Abstract

A low-cost light-emitting diode (LED) is sufficient to pump a quasi-continuous-wave bidirectional high-Q whispering-gallery resonator laser made of Nd:YVO4. This is remarkable because of the very limited spatial and spectral coherence of an LED. The LED, delivering up to 3.5 W, centered around 810 nm, is turned on in intervals of 100 μs duration, and for these periods a laser output exceeding 0.8 mW has been verified. Furthermore, 0.1-s-long laser pulses are demonstrated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of an LED-pumped high-Q whispering-gallery laser. The concept can be extended easily to other laser active materials. A prospect is also to pump several of such lasers with a single LED.

© 2017 Chinese Laser Press

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References

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2017 (3)

S. J. Herr, Y. Folwill, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Self-frequency doubling in a laser-active whispering-gallery resonator,” Opt. Lett. 42, 2627–2630 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Cho, C. C. Pu, K. W. Su, and Y. F. Chen, “LED-side-pumped Nd:YAG laser with >20% optical efficiency and the demonstration of an efficient passively Q-switched LED-pumped solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett. 42, 2394–2397 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Pichon, A. Barbet, D. Blengino, P. Legavre, T. Gallinelli, F. Druon, J.-P. Blanchot, F. Balembois, S. Forget, S. Chénais, and P. Georges, “High-radiance light sources with LED-pumped luminescent concentrators applied to pump Nd:YAG passively Q-switched laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 96, 7–12 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

2013 (3)

I. Breunig, B. Sturman, F. Sedlmeir, H. G. L. Schwefel, and K. Buse, “Whispering gallery modes at the rim of an axisymmetric optical resonator: analytical versus numerical description and comparison with experiment,” Opt. Express 21, 30683–30692 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. He, Ş. K. Özdemir, and L. Yang, “Whispering gallery microcavity lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 60–82 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Reynolds, N. Riesen, A. Meldrum, X. Fan, J. M. M. Hall, T. M. Monro, and A. François, “Fluorescent and lasing whispering gallery mode microresonators for sensing applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 11, 1600265 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

C. Rotschild, M. Tomes, H. Mendoza, T. L. Andrew, T. M. Swager, T. Carmon, and M. A. Baldo, “Cascaded energy transfer for efficient broad-band pumping of high-quality, micro-lasers,” Adv. Mater. 23, 3057–3060 (2011).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Kilohertz optical resonances in dielectric crystal cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 051804 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2000 (2)

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, W. H. Xiang, Y. Ma, S.-H. Chang, S. T. Ho, and G. S. Solomon, “Optically pumped InAs quantum dot microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3519–3521 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. R. Xia, X. L. Meng, M. Guo, L. Zhu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Spectral parameters of Nd-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 5134–5137 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

M. Kuwata-Gonokami and K. Takeda, “Polymer whispering gallery mode lasers,” Opt. Mater. 9, 12–17 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

M. L. Gorodetsky, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Ultimate Q of optical microsphere resonators,” Opt. Lett. 21, 453–455 (1996).
[Crossref]

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lef-vre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold whispering-gallery-mode microsphere laser,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289–291 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

1987 (1)

1986 (2)

S. X. Qian, J. B. Snow, H. M. Tzeng, and R. K. Chang, “Lasing droplets: highlighting the liquid-air interface by laser-emission,” Science 231, 486–488 (1986).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Fan, A. Cordova-Plaza, M. J. F. Digonnet, R. L. Byer, and H. J. Shaw, “Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 spectroscopy and laser devices,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 140–148 (1986).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

1961 (1)

C. G. B. Garrett, W. Kaiser, and W. L. Bond, “Stimulated emission into optical whispering modes of spheres,” Phys. Rev. 124, 1807–1809 (1961).
[Crossref]

Andrew, T. L.

C. Rotschild, M. Tomes, H. Mendoza, T. L. Andrew, T. M. Swager, T. Carmon, and M. A. Baldo, “Cascaded energy transfer for efficient broad-band pumping of high-quality, micro-lasers,” Adv. Mater. 23, 3057–3060 (2011).
[Crossref]

Baer, T.

Baldo, M. A.

C. Rotschild, M. Tomes, H. Mendoza, T. L. Andrew, T. M. Swager, T. Carmon, and M. A. Baldo, “Cascaded energy transfer for efficient broad-band pumping of high-quality, micro-lasers,” Adv. Mater. 23, 3057–3060 (2011).
[Crossref]

Balembois, F.

Barbet, A.

Blanchot, J.-P.

Blengino, D.

P. Pichon, A. Barbet, D. Blengino, P. Legavre, T. Gallinelli, F. Druon, J.-P. Blanchot, F. Balembois, S. Forget, S. Chénais, and P. Georges, “High-radiance light sources with LED-pumped luminescent concentrators applied to pump Nd:YAG passively Q-switched laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 96, 7–12 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bond, W. L.

C. G. B. Garrett, W. Kaiser, and W. L. Bond, “Stimulated emission into optical whispering modes of spheres,” Phys. Rev. 124, 1807–1809 (1961).
[Crossref]

Breunig, I.

Buse, K.

Byer, R. L.

Cao, H.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, W. H. Xiang, Y. Ma, S.-H. Chang, S. T. Ho, and G. S. Solomon, “Optically pumped InAs quantum dot microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3519–3521 (2000).
[Crossref]

Carmon, T.

C. Rotschild, M. Tomes, H. Mendoza, T. L. Andrew, T. M. Swager, T. Carmon, and M. A. Baldo, “Cascaded energy transfer for efficient broad-band pumping of high-quality, micro-lasers,” Adv. Mater. 23, 3057–3060 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chang, R. K.

S. X. Qian, J. B. Snow, H. M. Tzeng, and R. K. Chang, “Lasing droplets: highlighting the liquid-air interface by laser-emission,” Science 231, 486–488 (1986).
[Crossref]

H.-M. Tzeng, K. F. Wall, M. B. Long, and R. K. Chang, “Laser emission from individual droplets at wavelengths corresponding to morphology-dependent resonances,” Opt. Lett. 9, 499–501 (1984).
[Crossref]

Chang, S.-H.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, W. H. Xiang, Y. Ma, S.-H. Chang, S. T. Ho, and G. S. Solomon, “Optically pumped InAs quantum dot microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3519–3521 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. F.

Chénais, S.

P. Pichon, A. Barbet, D. Blengino, P. Legavre, T. Gallinelli, F. Druon, J.-P. Blanchot, F. Balembois, S. Forget, S. Chénais, and P. Georges, “High-radiance light sources with LED-pumped luminescent concentrators applied to pump Nd:YAG passively Q-switched laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 96, 7–12 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Barbet, A. Paul, T. Gallinelli, F. Balembois, J.-P. Blanchot, S. Forget, S. Chénais, F. Druon, and P. Georges, “Light-emitting diode pumped luminescent concentrators: a new opportunity for low-cost solid-state lasers,” Optica 3, 465–468 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chiu, Y.-C.

Cho, C. Y.

Cordova-Plaza, A.

Digonnet, M. J. F.

Dodabalapur, A.

Druon, F.

Durfee, C. G.

Fan, T. Y.

Fan, X.

T. Reynolds, N. Riesen, A. Meldrum, X. Fan, J. M. M. Hall, T. M. Monro, and A. François, “Fluorescent and lasing whispering gallery mode microresonators for sensing applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 11, 1600265 (2013).
[Crossref]

Folwill, Y.

Forget, S.

P. Pichon, A. Barbet, D. Blengino, P. Legavre, T. Gallinelli, F. Druon, J.-P. Blanchot, F. Balembois, S. Forget, S. Chénais, and P. Georges, “High-radiance light sources with LED-pumped luminescent concentrators applied to pump Nd:YAG passively Q-switched laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 96, 7–12 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Barbet, A. Paul, T. Gallinelli, F. Balembois, J.-P. Blanchot, S. Forget, S. Chénais, F. Druon, and P. Georges, “Light-emitting diode pumped luminescent concentrators: a new opportunity for low-cost solid-state lasers,” Optica 3, 465–468 (2016).
[Crossref]

François, A.

T. Reynolds, N. Riesen, A. Meldrum, X. Fan, J. M. M. Hall, T. M. Monro, and A. François, “Fluorescent and lasing whispering gallery mode microresonators for sensing applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 11, 1600265 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gallinelli, T.

P. Pichon, A. Barbet, D. Blengino, P. Legavre, T. Gallinelli, F. Druon, J.-P. Blanchot, F. Balembois, S. Forget, S. Chénais, and P. Georges, “High-radiance light sources with LED-pumped luminescent concentrators applied to pump Nd:YAG passively Q-switched laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 96, 7–12 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Barbet, A. Paul, T. Gallinelli, F. Balembois, J.-P. Blanchot, S. Forget, S. Chénais, F. Druon, and P. Georges, “Light-emitting diode pumped luminescent concentrators: a new opportunity for low-cost solid-state lasers,” Optica 3, 465–468 (2016).
[Crossref]

Garrett, C. G. B.

C. G. B. Garrett, W. Kaiser, and W. L. Bond, “Stimulated emission into optical whispering modes of spheres,” Phys. Rev. 124, 1807–1809 (1961).
[Crossref]

Georges, P.

Gorodetsky, M. L.

Guo, M.

H. R. Xia, X. L. Meng, M. Guo, L. Zhu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Spectral parameters of Nd-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 5134–5137 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hall, J. M. M.

T. Reynolds, N. Riesen, A. Meldrum, X. Fan, J. M. M. Hall, T. M. Monro, and A. François, “Fluorescent and lasing whispering gallery mode microresonators for sensing applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 11, 1600265 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hare, J.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lef-vre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold whispering-gallery-mode microsphere laser,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777 (1996).
[Crossref]

Haroche, S.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lef-vre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold whispering-gallery-mode microsphere laser,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777 (1996).
[Crossref]

He, L.

L. He, Ş. K. Özdemir, and L. Yang, “Whispering gallery microcavity lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 60–82 (2013).
[Crossref]

Herr, S. J.

Hill, E. S.

Ho, S. T.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, W. H. Xiang, Y. Ma, S.-H. Chang, S. T. Ho, and G. S. Solomon, “Optically pumped InAs quantum dot microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3519–3521 (2000).
[Crossref]

Huang, K.-Y.

Huang, Y.-C.

Hudson, E. R.

Ilchenko, V. S.

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Kilohertz optical resonances in dielectric crystal cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 051804 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. L. Gorodetsky, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Ultimate Q of optical microsphere resonators,” Opt. Lett. 21, 453–455 (1996).
[Crossref]

Jeet, J.

Jordan, R. H.

Kaiser, W.

C. G. B. Garrett, W. Kaiser, and W. L. Bond, “Stimulated emission into optical whispering modes of spheres,” Phys. Rev. 124, 1807–1809 (1961).
[Crossref]

Katz, H. E.

Kobayashi, T.

Kuwata-Gonokami, M.

Le, T.

Lef-vre-Seguin, V.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lef-vre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold whispering-gallery-mode microsphere laser,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777 (1996).
[Crossref]

Legavre, P.

P. Pichon, A. Barbet, D. Blengino, P. Legavre, T. Gallinelli, F. Druon, J.-P. Blanchot, F. Balembois, S. Forget, S. Chénais, and P. Georges, “High-radiance light sources with LED-pumped luminescent concentrators applied to pump Nd:YAG passively Q-switched laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 96, 7–12 (2017).
[Crossref]

Levi, A. F. J.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289–291 (1992).
[Crossref]

Lin, G.

Lin, M.-W.

Logan, R. A.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289–291 (1992).
[Crossref]

Long, M. B.

Ma, Y.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, W. H. Xiang, Y. Ma, S.-H. Chang, S. T. Ho, and G. S. Solomon, “Optically pumped InAs quantum dot microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3519–3521 (2000).
[Crossref]

Maleki, L.

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Kilohertz optical resonances in dielectric crystal cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 051804 (2004).
[Crossref]

Matsko, A. B.

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Kilohertz optical resonances in dielectric crystal cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 051804 (2004).
[Crossref]

McCall, S. L.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289–291 (1992).
[Crossref]

Meldrum, A.

T. Reynolds, N. Riesen, A. Meldrum, X. Fan, J. M. M. Hall, T. M. Monro, and A. François, “Fluorescent and lasing whispering gallery mode microresonators for sensing applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 11, 1600265 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mendoza, H.

C. Rotschild, M. Tomes, H. Mendoza, T. L. Andrew, T. M. Swager, T. Carmon, and M. A. Baldo, “Cascaded energy transfer for efficient broad-band pumping of high-quality, micro-lasers,” Adv. Mater. 23, 3057–3060 (2011).
[Crossref]

Meng, X. L.

H. R. Xia, X. L. Meng, M. Guo, L. Zhu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Spectral parameters of Nd-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 5134–5137 (2000).
[Crossref]

Monro, T. M.

T. Reynolds, N. Riesen, A. Meldrum, X. Fan, J. M. M. Hall, T. M. Monro, and A. François, “Fluorescent and lasing whispering gallery mode microresonators for sensing applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 11, 1600265 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mukai, A.

Nozawa, Y.

Ozawa, S.

Özdemir, S. K.

L. He, Ş. K. Özdemir, and L. Yang, “Whispering gallery microcavity lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 60–82 (2013).
[Crossref]

Paul, A.

Pearton, S. J.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289–291 (1992).
[Crossref]

Pichon, P.

P. Pichon, A. Barbet, D. Blengino, P. Legavre, T. Gallinelli, F. Druon, J.-P. Blanchot, F. Balembois, S. Forget, S. Chénais, and P. Georges, “High-radiance light sources with LED-pumped luminescent concentrators applied to pump Nd:YAG passively Q-switched laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 96, 7–12 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pu, C. C.

Qian, S. X.

S. X. Qian, J. B. Snow, H. M. Tzeng, and R. K. Chang, “Lasing droplets: highlighting the liquid-air interface by laser-emission,” Science 231, 486–488 (1986).
[Crossref]

Raimond, J.-M.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lef-vre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold whispering-gallery-mode microsphere laser,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777 (1996).
[Crossref]

Rellergert, W.

Reynolds, T.

T. Reynolds, N. Riesen, A. Meldrum, X. Fan, J. M. M. Hall, T. M. Monro, and A. François, “Fluorescent and lasing whispering gallery mode microresonators for sensing applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 11, 1600265 (2013).
[Crossref]

Riesen, N.

T. Reynolds, N. Riesen, A. Meldrum, X. Fan, J. M. M. Hall, T. M. Monro, and A. François, “Fluorescent and lasing whispering gallery mode microresonators for sensing applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 11, 1600265 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rotschild, C.

C. Rotschild, M. Tomes, H. Mendoza, T. L. Andrew, T. M. Swager, T. Carmon, and M. A. Baldo, “Cascaded energy transfer for efficient broad-band pumping of high-quality, micro-lasers,” Adv. Mater. 23, 3057–3060 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sabater, J.

Saleh, B. E. A.

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Sandoghdar, V.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lef-vre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold whispering-gallery-mode microsphere laser,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777 (1996).
[Crossref]

Savchenkov, A. A.

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Kilohertz optical resonances in dielectric crystal cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 051804 (2004).
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M. L. Gorodetsky, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Ultimate Q of optical microsphere resonators,” Opt. Lett. 21, 453–455 (1996).
[Crossref]

Schilling, M. L.

Schowalter, S. J.

Schwefel, H. G. L.

Sedlmeir, F.

Shaw, H. J.

Slusher, R. E.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, S. Ozawa, R. H. Jordan, A. Dodabalapur, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, and R. E. Slusher, “Polymer microdisk and microring lasers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2093–2105 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289–291 (1992).
[Crossref]

Snow, J. B.

S. X. Qian, J. B. Snow, H. M. Tzeng, and R. K. Chang, “Lasing droplets: highlighting the liquid-air interface by laser-emission,” Science 231, 486–488 (1986).
[Crossref]

Solomon, G. S.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, W. H. Xiang, Y. Ma, S.-H. Chang, S. T. Ho, and G. S. Solomon, “Optically pumped InAs quantum dot microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3519–3521 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sturman, B.

Su, C.-K.

Su, K. W.

Swager, T. M.

C. Rotschild, M. Tomes, H. Mendoza, T. L. Andrew, T. M. Swager, T. Carmon, and M. A. Baldo, “Cascaded energy transfer for efficient broad-band pumping of high-quality, micro-lasers,” Adv. Mater. 23, 3057–3060 (2011).
[Crossref]

Taira, T.

Takeda, K.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami and K. Takeda, “Polymer whispering gallery mode lasers,” Opt. Mater. 9, 12–17 (1998).
[Crossref]

Teich, M. C.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 2007).

Tomes, M.

C. Rotschild, M. Tomes, H. Mendoza, T. L. Andrew, T. M. Swager, T. Carmon, and M. A. Baldo, “Cascaded energy transfer for efficient broad-band pumping of high-quality, micro-lasers,” Adv. Mater. 23, 3057–3060 (2011).
[Crossref]

Treussart, F.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lef-vre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold whispering-gallery-mode microsphere laser,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777 (1996).
[Crossref]

Tzeng, H. M.

S. X. Qian, J. B. Snow, H. M. Tzeng, and R. K. Chang, “Lasing droplets: highlighting the liquid-air interface by laser-emission,” Science 231, 486–488 (1986).
[Crossref]

Tzeng, H.-M.

Vahala, K. J.

Villars, B.

Viotti, A.-L.

Wall, K. F.

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H. R. Xia, X. L. Meng, M. Guo, L. Zhu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Spectral parameters of Nd-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 5134–5137 (2000).
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H. R. Xia, X. L. Meng, M. Guo, L. Zhu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Spectral parameters of Nd-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 5134–5137 (2000).
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Xiang, W. H.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, W. H. Xiang, Y. Ma, S.-H. Chang, S. T. Ho, and G. S. Solomon, “Optically pumped InAs quantum dot microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3519–3521 (2000).
[Crossref]

Xu, J. Y.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, W. H. Xiang, Y. Ma, S.-H. Chang, S. T. Ho, and G. S. Solomon, “Optically pumped InAs quantum dot microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3519–3521 (2000).
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Yang, L.

L. He, Ş. K. Özdemir, and L. Yang, “Whispering gallery microcavity lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 60–82 (2013).
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L. Yang and K. J. Vahala, “Gain functionalization of silica microresonators,” Opt. Lett. 28, 592–594 (2003).
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Yu, N.

Zhang, H. J.

H. R. Xia, X. L. Meng, M. Guo, L. Zhu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Spectral parameters of Nd-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 5134–5137 (2000).
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Zhu, L.

H. R. Xia, X. L. Meng, M. Guo, L. Zhu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Spectral parameters of Nd-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 5134–5137 (2000).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

C. Rotschild, M. Tomes, H. Mendoza, T. L. Andrew, T. M. Swager, T. Carmon, and M. A. Baldo, “Cascaded energy transfer for efficient broad-band pumping of high-quality, micro-lasers,” Adv. Mater. 23, 3057–3060 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289–291 (1992).
[Crossref]

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, W. H. Xiang, Y. Ma, S.-H. Chang, S. T. Ho, and G. S. Solomon, “Optically pumped InAs quantum dot microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3519–3521 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. R. Xia, X. L. Meng, M. Guo, L. Zhu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Spectral parameters of Nd-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 5134–5137 (2000).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Photon. Rev. (3)

I. Breunig, “Three-wave mixing in whispering gallery resonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 569–587 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. He, Ş. K. Özdemir, and L. Yang, “Whispering gallery microcavity lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 60–82 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Reynolds, N. Riesen, A. Meldrum, X. Fan, J. M. M. Hall, T. M. Monro, and A. François, “Fluorescent and lasing whispering gallery mode microresonators for sensing applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 11, 1600265 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

P. Pichon, A. Barbet, D. Blengino, P. Legavre, T. Gallinelli, F. Druon, J.-P. Blanchot, F. Balembois, S. Forget, S. Chénais, and P. Georges, “High-radiance light sources with LED-pumped luminescent concentrators applied to pump Nd:YAG passively Q-switched laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 96, 7–12 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (11)

C. Y. Cho, C. C. Pu, K. W. Su, and Y. F. Chen, “LED-side-pumped Nd:YAG laser with >20% optical efficiency and the demonstration of an efficient passively Q-switched LED-pumped solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett. 42, 2394–2397 (2017).
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T. Taira, A. Mukai, Y. Nozawa, and T. Kobayashi, “Single-mode oscillation of laser-diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 microchip lasers,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1955–1957 (1991).
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S. J. Herr, Y. Folwill, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Self-frequency doubling in a laser-active whispering-gallery resonator,” Opt. Lett. 42, 2627–2630 (2017).
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M. L. Gorodetsky, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Ultimate Q of optical microsphere resonators,” Opt. Lett. 21, 453–455 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. Barbet, F. Balembois, A. Paul, J.-P. Blanchot, A.-L. Viotti, J. Sabater, F. Druon, and P. Georges, “Revisiting of LED pumped bulk laser: first demonstration of Nd:YVO4 LED pumped laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6731–6734 (2014).
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B. Villars, E. S. Hill, and C. G. Durfee, “Design and development of a high-power LED-pumped Ce:Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3049–3052 (2015).
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H.-M. Tzeng, K. F. Wall, M. B. Long, and R. K. Chang, “Laser emission from individual droplets at wavelengths corresponding to morphology-dependent resonances,” Opt. Lett. 9, 499–501 (1984).
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L. Yang and K. J. Vahala, “Gain functionalization of silica microresonators,” Opt. Lett. 28, 592–594 (2003).
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T. Baer, “Continuous-wave laser oscillation in a Nd:YAG sphere,” Opt. Lett. 12, 392–394 (1987).
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T. Le, S. J. Schowalter, W. Rellergert, J. Jeet, G. Lin, N. Yu, and E. R. Hudson, “Low-threshold ultraviolet solid-state laser based on a Ce3+:LiCaAlF6 crystal resonator,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4961–4963 (2012).
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M. Kuwata-Gonokami, S. Ozawa, R. H. Jordan, A. Dodabalapur, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, and R. E. Slusher, “Polymer microdisk and microring lasers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2093–2105 (1995).
[Crossref]

Opt. Mater. (1)

M. Kuwata-Gonokami and K. Takeda, “Polymer whispering gallery mode lasers,” Opt. Mater. 9, 12–17 (1998).
[Crossref]

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

C. G. B. Garrett, W. Kaiser, and W. L. Bond, “Stimulated emission into optical whispering modes of spheres,” Phys. Rev. 124, 1807–1809 (1961).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lef-vre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold whispering-gallery-mode microsphere laser,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Kilohertz optical resonances in dielectric crystal cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 051804 (2004).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

S. X. Qian, J. B. Snow, H. M. Tzeng, and R. K. Chang, “Lasing droplets: highlighting the liquid-air interface by laser-emission,” Science 231, 486–488 (1986).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 2007).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Blue: measured absorption coefficient of Nd:YVO4 for o- and e-polarized light αo and αe, respectively. Orange: normalized intensity profile of the LED at its maximum specified cw current of 0.8 A during cw operation, and normalized intensity profile of the WGR-laser emission in pulsed operation and an LED driving current >0.92  A.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) LED directly illuminates a laser-active WGR made out of z-cut Nd:YVO4. Silicone oil serves as an immersion fluid to guide the light from the LED to the WGR. Evanescent coupling via a coupling prism extracts two counter-propagating laser beams stemming from the bidirectional lasing in WGMs. A detector (Pl) measures the laser output power. (b) Photograph of the experimental setup. The active area of the LED and the prism are highlighted. For the sake of recognizability, the prism is moved away from the resonator. (c) Illustration of the polar and the radial extents hm and wm of the WGMs, respectively.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Output power during a 100-μs-long excitation pulse. A low driving current of the LED yields fluorescent light. Above a threshold, laser spiking occurs, and the peak power is increasing rapidly with increasing current.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Output peak power for 100-μs-long excitation pulses at different coupling strengths. Stronger coupling yields a higher laser output at an increased laser threshold compared to the case of weaker coupling. First laser spikes occur at 0.92 and 1.03 A. The insets illustrate the unpolarized emission below threshold and the e-polarized emission above the laser threshold. The pixel size is 2.2  μm×2.2  μm.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Output power during a 100-ms-long excitation pulse for different LED driving currents. Below 0.9 A, only fluorescent light is detected. Above 0.9 A, laser oscillation starts. (b) The blue data points indicate the maximum power of the pulse versus peak current. The red data points represent the end value, averaged over the last 10 ms of the pulse.

Equations (5)

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Pth2πhchmwmλpησemτFlorPth2πnlhcVpλlλpQlησemτ.
αeff=0.7  μm0.9  μmαo(λ)+αe(λ)2SLED(λ)dλ
0.7  μm0.9  μmSLED(λ)dλ=1.
Pth2π2nlhcALEDλlλpQlσemταeff,
FOM=λlλpQlσemταeffnl.

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