Abstract

This work demonstrates the Nd:YAG waveguide laser as an efficient platform for the bio-sensing of dextrose solutions and tumor cells. The waveguide was fabricated in an Nd:YAG crystal with the cooperation of ultrafast laser writing and ion irradiation. The laser oscillation in the Nd:YAG waveguide is ultrasensitive to the external environment of the waveguide. Even a weak disturbance leads to a large variation of the output power of the laser. According to this feature, an Nd:YAG waveguide coated with graphene and WSe2 layers is used as substrate for the microfluidic channel. When the microflow crosses the Nd:YAG waveguide, the laser oscillation in the waveguide is disturbed and induces fluctuation of the output laser. According to the fluctuation, the microflow is detected with a sensitivity of 10 mW/RIU.

© 2017 Chinese Laser Press

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Hybrid integrated plasmonic-photonic waveguides for on-chip localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensing and spectroscopy

Maysamreza Chamanzar, Zhixuan Xia, Siva Yegnanarayanan, and Ali Adibi
Opt. Express 21(26) 32086-32098 (2013)

Biosensing using straight long-range surface plasmon waveguides

Oleksiy Krupin, Hamoudi Asiri, Chen Wang, R. Niall Tait, and Pierre Berini
Opt. Express 21(1) 698-709 (2013)

Ferrofluid-based reconfigurable optofluidic switches for integrated sensing and digital data storage

Yu Gu, Gianna Valentino, and Eric Mongeau
Appl. Opt. 53(4) 537-543 (2014)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. B. Chinen, C. M. Guan, J. R. Ferrer, J. R. Ferrer, S. N. Barnaby, T. J. Merkel, and C. A. Mirkin, “Nanoparticle probes for the detection of cancer biomarkers, cells, and tissues by fluorescence,” Chem. Rev. 115, 10530–10574 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  2. V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  3. T. D. Chung and H. C. Kim, “Recent advances in miniaturized microfluidic flow cytometry for clinical use,” Electrophoresis 28, 4511–4520 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  4. D. Huh, W. Gu, Y. Kamotani, J. B. Grotberg, and S. Takayama, “Microfluidics for flow cytometric analysis of cells and particles,” Physiol. Meas. 26, R73–R98 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Kim, D. J. Hwang, H. Jeon, K. Hiromatsu, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Single cell detection using a glass-based optofluidic device fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Lab Chip 9, 311–318 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  6. Y. C. Tung, M. Zhang, C. T. Lin, K. Kurabayashi, and S. J. Skerlos, “PDMS-based opto-fluidic micro flow cytometer with two-color, multi-angle fluorescence detection capability using PIN photodiodes,” Sens. Actuators B 98, 356–367 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  7. P. K. Ang, A. Li, M. Jaiswal, Y. Wang, H. W. Hou, J. T. L. Thong, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Flow sensing of single cell by graphene transistor in a microfluidic channel,” Nano Lett. 11, 5240–5246 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. Y. Yang, S. K. Hsiung, Y. C. Hung, C. M. Chang, T.-L. Liao, and G.-B. Lee, “A cell counting/sorting system incorporated with a microfabricated flow cytometer chip,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 2001–2009 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  9. F. Xing, G. X. Meng, Q. Zhang, L. T. Pan, P. Wang, Z. B. Liu, W. S. Jiang, Y. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrasensitive flow sensing of a single cell using graphene-based optical sensors,” Nano Lett. 14, 3563–3569 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  10. C. Grivas, “Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers, part I: fundamentals and fabrication techniques,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 35, 159–239 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  11. F. Chen and J. R. V. de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond—laser micromachining,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 251–275 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  12. Y. Tan, C. Cheng, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, and F. Chen, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser Q-switched by evanescent-field interaction with graphene,” Opt. Express 22, 9101–9106 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  13. Y. Tan, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, S. Sun, and F. Chen, “Guided continuous-wave and graphene-based Q-switched lasers in carbon ion irradiated Nd:YAG ceramic channel waveguide,” Opt. Express 22, 3572–3577 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  14. R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231118 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  15. V. Maselli, J. R. Grenier, and S. Ho, “Femtosecond laser written optofluidic sensor: Bragg grating waveguide evanescent probing of microfluidic channel,” Opt. Express 17, 11719–11729 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  16. Y. Tan, R. He, C. Cheng, D. Wang, Y. Chen, and F. Chen, “Polarization-dependent optical absorption of MoS2 for refractive index sensing,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7523 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  17. J. Lv, Z. Shang, Y. Tan, J. R. V. de Aldana, and F. Chen, “Cladding-like waveguide fabricated by cooperation of ultrafast laser writing and ion irradiation: characterization and laser generation,” Opt. Express 25, 19603–19608 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  18. Y. Tan, X. Liu, Z. He, Y. Liu, M. Zhao, H. Zhang, and F. Chen, “Tuning of interlayer coupling in large-area graphene/WSe2 van der Waals heterostructure via ion irradiation: optical evidences and photonic applications,” ACS Photon. 4, 1531–1538 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  19. E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezes-Besset, and E. Pelletier, “Nd: MgO: LiNbO/sub 3/channel waveguide laser devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 618–625 (1991).
    [Crossref]

2017 (2)

J. Lv, Z. Shang, Y. Tan, J. R. V. de Aldana, and F. Chen, “Cladding-like waveguide fabricated by cooperation of ultrafast laser writing and ion irradiation: characterization and laser generation,” Opt. Express 25, 19603–19608 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Tan, X. Liu, Z. He, Y. Liu, M. Zhao, H. Zhang, and F. Chen, “Tuning of interlayer coupling in large-area graphene/WSe2 van der Waals heterostructure via ion irradiation: optical evidences and photonic applications,” ACS Photon. 4, 1531–1538 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

A. B. Chinen, C. M. Guan, J. R. Ferrer, J. R. Ferrer, S. N. Barnaby, T. J. Merkel, and C. A. Mirkin, “Nanoparticle probes for the detection of cancer biomarkers, cells, and tissues by fluorescence,” Chem. Rev. 115, 10530–10574 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

F. Chen and J. R. V. de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond—laser micromachining,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 251–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Tan, C. Cheng, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, and F. Chen, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser Q-switched by evanescent-field interaction with graphene,” Opt. Express 22, 9101–9106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Tan, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, S. Sun, and F. Chen, “Guided continuous-wave and graphene-based Q-switched lasers in carbon ion irradiated Nd:YAG ceramic channel waveguide,” Opt. Express 22, 3572–3577 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Xing, G. X. Meng, Q. Zhang, L. T. Pan, P. Wang, Z. B. Liu, W. S. Jiang, Y. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrasensitive flow sensing of a single cell using graphene-based optical sensors,” Nano Lett. 14, 3563–3569 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Tan, R. He, C. Cheng, D. Wang, Y. Chen, and F. Chen, “Polarization-dependent optical absorption of MoS2 for refractive index sensing,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7523 (2014).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

C. Grivas, “Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers, part I: fundamentals and fabrication techniques,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 35, 159–239 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. K. Ang, A. Li, M. Jaiswal, Y. Wang, H. W. Hou, J. T. L. Thong, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Flow sensing of single cell by graphene transistor in a microfluidic channel,” Nano Lett. 11, 5240–5246 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

M. Kim, D. J. Hwang, H. Jeon, K. Hiromatsu, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Single cell detection using a glass-based optofluidic device fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Lab Chip 9, 311–318 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Maselli, J. R. Grenier, and S. Ho, “Femtosecond laser written optofluidic sensor: Bragg grating waveguide evanescent probing of microfluidic channel,” Opt. Express 17, 11719–11729 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231118 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. D. Chung and H. C. Kim, “Recent advances in miniaturized microfluidic flow cytometry for clinical use,” Electrophoresis 28, 4511–4520 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

S. Y. Yang, S. K. Hsiung, Y. C. Hung, C. M. Chang, T.-L. Liao, and G.-B. Lee, “A cell counting/sorting system incorporated with a microfabricated flow cytometer chip,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 2001–2009 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

D. Huh, W. Gu, Y. Kamotani, J. B. Grotberg, and S. Takayama, “Microfluidics for flow cytometric analysis of cells and particles,” Physiol. Meas. 26, R73–R98 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

Y. C. Tung, M. Zhang, C. T. Lin, K. Kurabayashi, and S. J. Skerlos, “PDMS-based opto-fluidic micro flow cytometer with two-color, multi-angle fluorescence detection capability using PIN photodiodes,” Sens. Actuators B 98, 356–367 (2004).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezes-Besset, and E. Pelletier, “Nd: MgO: LiNbO/sub 3/channel waveguide laser devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 618–625 (1991).
[Crossref]

Akhmadaliev, S.

Ang, P. K.

P. K. Ang, A. Li, M. Jaiswal, Y. Wang, H. W. Hou, J. T. L. Thong, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Flow sensing of single cell by graphene transistor in a microfluidic channel,” Nano Lett. 11, 5240–5246 (2011).
[Crossref]

Arendt, J. T.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref]

Backman, V.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref]

Badizadegan, K.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref]

Barnaby, S. N.

A. B. Chinen, C. M. Guan, J. R. Ferrer, J. R. Ferrer, S. N. Barnaby, T. J. Merkel, and C. A. Mirkin, “Nanoparticle probes for the detection of cancer biomarkers, cells, and tissues by fluorescence,” Chem. Rev. 115, 10530–10574 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cerullo, G.

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231118 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. M.

S. Y. Yang, S. K. Hsiung, Y. C. Hung, C. M. Chang, T.-L. Liao, and G.-B. Lee, “A cell counting/sorting system incorporated with a microfabricated flow cytometer chip,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 2001–2009 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, F.

Y. Tan, X. Liu, Z. He, Y. Liu, M. Zhao, H. Zhang, and F. Chen, “Tuning of interlayer coupling in large-area graphene/WSe2 van der Waals heterostructure via ion irradiation: optical evidences and photonic applications,” ACS Photon. 4, 1531–1538 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lv, Z. Shang, Y. Tan, J. R. V. de Aldana, and F. Chen, “Cladding-like waveguide fabricated by cooperation of ultrafast laser writing and ion irradiation: characterization and laser generation,” Opt. Express 25, 19603–19608 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Tan, C. Cheng, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, and F. Chen, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser Q-switched by evanescent-field interaction with graphene,” Opt. Express 22, 9101–9106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Tan, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, S. Sun, and F. Chen, “Guided continuous-wave and graphene-based Q-switched lasers in carbon ion irradiated Nd:YAG ceramic channel waveguide,” Opt. Express 22, 3572–3577 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Tan, R. He, C. Cheng, D. Wang, Y. Chen, and F. Chen, “Polarization-dependent optical absorption of MoS2 for refractive index sensing,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7523 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Chen and J. R. V. de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond—laser micromachining,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 251–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

F. Xing, G. X. Meng, Q. Zhang, L. T. Pan, P. Wang, Z. B. Liu, W. S. Jiang, Y. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrasensitive flow sensing of a single cell using graphene-based optical sensors,” Nano Lett. 14, 3563–3569 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Tan, R. He, C. Cheng, D. Wang, Y. Chen, and F. Chen, “Polarization-dependent optical absorption of MoS2 for refractive index sensing,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7523 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheng, C.

Y. Tan, R. He, C. Cheng, D. Wang, Y. Chen, and F. Chen, “Polarization-dependent optical absorption of MoS2 for refractive index sensing,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7523 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Tan, C. Cheng, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, and F. Chen, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser Q-switched by evanescent-field interaction with graphene,” Opt. Express 22, 9101–9106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chinen, A. B.

A. B. Chinen, C. M. Guan, J. R. Ferrer, J. R. Ferrer, S. N. Barnaby, T. J. Merkel, and C. A. Mirkin, “Nanoparticle probes for the detection of cancer biomarkers, cells, and tissues by fluorescence,” Chem. Rev. 115, 10530–10574 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chung, T. D.

T. D. Chung and H. C. Kim, “Recent advances in miniaturized microfluidic flow cytometry for clinical use,” Electrophoresis 28, 4511–4520 (2007).
[Crossref]

Crawford, J. M.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref]

Dasari, R. R.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref]

de Aldana, J. R. V.

J. Lv, Z. Shang, Y. Tan, J. R. V. de Aldana, and F. Chen, “Cladding-like waveguide fabricated by cooperation of ultrafast laser writing and ion irradiation: characterization and laser generation,” Opt. Express 25, 19603–19608 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Chen and J. R. V. de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond—laser micromachining,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 251–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

De Micheli, M. P.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezes-Besset, and E. Pelletier, “Nd: MgO: LiNbO/sub 3/channel waveguide laser devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 618–625 (1991).
[Crossref]

Feld, M. S.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ferrer, J. R.

A. B. Chinen, C. M. Guan, J. R. Ferrer, J. R. Ferrer, S. N. Barnaby, T. J. Merkel, and C. A. Mirkin, “Nanoparticle probes for the detection of cancer biomarkers, cells, and tissues by fluorescence,” Chem. Rev. 115, 10530–10574 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. B. Chinen, C. M. Guan, J. R. Ferrer, J. R. Ferrer, S. N. Barnaby, T. J. Merkel, and C. A. Mirkin, “Nanoparticle probes for the detection of cancer biomarkers, cells, and tissues by fluorescence,” Chem. Rev. 115, 10530–10574 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fitzmaurice, M.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref]

Grenier, J. R.

Grezes-Besset, C.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezes-Besset, and E. Pelletier, “Nd: MgO: LiNbO/sub 3/channel waveguide laser devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 618–625 (1991).
[Crossref]

Grigoropoulos, C. P.

M. Kim, D. J. Hwang, H. Jeon, K. Hiromatsu, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Single cell detection using a glass-based optofluidic device fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Lab Chip 9, 311–318 (2009).
[Crossref]

Grivas, C.

C. Grivas, “Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers, part I: fundamentals and fabrication techniques,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 35, 159–239 (2011).
[Crossref]

Grotberg, J. B.

D. Huh, W. Gu, Y. Kamotani, J. B. Grotberg, and S. Takayama, “Microfluidics for flow cytometric analysis of cells and particles,” Physiol. Meas. 26, R73–R98 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gu, W.

D. Huh, W. Gu, Y. Kamotani, J. B. Grotberg, and S. Takayama, “Microfluidics for flow cytometric analysis of cells and particles,” Physiol. Meas. 26, R73–R98 (2005).
[Crossref]

Guan, C. M.

A. B. Chinen, C. M. Guan, J. R. Ferrer, J. R. Ferrer, S. N. Barnaby, T. J. Merkel, and C. A. Mirkin, “Nanoparticle probes for the detection of cancer biomarkers, cells, and tissues by fluorescence,” Chem. Rev. 115, 10530–10574 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gurjar, R.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref]

He, Q.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezes-Besset, and E. Pelletier, “Nd: MgO: LiNbO/sub 3/channel waveguide laser devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 618–625 (1991).
[Crossref]

He, R.

Y. Tan, R. He, C. Cheng, D. Wang, Y. Chen, and F. Chen, “Polarization-dependent optical absorption of MoS2 for refractive index sensing,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7523 (2014).
[Crossref]

He, Z.

Y. Tan, X. Liu, Z. He, Y. Liu, M. Zhao, H. Zhang, and F. Chen, “Tuning of interlayer coupling in large-area graphene/WSe2 van der Waals heterostructure via ion irradiation: optical evidences and photonic applications,” ACS Photon. 4, 1531–1538 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hiromatsu, K.

M. Kim, D. J. Hwang, H. Jeon, K. Hiromatsu, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Single cell detection using a glass-based optofluidic device fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Lab Chip 9, 311–318 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ho, S.

Hou, H. W.

P. K. Ang, A. Li, M. Jaiswal, Y. Wang, H. W. Hou, J. T. L. Thong, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Flow sensing of single cell by graphene transistor in a microfluidic channel,” Nano Lett. 11, 5240–5246 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hsiung, S. K.

S. Y. Yang, S. K. Hsiung, Y. C. Hung, C. M. Chang, T.-L. Liao, and G.-B. Lee, “A cell counting/sorting system incorporated with a microfabricated flow cytometer chip,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 2001–2009 (2006).
[Crossref]

Huh, D.

D. Huh, W. Gu, Y. Kamotani, J. B. Grotberg, and S. Takayama, “Microfluidics for flow cytometric analysis of cells and particles,” Physiol. Meas. 26, R73–R98 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hung, Y. C.

S. Y. Yang, S. K. Hsiung, Y. C. Hung, C. M. Chang, T.-L. Liao, and G.-B. Lee, “A cell counting/sorting system incorporated with a microfabricated flow cytometer chip,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 2001–2009 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hwang, D. J.

M. Kim, D. J. Hwang, H. Jeon, K. Hiromatsu, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Single cell detection using a glass-based optofluidic device fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Lab Chip 9, 311–318 (2009).
[Crossref]

Itzkan, I.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jaiswal, M.

P. K. Ang, A. Li, M. Jaiswal, Y. Wang, H. W. Hou, J. T. L. Thong, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Flow sensing of single cell by graphene transistor in a microfluidic channel,” Nano Lett. 11, 5240–5246 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jeon, H.

M. Kim, D. J. Hwang, H. Jeon, K. Hiromatsu, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Single cell detection using a glass-based optofluidic device fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Lab Chip 9, 311–318 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jiang, W. S.

F. Xing, G. X. Meng, Q. Zhang, L. T. Pan, P. Wang, Z. B. Liu, W. S. Jiang, Y. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrasensitive flow sensing of a single cell using graphene-based optical sensors,” Nano Lett. 14, 3563–3569 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kabani, S.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kamotani, Y.

D. Huh, W. Gu, Y. Kamotani, J. B. Grotberg, and S. Takayama, “Microfluidics for flow cytometric analysis of cells and particles,” Physiol. Meas. 26, R73–R98 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. C.

T. D. Chung and H. C. Kim, “Recent advances in miniaturized microfluidic flow cytometry for clinical use,” Electrophoresis 28, 4511–4520 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, M.

M. Kim, D. J. Hwang, H. Jeon, K. Hiromatsu, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Single cell detection using a glass-based optofluidic device fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Lab Chip 9, 311–318 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kline, E.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kurabayashi, K.

Y. C. Tung, M. Zhang, C. T. Lin, K. Kurabayashi, and S. J. Skerlos, “PDMS-based opto-fluidic micro flow cytometer with two-color, multi-angle fluorescence detection capability using PIN photodiodes,” Sens. Actuators B 98, 356–367 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lallier, E.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezes-Besset, and E. Pelletier, “Nd: MgO: LiNbO/sub 3/channel waveguide laser devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 618–625 (1991).
[Crossref]

Lee, G.-B.

S. Y. Yang, S. K. Hsiung, Y. C. Hung, C. M. Chang, T.-L. Liao, and G.-B. Lee, “A cell counting/sorting system incorporated with a microfabricated flow cytometer chip,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 2001–2009 (2006).
[Crossref]

Levin, H. S.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref]

Li, A.

P. K. Ang, A. Li, M. Jaiswal, Y. Wang, H. W. Hou, J. T. L. Thong, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Flow sensing of single cell by graphene transistor in a microfluidic channel,” Nano Lett. 11, 5240–5246 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, M. J.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezes-Besset, and E. Pelletier, “Nd: MgO: LiNbO/sub 3/channel waveguide laser devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 618–625 (1991).
[Crossref]

Liao, T.-L.

S. Y. Yang, S. K. Hsiung, Y. C. Hung, C. M. Chang, T.-L. Liao, and G.-B. Lee, “A cell counting/sorting system incorporated with a microfabricated flow cytometer chip,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 2001–2009 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lim, C. T.

P. K. Ang, A. Li, M. Jaiswal, Y. Wang, H. W. Hou, J. T. L. Thong, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Flow sensing of single cell by graphene transistor in a microfluidic channel,” Nano Lett. 11, 5240–5246 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. T.

Y. C. Tung, M. Zhang, C. T. Lin, K. Kurabayashi, and S. J. Skerlos, “PDMS-based opto-fluidic micro flow cytometer with two-color, multi-angle fluorescence detection capability using PIN photodiodes,” Sens. Actuators B 98, 356–367 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

Y. Tan, X. Liu, Z. He, Y. Liu, M. Zhao, H. Zhang, and F. Chen, “Tuning of interlayer coupling in large-area graphene/WSe2 van der Waals heterostructure via ion irradiation: optical evidences and photonic applications,” ACS Photon. 4, 1531–1538 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Y. Tan, X. Liu, Z. He, Y. Liu, M. Zhao, H. Zhang, and F. Chen, “Tuning of interlayer coupling in large-area graphene/WSe2 van der Waals heterostructure via ion irradiation: optical evidences and photonic applications,” ACS Photon. 4, 1531–1538 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z. B.

F. Xing, G. X. Meng, Q. Zhang, L. T. Pan, P. Wang, Z. B. Liu, W. S. Jiang, Y. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrasensitive flow sensing of a single cell using graphene-based optical sensors,” Nano Lett. 14, 3563–3569 (2014).
[Crossref]

Loh, K. P.

P. K. Ang, A. Li, M. Jaiswal, Y. Wang, H. W. Hou, J. T. L. Thong, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Flow sensing of single cell by graphene transistor in a microfluidic channel,” Nano Lett. 11, 5240–5246 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lv, J.

Maselli, V.

V. Maselli, J. R. Grenier, and S. Ho, “Femtosecond laser written optofluidic sensor: Bragg grating waveguide evanescent probing of microfluidic channel,” Opt. Express 17, 11719–11729 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231118 (2007).
[Crossref]

McGillican, T.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref]

Meng, G. X.

F. Xing, G. X. Meng, Q. Zhang, L. T. Pan, P. Wang, Z. B. Liu, W. S. Jiang, Y. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrasensitive flow sensing of a single cell using graphene-based optical sensors,” Nano Lett. 14, 3563–3569 (2014).
[Crossref]

Merkel, T. J.

A. B. Chinen, C. M. Guan, J. R. Ferrer, J. R. Ferrer, S. N. Barnaby, T. J. Merkel, and C. A. Mirkin, “Nanoparticle probes for the detection of cancer biomarkers, cells, and tissues by fluorescence,” Chem. Rev. 115, 10530–10574 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mirkin, C. A.

A. B. Chinen, C. M. Guan, J. R. Ferrer, J. R. Ferrer, S. N. Barnaby, T. J. Merkel, and C. A. Mirkin, “Nanoparticle probes for the detection of cancer biomarkers, cells, and tissues by fluorescence,” Chem. Rev. 115, 10530–10574 (2015).
[Crossref]

Müller, M. G.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref]

Osellame, R.

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231118 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ostrowsky, D. B.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezes-Besset, and E. Pelletier, “Nd: MgO: LiNbO/sub 3/channel waveguide laser devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 618–625 (1991).
[Crossref]

Pan, L. T.

F. Xing, G. X. Meng, Q. Zhang, L. T. Pan, P. Wang, Z. B. Liu, W. S. Jiang, Y. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrasensitive flow sensing of a single cell using graphene-based optical sensors,” Nano Lett. 14, 3563–3569 (2014).
[Crossref]

Papuchon, M.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezes-Besset, and E. Pelletier, “Nd: MgO: LiNbO/sub 3/channel waveguide laser devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 618–625 (1991).
[Crossref]

Pelletier, E.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezes-Besset, and E. Pelletier, “Nd: MgO: LiNbO/sub 3/channel waveguide laser devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 618–625 (1991).
[Crossref]

Perelman, L. T.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref]

Pocholle, J. P.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezes-Besset, and E. Pelletier, “Nd: MgO: LiNbO/sub 3/channel waveguide laser devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 618–625 (1991).
[Crossref]

Ramponi, R.

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231118 (2007).
[Crossref]

Seiler, M.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref]

Shang, Z.

Shapshay, S.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref]

Skerlos, S. J.

Y. C. Tung, M. Zhang, C. T. Lin, K. Kurabayashi, and S. J. Skerlos, “PDMS-based opto-fluidic micro flow cytometer with two-color, multi-angle fluorescence detection capability using PIN photodiodes,” Sens. Actuators B 98, 356–367 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sun, S.

Takayama, S.

D. Huh, W. Gu, Y. Kamotani, J. B. Grotberg, and S. Takayama, “Microfluidics for flow cytometric analysis of cells and particles,” Physiol. Meas. 26, R73–R98 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tan, Y.

Thong, J. T. L.

P. K. Ang, A. Li, M. Jaiswal, Y. Wang, H. W. Hou, J. T. L. Thong, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Flow sensing of single cell by graphene transistor in a microfluidic channel,” Nano Lett. 11, 5240–5246 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tian, J. G.

F. Xing, G. X. Meng, Q. Zhang, L. T. Pan, P. Wang, Z. B. Liu, W. S. Jiang, Y. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrasensitive flow sensing of a single cell using graphene-based optical sensors,” Nano Lett. 14, 3563–3569 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tung, Y. C.

Y. C. Tung, M. Zhang, C. T. Lin, K. Kurabayashi, and S. J. Skerlos, “PDMS-based opto-fluidic micro flow cytometer with two-color, multi-angle fluorescence detection capability using PIN photodiodes,” Sens. Actuators B 98, 356–367 (2004).
[Crossref]

Valdez, T.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref]

Van Dam, J.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref]

Vazquez, R. M.

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231118 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wallace, M. B.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wang, D.

Y. Tan, R. He, C. Cheng, D. Wang, Y. Chen, and F. Chen, “Polarization-dependent optical absorption of MoS2 for refractive index sensing,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7523 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, P.

F. Xing, G. X. Meng, Q. Zhang, L. T. Pan, P. Wang, Z. B. Liu, W. S. Jiang, Y. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrasensitive flow sensing of a single cell using graphene-based optical sensors,” Nano Lett. 14, 3563–3569 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

P. K. Ang, A. Li, M. Jaiswal, Y. Wang, H. W. Hou, J. T. L. Thong, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Flow sensing of single cell by graphene transistor in a microfluidic channel,” Nano Lett. 11, 5240–5246 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xing, F.

F. Xing, G. X. Meng, Q. Zhang, L. T. Pan, P. Wang, Z. B. Liu, W. S. Jiang, Y. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrasensitive flow sensing of a single cell using graphene-based optical sensors,” Nano Lett. 14, 3563–3569 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, S. Y.

S. Y. Yang, S. K. Hsiung, Y. C. Hung, C. M. Chang, T.-L. Liao, and G.-B. Lee, “A cell counting/sorting system incorporated with a microfabricated flow cytometer chip,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 2001–2009 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

Y. Tan, X. Liu, Z. He, Y. Liu, M. Zhao, H. Zhang, and F. Chen, “Tuning of interlayer coupling in large-area graphene/WSe2 van der Waals heterostructure via ion irradiation: optical evidences and photonic applications,” ACS Photon. 4, 1531–1538 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

Y. C. Tung, M. Zhang, C. T. Lin, K. Kurabayashi, and S. J. Skerlos, “PDMS-based opto-fluidic micro flow cytometer with two-color, multi-angle fluorescence detection capability using PIN photodiodes,” Sens. Actuators B 98, 356–367 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

F. Xing, G. X. Meng, Q. Zhang, L. T. Pan, P. Wang, Z. B. Liu, W. S. Jiang, Y. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrasensitive flow sensing of a single cell using graphene-based optical sensors,” Nano Lett. 14, 3563–3569 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zhao, M.

Y. Tan, X. Liu, Z. He, Y. Liu, M. Zhao, H. Zhang, and F. Chen, “Tuning of interlayer coupling in large-area graphene/WSe2 van der Waals heterostructure via ion irradiation: optical evidences and photonic applications,” ACS Photon. 4, 1531–1538 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhou, S.

Zonios, G.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref]

ACS Photon. (1)

Y. Tan, X. Liu, Z. He, Y. Liu, M. Zhao, H. Zhang, and F. Chen, “Tuning of interlayer coupling in large-area graphene/WSe2 van der Waals heterostructure via ion irradiation: optical evidences and photonic applications,” ACS Photon. 4, 1531–1538 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231118 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chem. Rev. (1)

A. B. Chinen, C. M. Guan, J. R. Ferrer, J. R. Ferrer, S. N. Barnaby, T. J. Merkel, and C. A. Mirkin, “Nanoparticle probes for the detection of cancer biomarkers, cells, and tissues by fluorescence,” Chem. Rev. 115, 10530–10574 (2015).
[Crossref]

Electrophoresis (1)

T. D. Chung and H. C. Kim, “Recent advances in miniaturized microfluidic flow cytometry for clinical use,” Electrophoresis 28, 4511–4520 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezes-Besset, and E. Pelletier, “Nd: MgO: LiNbO/sub 3/channel waveguide laser devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 618–625 (1991).
[Crossref]

Lab Chip (1)

M. Kim, D. J. Hwang, H. Jeon, K. Hiromatsu, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Single cell detection using a glass-based optofluidic device fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Lab Chip 9, 311–318 (2009).
[Crossref]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

F. Chen and J. R. V. de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond—laser micromachining,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 251–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. Y. Yang, S. K. Hsiung, Y. C. Hung, C. M. Chang, T.-L. Liao, and G.-B. Lee, “A cell counting/sorting system incorporated with a microfabricated flow cytometer chip,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 2001–2009 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (2)

F. Xing, G. X. Meng, Q. Zhang, L. T. Pan, P. Wang, Z. B. Liu, W. S. Jiang, Y. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrasensitive flow sensing of a single cell using graphene-based optical sensors,” Nano Lett. 14, 3563–3569 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. K. Ang, A. Li, M. Jaiswal, Y. Wang, H. W. Hou, J. T. L. Thong, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Flow sensing of single cell by graphene transistor in a microfluidic channel,” Nano Lett. 11, 5240–5246 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Physiol. Meas. (1)

D. Huh, W. Gu, Y. Kamotani, J. B. Grotberg, and S. Takayama, “Microfluidics for flow cytometric analysis of cells and particles,” Physiol. Meas. 26, R73–R98 (2005).
[Crossref]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Grivas, “Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers, part I: fundamentals and fabrication techniques,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 35, 159–239 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

Y. Tan, R. He, C. Cheng, D. Wang, Y. Chen, and F. Chen, “Polarization-dependent optical absorption of MoS2 for refractive index sensing,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7523 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sens. Actuators B (1)

Y. C. Tung, M. Zhang, C. T. Lin, K. Kurabayashi, and S. J. Skerlos, “PDMS-based opto-fluidic micro flow cytometer with two-color, multi-angle fluorescence detection capability using PIN photodiodes,” Sens. Actuators B 98, 356–367 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Diagram of the biosensor. (b) HRTEM image of G/W heterostructure. Graphene on the top and WSe2 monolayer on the bottom. (c) Photograph of the microfluidic channel, Nd:YAG waveguide, and holder. (d) Photograph of the assembled biosensor.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Refractive index distribution of the Nd:YAG waveguide and the propagation mode of the guided light at the wavelength of 1064 nm. (b) Polar image of the output light power along with the polarization variation. Wavelength of the detecting light is 1064 nm. (c) Real-time signal of different concentrations of dextrose solution. (d) Absorption coefficient corresponding to air, water, and dextrose solution.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Emission spectrum of the output laser. Inset is the measured near-field modal profile of the emitted laser from the Nd:YAG waveguide. (b) Output power of the Nd:YAG waveguide as a function of the pumping power. Variations of (c) Pth, (d) ϕ, and (e) Pout. (f) Calculated variations of Pout per 0.01 dB in the active (red line) and passive (blue line) biosensor.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Real-time signal of different concentrations of dextrose solution in the active biosensor. (b) Output power of detecting light corresponding to the refractive index of the different liquid.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Microphotograph of the tumor cells. (b) Real-time signal of the solution of PMMA balls and tumor cells, respectively. (c) Repeatability of the active biosensor measurement. (d) Real-time signal of the mixed solution of PMMA balls and tumor cells.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Pth=hcAeff2ησeτλpδ=C1δ,
ϕ=η(T1+T2)λPλL1δ=C21δ,
δ=2αLln[(1T1)×(1T2)],
Pout=ϕ(PpumpPth)=C21δ(PpumpC1δ)=C212αLln[(1T1)×(1T2)]PpumpC2C1.

Metrics