Abstract

Owing to its thickness-modulated direct energy band gap, relatively strong light–matter interaction, and unique nonlinear optical response at a long wavelength, few-layer black phosphorus, or phosphorene, becomes very attractive in ultrafast photonics applications. Herein, we synthesized a graphene/phosphorene nano-heterojunction using a liquid phase-stripping method. Tiny lattice distortions in graphene and phosphorene suggest the formation of a nano-heterojunction between graphene and phosphorene nanosheets. In addition, we systematically investigate their nonlinear optical responses at different wavelength regimes. Our experiments indicate that the combined advantages of ultrafast relaxation, broadband response in graphene, and the strong light–matter interaction in phosphorene can be combined together by nano-heterojunction. We have further fabricated two-dimensional (2D) nano-heterojunction based optical saturable absorbers and integrated them into an erbium-doped fiber laser to demonstrate the generation of a stable ultrashort pulse down to 148 fs. Our results indicate that a graphene/phosphorene nano-heterojunction can operate as a promising saturable absorber for ultrafast laser systems with ultrahigh pulse energy and ultranarrow pulse duration. We believe this work opens up a new approach to designing 2D heterointerfaces for applications in ultrafast photonics and other research. The fabrication of a 2D nano-heterojunction assembled from stacking different 2D materials, via this facile and scalable growth approach, paves the way for the formation and tuning of new 2D materials with desirable photonic properties and applications.

© 2017 Chinese Laser Press

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References

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2016 (4)

Z. Wang, H. Mu, C. Zhao, Q. Bao, and H. Zhang, “Harmonic mode-locking and wavelength-tunable Q-switching operation in the graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure saturable absorber-based fiber laser,” Opt. Eng. 55, 081314 (2016).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

Z. Ruwei, L. Jing, Z. Baitao, L. Xiaowen, S. Xiancui, W. Yiran, L. Fei, Z. Haikun, and H. Jingliang, “Triwavelength synchronously mode-locked fiber laser based on few-layered black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Express 9, 092701 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, S. Chen, J. Liu, Y. Gao, and W. Zhang, “Sub-300 femtosecond soliton tunable fiber laser with all-anomalous dispersion passively mode locked by black phosphorus,” Opt. Express 24, 13316–13324 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (8)

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Favron, E. Gaufres, F. Fossard, A. L. Phaneuf-L’Heureux, N. Y. Tang, P. L. Levesque, A. Loiseau, R. Leonelli, S. Francoeur, and R. Martel, “Photooxidation and quantum confinement effects in exfoliated black phosphorus,” Nat. Mater. 14, 826–832 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and thickness dependent absorption properties of black phosphorus: new saturable absorber for ultrafast pulse generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, H. Xie, S. Tang, X. F. Yu, Z. Guo, J. Shao, H. Zhang, H. Huang, H. Wang, and P. K. Chu, “Ultrasmall black phosphorus quantum dots: synthesis and use as photothermal agents,” Angew. Chem. 54, 11526–11530 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, H. Xie, Z. Liu, C. Tan, Z. Luo, H. Li, J. Lin, L. Sun, W. Chen, Z. Xu, L. Xie, W. Huang, and H. Zhang, “Black phosphorus quantum dots,” Angew. Chem. 54, 3653–3657 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

S. Zhang, J. Yang, R. Xu, F. Wang, W. Li, M. Ghufran, Y. W. Zhang, Z. Yu, G. Zhang, Q. Qin, and Y. Lu, “Extraordinary photoluminescence and strong temperature/angle-dependent Raman responses in few-layer phosphorene,” ACS Nano 8, 9590–9596 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

2012 (3)

D.-P. Zhou, L. Wei, and W.-K. Liu, “Tunable graphene Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with suppressed self-mode locking effect,” Appl. Opt. 51, 2554–2558 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Li, Q. Zhang, C. C. R. Yap, B. K. Tay, T. H. T. Edwin, A. Olivier, and D. Baillargeat, “From bulk to monolayer MoS2: evolution of Raman scattering,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 1385–1390 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Gao, W. Gao, E. Cannuccia, J. Taha-Tijerina, L. Balicas, A. Mathkar, T. N. Narayanan, Z. Liu, B. K. Gupta, J. Peng, Y. Yin, A. Rubio, and P. M. Ajayan, “Artificially stacked atomic layers: toward new van der Waals solids,” Nano Lett. 12, 3518–3525 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

L. Jiao, X. Wang, G. Diankov, H. Wang, and H. Dai, “Facile synthesis of high-quality graphene nanoribbons,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 321–325 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, M. Zhou, J. Weng, G. Huang, H. Xu, C. Ye, and Z. Cai, “Graphene-based passively Q-switched dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3709–3711 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature 452, 970–974 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

2003 (1)

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424, 831–838 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

1999 (1)

1991 (1)

J. J. Zayhowski and P. L. Kelley, “Optimization of Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2220–2225 (1991).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

V. S. Letokhov, “Laser biology and medicine,” Nature 316, 325–330 (1985).
[Crossref]

Abramski, K. M.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, H.

H. Ahmad, M. Z. Zulkifli, F. D. Muhammad, A. Z. Zulkifli, and S. W. Harun, “Tunable graphene-based Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser using fiber Bragg grating,” J. Mod. Opt. 60, 202–212 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ajayan, P. M.

G. Gao, W. Gao, E. Cannuccia, J. Taha-Tijerina, L. Balicas, A. Mathkar, T. N. Narayanan, Z. Liu, B. K. Gupta, J. Peng, Y. Yin, A. Rubio, and P. M. Ajayan, “Artificially stacked atomic layers: toward new van der Waals solids,” Nano Lett. 12, 3518–3525 (2012).
[Crossref]

Albrecht, M.

Baillargeat, D.

H. Li, Q. Zhang, C. C. R. Yap, B. K. Tay, T. H. T. Edwin, A. Olivier, and D. Baillargeat, “From bulk to monolayer MoS2: evolution of Raman scattering,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 1385–1390 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baitao, Z.

Z. Ruwei, L. Jing, Z. Baitao, L. Xiaowen, S. Xiancui, W. Yiran, L. Fei, Z. Haikun, and H. Jingliang, “Triwavelength synchronously mode-locked fiber laser based on few-layered black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Express 9, 092701 (2016).
[Crossref]

Balicas, L.

G. Gao, W. Gao, E. Cannuccia, J. Taha-Tijerina, L. Balicas, A. Mathkar, T. N. Narayanan, Z. Liu, B. K. Gupta, J. Peng, Y. Yin, A. Rubio, and P. M. Ajayan, “Artificially stacked atomic layers: toward new van der Waals solids,” Nano Lett. 12, 3518–3525 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q.

Z. Wang, H. Mu, C. Zhao, Q. Bao, and H. Zhang, “Harmonic mode-locking and wavelength-tunable Q-switching operation in the graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure saturable absorber-based fiber laser,” Opt. Eng. 55, 081314 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

Boerner, J.

Boettger, P.

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bratschitsch, R.

Cai, Z.

Cannuccia, E.

G. Gao, W. Gao, E. Cannuccia, J. Taha-Tijerina, L. Balicas, A. Mathkar, T. N. Narayanan, Z. Liu, B. K. Gupta, J. Peng, Y. Yin, A. Rubio, and P. M. Ajayan, “Artificially stacked atomic layers: toward new van der Waals solids,” Nano Lett. 12, 3518–3525 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cava, R. J.

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature 452, 970–974 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chardon, A. M.

Chen, C.

H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Chen, W.

X. Zhang, H. Xie, Z. Liu, C. Tan, Z. Luo, H. Li, J. Lin, L. Sun, W. Chen, Z. Xu, L. Xie, W. Huang, and H. Zhang, “Black phosphorus quantum dots,” Angew. Chem. 54, 3653–3657 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and thickness dependent absorption properties of black phosphorus: new saturable absorber for ultrafast pulse generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, S. Chen, J. Liu, Y. Gao, and W. Zhang, “Sub-300 femtosecond soliton tunable fiber laser with all-anomalous dispersion passively mode locked by black phosphorus,” Opt. Express 24, 13316–13324 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Lv, H. Li, H. Xia, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, and Y. Chen, “Passively Q-switched linear-cavity erbium-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber,” in Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks (ICOCN) (IEEE, 2013), pp. 1–3.

Chu, P. K.

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, H. Xie, S. Tang, X. F. Yu, Z. Guo, J. Shao, H. Zhang, H. Huang, H. Wang, and P. K. Chu, “Ultrasmall black phosphorus quantum dots: synthesis and use as photothermal agents,” Angew. Chem. 54, 11526–11530 (2015).
[Crossref]

Clarkson, W. A.

Dai, H.

L. Jiao, X. Wang, G. Diankov, H. Wang, and H. Dai, “Facile synthesis of high-quality graphene nanoribbons,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 321–325 (2010).
[Crossref]

de Vasconcellos, S. M.

Diankov, G.

L. Jiao, X. Wang, G. Diankov, H. Wang, and H. Dai, “Facile synthesis of high-quality graphene nanoribbons,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 321–325 (2010).
[Crossref]

Edwin, T. H. T.

H. Li, Q. Zhang, C. C. R. Yap, B. K. Tay, T. H. T. Edwin, A. Olivier, and D. Baillargeat, “From bulk to monolayer MoS2: evolution of Raman scattering,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 1385–1390 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fan, D.

Favron, A.

A. Favron, E. Gaufres, F. Fossard, A. L. Phaneuf-L’Heureux, N. Y. Tang, P. L. Levesque, A. Loiseau, R. Leonelli, S. Francoeur, and R. Martel, “Photooxidation and quantum confinement effects in exfoliated black phosphorus,” Nat. Mater. 14, 826–832 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fei, L.

Z. Ruwei, L. Jing, Z. Baitao, L. Xiaowen, S. Xiancui, W. Yiran, L. Fei, Z. Haikun, and H. Jingliang, “Triwavelength synchronously mode-locked fiber laser based on few-layered black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Express 9, 092701 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, A. C.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fossard, F.

A. Favron, E. Gaufres, F. Fossard, A. L. Phaneuf-L’Heureux, N. Y. Tang, P. L. Levesque, A. Loiseau, R. Leonelli, S. Francoeur, and R. Martel, “Photooxidation and quantum confinement effects in exfoliated black phosphorus,” Nat. Mater. 14, 826–832 (2015).
[Crossref]

Francoeur, S.

A. Favron, E. Gaufres, F. Fossard, A. L. Phaneuf-L’Heureux, N. Y. Tang, P. L. Levesque, A. Loiseau, R. Leonelli, S. Francoeur, and R. Martel, “Photooxidation and quantum confinement effects in exfoliated black phosphorus,” Nat. Mater. 14, 826–832 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gao, G.

G. Gao, W. Gao, E. Cannuccia, J. Taha-Tijerina, L. Balicas, A. Mathkar, T. N. Narayanan, Z. Liu, B. K. Gupta, J. Peng, Y. Yin, A. Rubio, and P. M. Ajayan, “Artificially stacked atomic layers: toward new van der Waals solids,” Nano Lett. 12, 3518–3525 (2012).
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D. Lv, H. Li, H. Xia, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, and Y. Chen, “Passively Q-switched linear-cavity erbium-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber,” in Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks (ICOCN) (IEEE, 2013), pp. 1–3.

Wei, L.

Wen, S.

Weng, J.

Wray, L.

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature 452, 970–974 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xia, H.

D. Lv, H. Li, H. Xia, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, and Y. Chen, “Passively Q-switched linear-cavity erbium-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber,” in Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks (ICOCN) (IEEE, 2013), pp. 1–3.

Xia, Y.

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature 452, 970–974 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xiancui, S.

Z. Ruwei, L. Jing, Z. Baitao, L. Xiaowen, S. Xiancui, W. Yiran, L. Fei, Z. Haikun, and H. Jingliang, “Triwavelength synchronously mode-locked fiber laser based on few-layered black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Express 9, 092701 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xiao, Q.

Y. Xu, Z. Wang, Z. Guo, H. Huang, Q. Xiao, H. Zhang, and X.-F. Yu, “Solvothermal synthesis and ultrafast photonics of black phosphorus quantum dots,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 1223–1229 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xiao, S.

H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xiaowen, L.

Z. Ruwei, L. Jing, Z. Baitao, L. Xiaowen, S. Xiancui, W. Yiran, L. Fei, Z. Haikun, and H. Jingliang, “Triwavelength synchronously mode-locked fiber laser based on few-layered black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Express 9, 092701 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xie, H.

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, H. Xie, S. Tang, X. F. Yu, Z. Guo, J. Shao, H. Zhang, H. Huang, H. Wang, and P. K. Chu, “Ultrasmall black phosphorus quantum dots: synthesis and use as photothermal agents,” Angew. Chem. 54, 11526–11530 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, H. Xie, Z. Liu, C. Tan, Z. Luo, H. Li, J. Lin, L. Sun, W. Chen, Z. Xu, L. Xie, W. Huang, and H. Zhang, “Black phosphorus quantum dots,” Angew. Chem. 54, 3653–3657 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xie, L.

X. Zhang, H. Xie, Z. Liu, C. Tan, Z. Luo, H. Li, J. Lin, L. Sun, W. Chen, Z. Xu, L. Xie, W. Huang, and H. Zhang, “Black phosphorus quantum dots,” Angew. Chem. 54, 3653–3657 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, H.

Xu, R.

S. Zhang, J. Yang, R. Xu, F. Wang, W. Li, M. Ghufran, Y. W. Zhang, Z. Yu, G. Zhang, Q. Qin, and Y. Lu, “Extraordinary photoluminescence and strong temperature/angle-dependent Raman responses in few-layer phosphorene,” ACS Nano 8, 9590–9596 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

Y. Xu, Z. Wang, Z. Guo, H. Huang, Q. Xiao, H. Zhang, and X.-F. Yu, “Solvothermal synthesis and ultrafast photonics of black phosphorus quantum dots,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 1223–1229 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

X. Zhang, H. Xie, Z. Liu, C. Tan, Z. Luo, H. Li, J. Lin, L. Sun, W. Chen, Z. Xu, L. Xie, W. Huang, and H. Zhang, “Black phosphorus quantum dots,” Angew. Chem. 54, 3653–3657 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xue, Y.

H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

S. Zhang, J. Yang, R. Xu, F. Wang, W. Li, M. Ghufran, Y. W. Zhang, Z. Yu, G. Zhang, Q. Qin, and Y. Lu, “Extraordinary photoluminescence and strong temperature/angle-dependent Raman responses in few-layer phosphorene,” ACS Nano 8, 9590–9596 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yap, C. C. R.

H. Li, Q. Zhang, C. C. R. Yap, B. K. Tay, T. H. T. Edwin, A. Olivier, and D. Baillargeat, “From bulk to monolayer MoS2: evolution of Raman scattering,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 1385–1390 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ye, C.

Ye, G.

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and thickness dependent absorption properties of black phosphorus: new saturable absorber for ultrafast pulse generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yin, Y.

G. Gao, W. Gao, E. Cannuccia, J. Taha-Tijerina, L. Balicas, A. Mathkar, T. N. Narayanan, Z. Liu, B. K. Gupta, J. Peng, Y. Yin, A. Rubio, and P. M. Ajayan, “Artificially stacked atomic layers: toward new van der Waals solids,” Nano Lett. 12, 3518–3525 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yiran, W.

Z. Ruwei, L. Jing, Z. Baitao, L. Xiaowen, S. Xiancui, W. Yiran, L. Fei, Z. Haikun, and H. Jingliang, “Triwavelength synchronously mode-locked fiber laser based on few-layered black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Express 9, 092701 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yu, X.

Yu, X. F.

Z. Sun, H. Xie, S. Tang, X. F. Yu, Z. Guo, J. Shao, H. Zhang, H. Huang, H. Wang, and P. K. Chu, “Ultrasmall black phosphorus quantum dots: synthesis and use as photothermal agents,” Angew. Chem. 54, 11526–11530 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, X.-F.

Y. Xu, Z. Wang, Z. Guo, H. Huang, Q. Xiao, H. Zhang, and X.-F. Yu, “Solvothermal synthesis and ultrafast photonics of black phosphorus quantum dots,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 1223–1229 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, Z.

S. Zhang, J. Yang, R. Xu, F. Wang, W. Li, M. Ghufran, Y. W. Zhang, Z. Yu, G. Zhang, Q. Qin, and Y. Lu, “Extraordinary photoluminescence and strong temperature/angle-dependent Raman responses in few-layer phosphorene,” ACS Nano 8, 9590–9596 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yuan, J.

H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zahn, D. R. T.

Zayhowski, J. J.

J. J. Zayhowski and P. L. Kelley, “Optimization of Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2220–2225 (1991).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G.

S. Zhang, J. Yang, R. Xu, F. Wang, W. Li, M. Ghufran, Y. W. Zhang, Z. Yu, G. Zhang, Q. Qin, and Y. Lu, “Extraordinary photoluminescence and strong temperature/angle-dependent Raman responses in few-layer phosphorene,” ACS Nano 8, 9590–9596 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

Y. Xu, Z. Wang, Z. Guo, H. Huang, Q. Xiao, H. Zhang, and X.-F. Yu, “Solvothermal synthesis and ultrafast photonics of black phosphorus quantum dots,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 1223–1229 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, H. Mu, C. Zhao, Q. Bao, and H. Zhang, “Harmonic mode-locking and wavelength-tunable Q-switching operation in the graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure saturable absorber-based fiber laser,” Opt. Eng. 55, 081314 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, H. Xie, S. Tang, X. F. Yu, Z. Guo, J. Shao, H. Zhang, H. Huang, H. Wang, and P. K. Chu, “Ultrasmall black phosphorus quantum dots: synthesis and use as photothermal agents,” Angew. Chem. 54, 11526–11530 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, H. Xie, Z. Liu, C. Tan, Z. Luo, H. Li, J. Lin, L. Sun, W. Chen, Z. Xu, L. Xie, W. Huang, and H. Zhang, “Black phosphorus quantum dots,” Angew. Chem. 54, 3653–3657 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

H. Li, Q. Zhang, C. C. R. Yap, B. K. Tay, T. H. T. Edwin, A. Olivier, and D. Baillargeat, “From bulk to monolayer MoS2: evolution of Raman scattering,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 1385–1390 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, J. Yang, R. Xu, F. Wang, W. Li, M. Ghufran, Y. W. Zhang, Z. Yu, G. Zhang, Q. Qin, and Y. Lu, “Extraordinary photoluminescence and strong temperature/angle-dependent Raman responses in few-layer phosphorene,” ACS Nano 8, 9590–9596 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Lv, H. Li, H. Xia, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, and Y. Chen, “Passively Q-switched linear-cavity erbium-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber,” in Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks (ICOCN) (IEEE, 2013), pp. 1–3.

Zhang, W.

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Y. W.

S. Zhang, J. Yang, R. Xu, F. Wang, W. Li, M. Ghufran, Y. W. Zhang, Z. Yu, G. Zhang, Q. Qin, and Y. Lu, “Extraordinary photoluminescence and strong temperature/angle-dependent Raman responses in few-layer phosphorene,” ACS Nano 8, 9590–9596 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C.

Z. Wang, H. Mu, C. Zhao, Q. Bao, and H. Zhang, “Harmonic mode-locking and wavelength-tunable Q-switching operation in the graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure saturable absorber-based fiber laser,” Opt. Eng. 55, 081314 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, D.-P.

Zhou, M.

Zong, J.

Zulkifli, A. Z.

H. Ahmad, M. Z. Zulkifli, F. D. Muhammad, A. Z. Zulkifli, and S. W. Harun, “Tunable graphene-based Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser using fiber Bragg grating,” J. Mod. Opt. 60, 202–212 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zulkifli, M. Z.

H. Ahmad, M. Z. Zulkifli, F. D. Muhammad, A. Z. Zulkifli, and S. W. Harun, “Tunable graphene-based Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser using fiber Bragg grating,” J. Mod. Opt. 60, 202–212 (2013).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

S. Zhang, J. Yang, R. Xu, F. Wang, W. Li, M. Ghufran, Y. W. Zhang, Z. Yu, G. Zhang, Q. Qin, and Y. Lu, “Extraordinary photoluminescence and strong temperature/angle-dependent Raman responses in few-layer phosphorene,” ACS Nano 8, 9590–9596 (2014).
[Crossref]

ACS Photon. (1)

H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

H. Li, Q. Zhang, C. C. R. Yap, B. K. Tay, T. H. T. Edwin, A. Olivier, and D. Baillargeat, “From bulk to monolayer MoS2: evolution of Raman scattering,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 1385–1390 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X.-F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

Y. Xu, Z. Wang, Z. Guo, H. Huang, Q. Xiao, H. Zhang, and X.-F. Yu, “Solvothermal synthesis and ultrafast photonics of black phosphorus quantum dots,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 1223–1229 (2016).
[Crossref]

Angew. Chem. (2)

Z. Sun, H. Xie, S. Tang, X. F. Yu, Z. Guo, J. Shao, H. Zhang, H. Huang, H. Wang, and P. K. Chu, “Ultrasmall black phosphorus quantum dots: synthesis and use as photothermal agents,” Angew. Chem. 54, 11526–11530 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, H. Xie, Z. Liu, C. Tan, Z. Luo, H. Li, J. Lin, L. Sun, W. Chen, Z. Xu, L. Xie, W. Huang, and H. Zhang, “Black phosphorus quantum dots,” Angew. Chem. 54, 3653–3657 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

Z. Ruwei, L. Jing, Z. Baitao, L. Xiaowen, S. Xiancui, W. Yiran, L. Fei, Z. Haikun, and H. Jingliang, “Triwavelength synchronously mode-locked fiber laser based on few-layered black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Express 9, 092701 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. J. Zayhowski and P. L. Kelley, “Optimization of Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2220–2225 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

H. Ahmad, M. Z. Zulkifli, F. D. Muhammad, A. Z. Zulkifli, and S. W. Harun, “Tunable graphene-based Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser using fiber Bragg grating,” J. Mod. Opt. 60, 202–212 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Korea (1)

Nano Lett. (1)

G. Gao, W. Gao, E. Cannuccia, J. Taha-Tijerina, L. Balicas, A. Mathkar, T. N. Narayanan, Z. Liu, B. K. Gupta, J. Peng, Y. Yin, A. Rubio, and P. M. Ajayan, “Artificially stacked atomic layers: toward new van der Waals solids,” Nano Lett. 12, 3518–3525 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (2)

A. Favron, E. Gaufres, F. Fossard, A. L. Phaneuf-L’Heureux, N. Y. Tang, P. L. Levesque, A. Loiseau, R. Leonelli, S. Francoeur, and R. Martel, “Photooxidation and quantum confinement effects in exfoliated black phosphorus,” Nat. Mater. 14, 826–832 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6, 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

L. Jiao, X. Wang, G. Diankov, H. Wang, and H. Dai, “Facile synthesis of high-quality graphene nanoribbons,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 321–325 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nature (3)

V. S. Letokhov, “Laser biology and medicine,” Nature 316, 325–330 (1985).
[Crossref]

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature 452, 970–974 (2008).
[Crossref]

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424, 831–838 (2003).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

Z. Wang, H. Mu, C. Zhao, Q. Bao, and H. Zhang, “Harmonic mode-locking and wavelength-tunable Q-switching operation in the graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure saturable absorber-based fiber laser,” Opt. Eng. 55, 081314 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Sci. Rep. (1)

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and thickness dependent absorption properties of black phosphorus: new saturable absorber for ultrafast pulse generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

D. Lv, H. Li, H. Xia, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, and Y. Chen, “Passively Q-switched linear-cavity erbium-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber,” in Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks (ICOCN) (IEEE, 2013), pp. 1–3.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Characterization of GR-BP SA. (a) SEM image. (b)–(d) EDS images of BP-GR on Si substrate. (e) HRTEM. (f) The SAED pattern from the rectangular region in (e). (g) AFM pattern. (h) The corresponding heights of the GR-BP sheets. (i) TEM image of the GR-BP sheets. (j) SAED pattern from the rectangular region in (i). (k) Absorption spectrum. (l) Raman spectra of GR/BP exposed in the air for 0 day. (m) Raman spectrum of BP in GR/BP in the air for 0 and 1 day. (n) Raman spectrum of pure BP exposed in the air for 0 and 1 day.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Nonlinear optical response of the as-prepared GR-BP SAs. (a) Nonlinear transmission curve of GR-BP solution concentration A. (b) Nonlinear transmission curve of GR-BP solution concentration B.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Configuration of the pulsed laser or ultrashort pulsed laser based on GR-BP.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Characteristics of the Q-switched pulses. (a) Q-switching output spectrum. (b) Single pulse profile. (c) Output pulse train. (d) RF spectrum. (e) Output power and pulse energy as a function of the pump power, respectively. (f) Output repetition rate and pulse duration as a function of the pump power, respectively.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Typical mode-locking characteristics. (a) Pulse train. (b) Optical spectrum. (c) Autocorrelation trace. (d) RF spectrum.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Typical mode-locking characteristics. (a) Pulse train. (b) Optical spectrum. (c) Autocorrelation trace. (d) RF spectrum.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Typical HML characteristics. (a) 21st of harmonics pulse train. (b) 28th of harmonics pulse train. (c) 40th of harmonics pulse train (d) Optical spectrum. (e) Autocorrelation trace. (f) RF spectrum.

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