Morandotti, F. Vidal, and T. Ozaki, “Self-referenced spectral domain interferometry for improved signal-to-noise measurement of terahertz radiation,” Opt. Lett. 38, 2705–2707 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Pan, Y. Cai, X. Zeng, X. Lu, D. Zhang, J. Li, H. Chen, and S. Xu, “Modified THz electro-optic sampling for high optical modulation depth, large dynamical range and low background noises,” Opt. Lett. 39, 3778–3781 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Zheng, X. Pan, Y. Cai, Q. Lin, Y. Li, S. Xu, J. Li, and D. Fan, “Common-path spectral interferometry for single-shot terahertz optics-electro detection,” Opt. Lett. 42, 4263–4266 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Shan, A. S. Weling, E. Knoesel, L. Bartels, M. Bonn, A. Nahata, G. A. Reider, and T. F. Heinz, “Single-shot measurement of terahertz electromagnetic pulses by use of electro-optic sampling,” Opt. Lett. 25, 426–428 (2000).
[Crossref]

G. P. Wakeham and K. A. Nelson, “Dual-echelon single-shot femtosecond spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 25, 505–507 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. P. Jamison, A. M. Macleod, W. A. Gillespie, and D. A. Jaroszynski, “High-temporal-resolution, single-shot characterization of terahertz pulses,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1710–1712 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Kim, B. Yellampalle, A. J. Taylor, G. Rodriguez, and J. H. Glownia, “Single-shot terahertz pulse characterization via two-dimensional electro-optic imaging with dual echelons,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1968–1970 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M. Teo Stephanie, K. Ofori-Okai Benjamin, A. Werley Christopher, and A. Nelson Keith, “Single-shot THz detection techniques optimized for multidimensional THz spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 051301 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

S. Zheng, Y. Cai, X. Pan, X. Zeng, J. Li, Y. Li, T. Zhu, Q. Lin, and S. Xu, “Two-step phase-shifting SPIDER,” Sci. Rep. 6, 33837 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Experimental setup. S, sampler; M1M3, mirrors; L1, 2, lenses; EOC, 110 ZnTe EO crystal; Si, silica wafer; BS1, 2, beam splitters; OAPM, off-axial parabolic mirror; SPIDER, spectral phase interferometer for direct electrical field reconstruction; P, polarizer.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Geometry of THz EO detection based on 110 ZnTe crystal. The plane of the page is the (110) plane of the crystal, and the angles α and θ are measured inside the (110) plane.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Dependences of the phases induced by THz field on azimuthal angle α with (a) improved CP-SI and (b) MZ-SI.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Measured waveforms of THz fields for different α values with the α-BBO plate (a) after and (b) in front of the EOC.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Normalized THz waveforms measured by three methods: traditional multi-shot scan (black line), SE-EOS averaging over 100 shots (red line), and improved CP-SI (blue line); (b) the recorded THz field noises by using improved CP-SI (gray area) and the RMS statistics over 100 shots (blue line).
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Normalized THz waveforms measured by traditional multi-shot scan (black line) and MZ-SI (blue line); (b) the recorded THz field noises by using MZ-SI (gray area) and the RMS statistics (blue line).

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δnz=n32ETHz(t)r41[cosαcos2θcos(α+2θ)],
Δny=n32ETHz(t)r41[cosαsin2θ+cos(α+2θ)],
φ1=2πLλ(Δnzcos2γ+Δnysin2γ),
φ2=2πLλ(Δnycos2γ+Δnzsin2γ).
φm=2πLλ(ΔnzΔny)(cos2γsin2γ).
Δny=n32ETHz(t+τ)r41[cosαsin2θ+cos(α+2θ)].

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