Abstract

Due to the lack of mode selection capability, single whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) lasing is a challenge to achieve. In bottle microresonators, the highly nondegenerated WGMs are spatially well-separated along the long-axis direction and provide mode selection according to their axial mode numbers. In this work, we use a loss-engineering approach to suppress the higher-order WGMs and demonstrate single-mode lasing emission in small polymer bottle microresonators. The fiber tapers are not only used to couple pump light into the bottle microresonators to excite the WGMs but also to bring optical losses that are induced from the diameter mismatch between fiber tapers and microresonators. By adjusting the coupling positions, the diameters of fiber tapers, and the coupling angles, single fundamental-mode lasing is efficiently generated with side-mode suppression factors over 15 dB. Our loss-engineering approach is convenient just by moving the fiber taper and may find promising applications in miniature tunable single-mode lasers and sensors.

© 2017 Chinese Laser Press

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

F. Gu, F. Xie, X. Lin, S. Linghu, W. Fang, H. Zeng, L. Tong, and S. Zhuang, “Single whispering-gallery-mode lasing in polymer bottle microresonators via spatial pump engineering,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17061 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

Y. Wang, K. Zhang, S. Zhou, Y.-H. Wu, M.-B. Chi, and P. Hao, “Coupled-mode induced transparency in a bottle whispering-gallery-mode resonator,” Opt. Lett. 41, 1825–1828 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, Y. Ooka, R. M. Thompson, J. M. Ward, and S. N. Chormaic, “Degenerate four-wave mixing in a silica hollow bottle-like microresonator,” Opt. Lett. 41, 575–578 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Liao, G. Wu, and F. Gu, “Hydrogen sensing based on Mach–Zehnder interferometer with palladium-coated microfiber,” J. Univ. Shanghai Sci. Technol. 38, 535–539 (2016).

X. Lin and W. Fang, “Localized high-Q modes in conical microcavities,” Opt. Commun. 381, 169–173 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. F. Jiang, C. L. Zou, L. Wang, Q. H. Gong, and Y. F. Xiao, “Whispering-gallery microcavities with unidirectional laser emission,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 40–61 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

S. Yang, Y. Wang, and H. Sun, “Advances and prospects for whispering gallery mode microcavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1136–1162 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Gu, L. Zhang, Y. Zhu, and H. Zeng, “Free-space coupling of nanoantennas and whispering-gallery microcavities with narrowed linewidth and enhanced sensitivity,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 682–688 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

V. D. Ta, R. Chen, and H. Sun, “Coupled polymer microfiber lasers for single mode operation and enhanced refractive index sensing,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2, 220–225 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Chang, X. Jiang, S. Hua, C. Yang, J. Wen, L. Jiang, G. Li, G. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Parity-time symmetry and variable optical isolation in active-passive-coupled microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 524–529 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Hodaei, M.-A. Miri, M. Heinrich, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Khajavikhan, “Parity-time-symmetric microring lasers,” Science 346, 975–978 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, T. Zhan, G. Huang, P. K. Chu, and Y. Mei, “Optical microcavities with tubular geometry: properties and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 521–547 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

L. He, S. K. Oezdemir, and L. Yang, “Whispering gallery microcavity lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 60–82 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. D. Ta, R. Chen, and H. D. Sun, “Tuning whispering gallery mode lasing from self-assembled polymer droplets,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1362 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Grossmann, T. Wienhold, U. Bog, T. Beck, C. Friedmann, H. Kalt, and T. Mappes, “Polymeric photonic molecule super-mode lasers on silicon,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e82 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Sumetsky, “Delay of light in an optical bottle resonator with nanoscale radius variation: dispersionless, broadband, and low loss,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 163901 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. H. Kim, G. Bahl, W. Lee, J. Liu, M. Tomes, X. Fan, and T. Carmon, “Cavity optomechanics on a microfluidic resonator with water and viscous liquids,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e110 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. D. Ta, R. Chen, L. Ma, Y. J. Ying, and H. D. Sun, “Whispering gallery mode microlasers and refractive index sensing based on single polymer fiber,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 133–139 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

M. Ding, G. S. Murugan, G. Brambilla, and M. N. Zervas, “Whispering gallery mode selection in optical bottle microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 081108 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Feron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 457–482 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

M. Poellinger, D. O’shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultrahigh-Q tunable whispering-gallery-mode microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053901 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and M. N. Zervas, “Selective excitation of whispering gallery modes in a novel bottle microresonator,” Opt. Express 17, 11916–11925 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

F. Gu, L. Zhang, X. Yin, and L. Tong, “Polymer single-nanowire optical sensors,” Nano Lett. 8, 2757–2761 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Strelow, H. Rehberg, C. M. Schultz, H. Welsch, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, “Optical microcavities formed by semiconductor microtubes using a bottlelike geometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 127403 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5, 591–596 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Shang, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, “Single-frequency coupled asymmetric microcavity laser,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1150–1152 (2008).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2000 (2)

M. Cai, O. Painter, K. J. Vahala, and P. C. Sercel, “Fiber-coupled microsphere laser,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1430–1432 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74–77 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

Arnold, S.

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5, 591–596 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bahl, G.

K. H. Kim, G. Bahl, W. Lee, J. Liu, M. Tomes, X. Fan, and T. Carmon, “Cavity optomechanics on a microfluidic resonator with water and viscous liquids,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Beck, T.

T. Grossmann, T. Wienhold, U. Bog, T. Beck, C. Friedmann, H. Kalt, and T. Mappes, “Polymeric photonic molecule super-mode lasers on silicon,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e82 (2013).
[Crossref]

Birks, T. A.

Bog, U.

T. Grossmann, T. Wienhold, U. Bog, T. Beck, C. Friedmann, H. Kalt, and T. Mappes, “Polymeric photonic molecule super-mode lasers on silicon,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e82 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brambilla, G.

M. Ding, G. S. Murugan, G. Brambilla, and M. N. Zervas, “Whispering gallery mode selection in optical bottle microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 081108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cai, M.

M. Cai, O. Painter, K. J. Vahala, and P. C. Sercel, “Fiber-coupled microsphere laser,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1430–1432 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74–77 (2000).
[Crossref]

Carmon, T.

K. H. Kim, G. Bahl, W. Lee, J. Liu, M. Tomes, X. Fan, and T. Carmon, “Cavity optomechanics on a microfluidic resonator with water and viscous liquids,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chang, L.

L. Chang, X. Jiang, S. Hua, C. Yang, J. Wen, L. Jiang, G. Li, G. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Parity-time symmetry and variable optical isolation in active-passive-coupled microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 524–529 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, R.

V. D. Ta, R. Chen, and H. Sun, “Coupled polymer microfiber lasers for single mode operation and enhanced refractive index sensing,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2, 220–225 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. D. Ta, R. Chen, L. Ma, Y. J. Ying, and H. D. Sun, “Whispering gallery mode microlasers and refractive index sensing based on single polymer fiber,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 133–139 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. D. Ta, R. Chen, and H. D. Sun, “Tuning whispering gallery mode lasing from self-assembled polymer droplets,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cheung, G.

Chi, M.-B.

Chiasera, A.

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Feron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 457–482 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chormaic, S. N.

Christodoulides, D. N.

H. Hodaei, M.-A. Miri, M. Heinrich, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Khajavikhan, “Parity-time-symmetric microring lasers,” Science 346, 975–978 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chu, P. K.

J. Wang, T. Zhan, G. Huang, P. K. Chu, and Y. Mei, “Optical microcavities with tubular geometry: properties and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 521–547 (2014).
[Crossref]

Conti, G. N.

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Feron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 457–482 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ding, M.

M. Ding, G. S. Murugan, G. Brambilla, and M. N. Zervas, “Whispering gallery mode selection in optical bottle microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 081108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dumeige, Y.

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Feron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 457–482 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fan, X.

K. H. Kim, G. Bahl, W. Lee, J. Liu, M. Tomes, X. Fan, and T. Carmon, “Cavity optomechanics on a microfluidic resonator with water and viscous liquids,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fang, W.

F. Gu, F. Xie, X. Lin, S. Linghu, W. Fang, H. Zeng, L. Tong, and S. Zhuang, “Single whispering-gallery-mode lasing in polymer bottle microresonators via spatial pump engineering,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17061 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Lin and W. Fang, “Localized high-Q modes in conical microcavities,” Opt. Commun. 381, 169–173 (2016).
[Crossref]

Feron, P.

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Feron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 457–482 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, M.

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Feron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 457–482 (2010).
[Crossref]

Friedmann, C.

T. Grossmann, T. Wienhold, U. Bog, T. Beck, C. Friedmann, H. Kalt, and T. Mappes, “Polymeric photonic molecule super-mode lasers on silicon,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e82 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gong, Q. H.

X. F. Jiang, C. L. Zou, L. Wang, Q. H. Gong, and Y. F. Xiao, “Whispering-gallery microcavities with unidirectional laser emission,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 40–61 (2016).
[Crossref]

Grossmann, T.

T. Grossmann, T. Wienhold, U. Bog, T. Beck, C. Friedmann, H. Kalt, and T. Mappes, “Polymeric photonic molecule super-mode lasers on silicon,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e82 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gu, F.

F. Gu, F. Xie, X. Lin, S. Linghu, W. Fang, H. Zeng, L. Tong, and S. Zhuang, “Single whispering-gallery-mode lasing in polymer bottle microresonators via spatial pump engineering,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17061 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Liao, G. Wu, and F. Gu, “Hydrogen sensing based on Mach–Zehnder interferometer with palladium-coated microfiber,” J. Univ. Shanghai Sci. Technol. 38, 535–539 (2016).

F. Gu, L. Zhang, Y. Zhu, and H. Zeng, “Free-space coupling of nanoantennas and whispering-gallery microcavities with narrowed linewidth and enhanced sensitivity,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 682–688 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Gu, L. Zhang, X. Yin, and L. Tong, “Polymer single-nanowire optical sensors,” Nano Lett. 8, 2757–2761 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hao, P.

He, L.

L. He, S. K. Oezdemir, and L. Yang, “Whispering gallery microcavity lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 60–82 (2013).
[Crossref]

Heinrich, M.

H. Hodaei, M.-A. Miri, M. Heinrich, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Khajavikhan, “Parity-time-symmetric microring lasers,” Science 346, 975–978 (2014).
[Crossref]

Heitmann, D.

C. Strelow, H. Rehberg, C. M. Schultz, H. Welsch, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, “Optical microcavities formed by semiconductor microtubes using a bottlelike geometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 127403 (2008).
[Crossref]

Heyn, C.

C. Strelow, H. Rehberg, C. M. Schultz, H. Welsch, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, “Optical microcavities formed by semiconductor microtubes using a bottlelike geometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 127403 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hodaei, H.

H. Hodaei, M.-A. Miri, M. Heinrich, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Khajavikhan, “Parity-time-symmetric microring lasers,” Science 346, 975–978 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hua, S.

L. Chang, X. Jiang, S. Hua, C. Yang, J. Wen, L. Jiang, G. Li, G. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Parity-time symmetry and variable optical isolation in active-passive-coupled microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 524–529 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, G.

J. Wang, T. Zhan, G. Huang, P. K. Chu, and Y. Mei, “Optical microcavities with tubular geometry: properties and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 521–547 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jacques, F.

Jestin, Y.

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Feron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 457–482 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jiang, L.

L. Chang, X. Jiang, S. Hua, C. Yang, J. Wen, L. Jiang, G. Li, G. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Parity-time symmetry and variable optical isolation in active-passive-coupled microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 524–529 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jiang, X.

L. Chang, X. Jiang, S. Hua, C. Yang, J. Wen, L. Jiang, G. Li, G. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Parity-time symmetry and variable optical isolation in active-passive-coupled microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 524–529 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jiang, X. F.

X. F. Jiang, C. L. Zou, L. Wang, Q. H. Gong, and Y. F. Xiao, “Whispering-gallery microcavities with unidirectional laser emission,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 40–61 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kalt, H.

T. Grossmann, T. Wienhold, U. Bog, T. Beck, C. Friedmann, H. Kalt, and T. Mappes, “Polymeric photonic molecule super-mode lasers on silicon,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e82 (2013).
[Crossref]

Khajavikhan, M.

H. Hodaei, M.-A. Miri, M. Heinrich, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Khajavikhan, “Parity-time-symmetric microring lasers,” Science 346, 975–978 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, K. H.

K. H. Kim, G. Bahl, W. Lee, J. Liu, M. Tomes, X. Fan, and T. Carmon, “Cavity optomechanics on a microfluidic resonator with water and viscous liquids,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kipp, T.

C. Strelow, H. Rehberg, C. M. Schultz, H. Welsch, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, “Optical microcavities formed by semiconductor microtubes using a bottlelike geometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 127403 (2008).
[Crossref]

Knight, J. C.

Lee, W.

K. H. Kim, G. Bahl, W. Lee, J. Liu, M. Tomes, X. Fan, and T. Carmon, “Cavity optomechanics on a microfluidic resonator with water and viscous liquids,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

L. Chang, X. Jiang, S. Hua, C. Yang, J. Wen, L. Jiang, G. Li, G. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Parity-time symmetry and variable optical isolation in active-passive-coupled microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 524–529 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liao, F.

F. Liao, G. Wu, and F. Gu, “Hydrogen sensing based on Mach–Zehnder interferometer with palladium-coated microfiber,” J. Univ. Shanghai Sci. Technol. 38, 535–539 (2016).

Lin, X.

F. Gu, F. Xie, X. Lin, S. Linghu, W. Fang, H. Zeng, L. Tong, and S. Zhuang, “Single whispering-gallery-mode lasing in polymer bottle microresonators via spatial pump engineering,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17061 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Lin and W. Fang, “Localized high-Q modes in conical microcavities,” Opt. Commun. 381, 169–173 (2016).
[Crossref]

Linghu, S.

F. Gu, F. Xie, X. Lin, S. Linghu, W. Fang, H. Zeng, L. Tong, and S. Zhuang, “Single whispering-gallery-mode lasing in polymer bottle microresonators via spatial pump engineering,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17061 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

K. H. Kim, G. Bahl, W. Lee, J. Liu, M. Tomes, X. Fan, and T. Carmon, “Cavity optomechanics on a microfluidic resonator with water and viscous liquids,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, L. Y.

Ma, L.

V. D. Ta, R. Chen, L. Ma, Y. J. Ying, and H. D. Sun, “Whispering gallery mode microlasers and refractive index sensing based on single polymer fiber,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 133–139 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mappes, T.

T. Grossmann, T. Wienhold, U. Bog, T. Beck, C. Friedmann, H. Kalt, and T. Mappes, “Polymeric photonic molecule super-mode lasers on silicon,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e82 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mei, Y.

J. Wang, T. Zhan, G. Huang, P. K. Chu, and Y. Mei, “Optical microcavities with tubular geometry: properties and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 521–547 (2014).
[Crossref]

Miri, M.-A.

H. Hodaei, M.-A. Miri, M. Heinrich, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Khajavikhan, “Parity-time-symmetric microring lasers,” Science 346, 975–978 (2014).
[Crossref]

Murugan, G. S.

M. Ding, G. S. Murugan, G. Brambilla, and M. N. Zervas, “Whispering gallery mode selection in optical bottle microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 081108 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and M. N. Zervas, “Selective excitation of whispering gallery modes in a novel bottle microresonator,” Opt. Express 17, 11916–11925 (2009).
[Crossref]

O’shea, D.

M. Poellinger, D. O’shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultrahigh-Q tunable whispering-gallery-mode microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053901 (2009).
[Crossref]

Oezdemir, S. K.

L. He, S. K. Oezdemir, and L. Yang, “Whispering gallery microcavity lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 60–82 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ooka, Y.

Painter, O.

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74–77 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Cai, O. Painter, K. J. Vahala, and P. C. Sercel, “Fiber-coupled microsphere laser,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1430–1432 (2000).
[Crossref]

Pelli, S.

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Feron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 457–482 (2010).
[Crossref]

Poellinger, M.

M. Poellinger, D. O’shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultrahigh-Q tunable whispering-gallery-mode microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053901 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rauschenbeutel, A.

M. Poellinger, D. O’shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultrahigh-Q tunable whispering-gallery-mode microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053901 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rehberg, H.

C. Strelow, H. Rehberg, C. M. Schultz, H. Welsch, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, “Optical microcavities formed by semiconductor microtubes using a bottlelike geometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 127403 (2008).
[Crossref]

Righini, G. C.

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Feron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 457–482 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schultz, C. M.

C. Strelow, H. Rehberg, C. M. Schultz, H. Welsch, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, “Optical microcavities formed by semiconductor microtubes using a bottlelike geometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 127403 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sercel, P. C.

Shang, L.

Soria, S.

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Feron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 457–482 (2010).
[Crossref]

Strelow, C.

C. Strelow, H. Rehberg, C. M. Schultz, H. Welsch, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, “Optical microcavities formed by semiconductor microtubes using a bottlelike geometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 127403 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sumetsky, M.

M. Sumetsky, “Delay of light in an optical bottle resonator with nanoscale radius variation: dispersionless, broadband, and low loss,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 163901 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Sumetsky, “Whispering-gallery-bottle microcavities: the three-dimensional etalon,” Opt. Lett. 29, 8–10 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sun, H.

S. Yang, Y. Wang, and H. Sun, “Advances and prospects for whispering gallery mode microcavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1136–1162 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. D. Ta, R. Chen, and H. Sun, “Coupled polymer microfiber lasers for single mode operation and enhanced refractive index sensing,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2, 220–225 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, H. D.

V. D. Ta, R. Chen, and H. D. Sun, “Tuning whispering gallery mode lasing from self-assembled polymer droplets,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1362 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. D. Ta, R. Chen, L. Ma, Y. J. Ying, and H. D. Sun, “Whispering gallery mode microlasers and refractive index sensing based on single polymer fiber,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 133–139 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ta, V. D.

V. D. Ta, R. Chen, and H. Sun, “Coupled polymer microfiber lasers for single mode operation and enhanced refractive index sensing,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2, 220–225 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. D. Ta, R. Chen, L. Ma, Y. J. Ying, and H. D. Sun, “Whispering gallery mode microlasers and refractive index sensing based on single polymer fiber,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 133–139 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. D. Ta, R. Chen, and H. D. Sun, “Tuning whispering gallery mode lasing from self-assembled polymer droplets,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Thompson, R. M.

Tomes, M.

K. H. Kim, G. Bahl, W. Lee, J. Liu, M. Tomes, X. Fan, and T. Carmon, “Cavity optomechanics on a microfluidic resonator with water and viscous liquids,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tong, L.

F. Gu, F. Xie, X. Lin, S. Linghu, W. Fang, H. Zeng, L. Tong, and S. Zhuang, “Single whispering-gallery-mode lasing in polymer bottle microresonators via spatial pump engineering,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17061 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Gu, L. Zhang, X. Yin, and L. Tong, “Polymer single-nanowire optical sensors,” Nano Lett. 8, 2757–2761 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vahala, K. J.

M. Cai, O. Painter, K. J. Vahala, and P. C. Sercel, “Fiber-coupled microsphere laser,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1430–1432 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74–77 (2000).
[Crossref]

Vollmer, F.

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5, 591–596 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

L. Chang, X. Jiang, S. Hua, C. Yang, J. Wen, L. Jiang, G. Li, G. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Parity-time symmetry and variable optical isolation in active-passive-coupled microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 524–529 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, T. Zhan, G. Huang, P. K. Chu, and Y. Mei, “Optical microcavities with tubular geometry: properties and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 521–547 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

X. F. Jiang, C. L. Zou, L. Wang, Q. H. Gong, and Y. F. Xiao, “Whispering-gallery microcavities with unidirectional laser emission,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 40–61 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, K. Zhang, S. Zhou, Y.-H. Wu, M.-B. Chi, and P. Hao, “Coupled-mode induced transparency in a bottle whispering-gallery-mode resonator,” Opt. Lett. 41, 1825–1828 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Yang, Y. Wang, and H. Sun, “Advances and prospects for whispering gallery mode microcavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1136–1162 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ward, J. M.

Warken, F.

M. Poellinger, D. O’shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultrahigh-Q tunable whispering-gallery-mode microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053901 (2009).
[Crossref]

Welsch, H.

C. Strelow, H. Rehberg, C. M. Schultz, H. Welsch, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, “Optical microcavities formed by semiconductor microtubes using a bottlelike geometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 127403 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wen, J.

L. Chang, X. Jiang, S. Hua, C. Yang, J. Wen, L. Jiang, G. Li, G. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Parity-time symmetry and variable optical isolation in active-passive-coupled microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 524–529 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wienhold, T.

T. Grossmann, T. Wienhold, U. Bog, T. Beck, C. Friedmann, H. Kalt, and T. Mappes, “Polymeric photonic molecule super-mode lasers on silicon,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e82 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wilkinson, J. S.

Wu, G.

F. Liao, G. Wu, and F. Gu, “Hydrogen sensing based on Mach–Zehnder interferometer with palladium-coated microfiber,” J. Univ. Shanghai Sci. Technol. 38, 535–539 (2016).

Wu, Y.-H.

Xiao, M.

L. Chang, X. Jiang, S. Hua, C. Yang, J. Wen, L. Jiang, G. Li, G. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Parity-time symmetry and variable optical isolation in active-passive-coupled microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 524–529 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xiao, Y. F.

X. F. Jiang, C. L. Zou, L. Wang, Q. H. Gong, and Y. F. Xiao, “Whispering-gallery microcavities with unidirectional laser emission,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 40–61 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xie, F.

F. Gu, F. Xie, X. Lin, S. Linghu, W. Fang, H. Zeng, L. Tong, and S. Zhuang, “Single whispering-gallery-mode lasing in polymer bottle microresonators via spatial pump engineering,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17061 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, L.

Yang, C.

L. Chang, X. Jiang, S. Hua, C. Yang, J. Wen, L. Jiang, G. Li, G. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Parity-time symmetry and variable optical isolation in active-passive-coupled microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 524–529 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, L.

L. He, S. K. Oezdemir, and L. Yang, “Whispering gallery microcavity lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 60–82 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, S.

S. Yang, Y. Wang, and H. Sun, “Advances and prospects for whispering gallery mode microcavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1136–1162 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

Yin, X.

F. Gu, L. Zhang, X. Yin, and L. Tong, “Polymer single-nanowire optical sensors,” Nano Lett. 8, 2757–2761 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ying, Y. J.

V. D. Ta, R. Chen, L. Ma, Y. J. Ying, and H. D. Sun, “Whispering gallery mode microlasers and refractive index sensing based on single polymer fiber,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 133–139 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zeng, H.

F. Gu, F. Xie, X. Lin, S. Linghu, W. Fang, H. Zeng, L. Tong, and S. Zhuang, “Single whispering-gallery-mode lasing in polymer bottle microresonators via spatial pump engineering,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17061 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Gu, L. Zhang, Y. Zhu, and H. Zeng, “Free-space coupling of nanoantennas and whispering-gallery microcavities with narrowed linewidth and enhanced sensitivity,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 682–688 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zervas, M. N.

M. Ding, G. S. Murugan, G. Brambilla, and M. N. Zervas, “Whispering gallery mode selection in optical bottle microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 081108 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and M. N. Zervas, “Selective excitation of whispering gallery modes in a novel bottle microresonator,” Opt. Express 17, 11916–11925 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhan, T.

J. Wang, T. Zhan, G. Huang, P. K. Chu, and Y. Mei, “Optical microcavities with tubular geometry: properties and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 521–547 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, K.

Zhang, L.

F. Gu, L. Zhang, Y. Zhu, and H. Zeng, “Free-space coupling of nanoantennas and whispering-gallery microcavities with narrowed linewidth and enhanced sensitivity,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 682–688 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Gu, L. Zhang, X. Yin, and L. Tong, “Polymer single-nanowire optical sensors,” Nano Lett. 8, 2757–2761 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhou, S.

Zhu, Y.

F. Gu, L. Zhang, Y. Zhu, and H. Zeng, “Free-space coupling of nanoantennas and whispering-gallery microcavities with narrowed linewidth and enhanced sensitivity,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 682–688 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhuang, S.

F. Gu, F. Xie, X. Lin, S. Linghu, W. Fang, H. Zeng, L. Tong, and S. Zhuang, “Single whispering-gallery-mode lasing in polymer bottle microresonators via spatial pump engineering,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17061 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zou, C. L.

X. F. Jiang, C. L. Zou, L. Wang, Q. H. Gong, and Y. F. Xiao, “Whispering-gallery microcavities with unidirectional laser emission,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 40–61 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (2)

S. Yang, Y. Wang, and H. Sun, “Advances and prospects for whispering gallery mode microcavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1136–1162 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. D. Ta, R. Chen, and H. Sun, “Coupled polymer microfiber lasers for single mode operation and enhanced refractive index sensing,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2, 220–225 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Ding, G. S. Murugan, G. Brambilla, and M. N. Zervas, “Whispering gallery mode selection in optical bottle microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 081108 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Univ. Shanghai Sci. Technol. (1)

F. Liao, G. Wu, and F. Gu, “Hydrogen sensing based on Mach–Zehnder interferometer with palladium-coated microfiber,” J. Univ. Shanghai Sci. Technol. 38, 535–539 (2016).

Laser Photon. Rev. (6)

V. D. Ta, R. Chen, L. Ma, Y. J. Ying, and H. D. Sun, “Whispering gallery mode microlasers and refractive index sensing based on single polymer fiber,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 133–139 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Gu, L. Zhang, Y. Zhu, and H. Zeng, “Free-space coupling of nanoantennas and whispering-gallery microcavities with narrowed linewidth and enhanced sensitivity,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 682–688 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. F. Jiang, C. L. Zou, L. Wang, Q. H. Gong, and Y. F. Xiao, “Whispering-gallery microcavities with unidirectional laser emission,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 40–61 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Feron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 457–482 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. He, S. K. Oezdemir, and L. Yang, “Whispering gallery microcavity lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 60–82 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, T. Zhan, G. Huang, P. K. Chu, and Y. Mei, “Optical microcavities with tubular geometry: properties and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 521–547 (2014).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (3)

K. H. Kim, G. Bahl, W. Lee, J. Liu, M. Tomes, X. Fan, and T. Carmon, “Cavity optomechanics on a microfluidic resonator with water and viscous liquids,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e110 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Gu, F. Xie, X. Lin, S. Linghu, W. Fang, H. Zeng, L. Tong, and S. Zhuang, “Single whispering-gallery-mode lasing in polymer bottle microresonators via spatial pump engineering,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17061 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Grossmann, T. Wienhold, U. Bog, T. Beck, C. Friedmann, H. Kalt, and T. Mappes, “Polymeric photonic molecule super-mode lasers on silicon,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e82 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

F. Gu, L. Zhang, X. Yin, and L. Tong, “Polymer single-nanowire optical sensors,” Nano Lett. 8, 2757–2761 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nat. Methods (1)

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5, 591–596 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

L. Chang, X. Jiang, S. Hua, C. Yang, J. Wen, L. Jiang, G. Li, G. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Parity-time symmetry and variable optical isolation in active-passive-coupled microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 524–529 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

X. Lin and W. Fang, “Localized high-Q modes in conical microcavities,” Opt. Commun. 381, 169–173 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

C. Strelow, H. Rehberg, C. M. Schultz, H. Welsch, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, “Optical microcavities formed by semiconductor microtubes using a bottlelike geometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 127403 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Poellinger, D. O’shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultrahigh-Q tunable whispering-gallery-mode microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053901 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Sumetsky, “Delay of light in an optical bottle resonator with nanoscale radius variation: dispersionless, broadband, and low loss,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 163901 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74–77 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

V. D. Ta, R. Chen, and H. D. Sun, “Tuning whispering gallery mode lasing from self-assembled polymer droplets,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

H. Hodaei, M.-A. Miri, M. Heinrich, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. Khajavikhan, “Parity-time-symmetric microring lasers,” Science 346, 975–978 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Definition of Dout, Dfiber, and L. (b) Moving a microresonator droplet by using a fiber taper probe. (c) Merging two adjacent droplets into a bigger one. (d) Microscope image of many polymer bottle microresonators with similar shapes. (e) PL intensity and lasing intensity correspond to time when exciting a typical R6G-doped bottle microresonator with power around a lasing threshold. Green dots: initial PL intensity. Orange dots: initial lasing intensity.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Principle of single WGM lasing in a polymer bottle microresonator. (a) Multimode lasing behavior under uniform pump. (b) Single WGM lasing by adjusting the coupling position to suppress high-order modes.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Illustration of fiber-taper-coupled bottle microresonator. Definition of DFT is denoted. (b) Microscope image of a polymer bottle microresonator (Dout=5.5  μm, Dfiber=3.2  μm, and L=7.5  μm) coupled with a fiber taper. (c) Emission spectra under fiber-taper-coupled excitation with different pump pulse energy. Inset: dark-field microscope image of the microresonator with Pin=26.1  nJ. (d) Emission intensity of the 603.4 nm wavelength peak versus the pump pulse energy.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Lasing spectra and (b) their corresponding microscope images of a polymer bottle microresonator (Dout=6.1  μm, Dfiber=3.9  μm, and L=10.8  μm) under uniform and fiber taper coupling pump. (c) Lasing spectra and (d) their corresponding microscope images of another polymer bottle microresonator (Dout=5.3  μm, Dfiber=3.9  μm, and L=7.6  μm) under different diameters of fiber taper coupling pump.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Electric field-intensity distributions of (a) TM431, (b) TM422, (c) TM423, and (d) TM414 modes, respectively.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Lasing spectra and (b) their corresponding microscope images of a polymer bottle microresonator (Dout=6.1  μm, Dfiber=3.9  μm, and L=10.8  μm) under uniform and fiber taper coupling pump. (c) Lasing spectra and (d) their corresponding microscope images of another polymer bottle microresonator (Dout=5.3  μm, Dfiber=3.9  μm, and L=7.6  μm) under different diameters of fiber taper coupling pump.

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