Abstract

We studied experimentally a left-right circularly polarized light feedback scheme. A vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and partial retroreflector formed an extended cavity, allowing ∼4% of the laser to enter the VCSEL. Such design helped to improve the microwave modulation efficiency. Comparing to the conventional circularly polarized light scheme, the resonance amplitude of this method was doubled while the noise was reduced five times because of the usage of the left-right circularly polarized light, which continuously interacted with atoms. The short-term instability was improved by one order of magnitude. This scheme can be applied to small or chip-scale atomic clocks.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  1. G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriols, “Exprimental-method for observation of RF transitions and laser beat resonance in oriented Na vapor,” Nuov. Cim. B 36(1), 5–20 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  2. Y. Zhang, Y. Tian, S. Li, J. Chen, and S. Gu, “Faraday-Rotation atomic magnetometer using triple-chromatic laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 12(1), 011004 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. Lin, Y. Tian, B. Tan, and S. Gu, “Differential detection scheme for compact CPT atomic clocks,” Europhys. Lett. 119(2), 23001 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. Vanier, “Atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping: a review,” Appl. Phys. B 81(4), 421–442 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  5. P. D. D. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, “Chip-scale atomic magnetometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(26), 6409–6411 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Kitching, N. Vukicevic, W. Weidemann, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, S. Knappe, C. Affolderbach, and R. Wynands, “A microwave frequency reference based on VCSEL driven dark line resonances in Cs vapor,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49(6), 1313–1317 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the Unique Possibility of Significantly Increasing the Contrast of Dark Resonances on the D1 Line of 87Rb,” JETP Lett. 82(7), 398–403 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. A. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, A. S. Zibrov, V. L. Velichansky, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “”Three-photon-absorption resonance for all-optical atomic clocks,” Phys. Rev. A 81(1), 013833 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  9. T. Zanon, S. Guerandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “High contrast ramsey fringes with coherent- population-trapping pulses in a double lambda atomic system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(19), 193002 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  10. F.-X. Esnault, E. Blanshan, E. N. Ivanov, R. E. Scholten, J. Kitching, and E. A. Donley, “Cold-atom double-Λ coherent population trapping clock,” Phys. Rev. A 88(4), 042120 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  11. X. Chen, Q. Yang G, J. Wang, and S. Zhan M, “Coherent Population Trapping-Ramsey Interference in Cold Atoms,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 27(11), 113201 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  12. K. Wang, Y. Tian, Y. Yin, Y. Wang, and S. Gu, “A polarization converting device for an interfering enhanced CPT atomic clock,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88(11), 113107 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  13. Y. Y. Jau, E. Miron, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, “Push-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(16), 160802 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  14. Y. Y. Jau and W. Happer, “Push-pull laser-atomic oscillator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 223001 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  15. S. V. Kargapoltsev, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenachev, V. L. Velichansky, and V. I. Yudin, “High-contrast dark resonance in σ+ – σ– optical field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1(10), 495–499 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  16. J. D. Elgin, T. P. Heavner, J. Kitching, E. A. Donley, J. Denney, and E. A. Salim, “A cold-atom beam clock based on coherent population trapping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 115(3), 033503 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  17. A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the Unique Possibility of Significantly Increasing the Contrast of Dark Resonances on the D1 Line of 87Rb,” JETP Lett. 82(7), 398–403 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. Rosenbluh, V. Shah, S. Knappe, and J. Kitching, “Differentially detected coherent population trapping resonances excited by orthogonally polarized laser fields,” Opt. Express 14(15), 6588 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  19. V. Shah, S. Knappe, P. D. Schwindt, V. Gerginov, and J. Kitching, “Compact phase delay technique for increasing the amplitude of coherent population trapping resonances in open Λ systems,” Opt. Lett. 31(15), 2335 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  20. V. Shah and M. V. Romalis, “Spin-exchange relaxation-free magnetometry using elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 80(1), 013416 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  21. N. Gavra, V. Ruseva, and M. Rosenbluh, “Enhancement in microwave modulation efficiency of vertical cavity surface-emitting laser by optical feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221113 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  22. Y. Zhang, S. Qu, and S. Gu, “Spin-polarized dark state free CPT state preparation with co-propagating left and right circularly polarized lasers,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6400 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  23. S. Qu and D. Cai, “Interference-enhanced and power-reduced CPT atomic realization approach with an external cavity,” Appl. Opt. 58(21), 5848 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  24. R. Lutwak, “The chip-scale atomic clock - recent developments,” IEEE Inter. Frequency Control Symp., 573 (2009).
  25. S. H. Yim and D. Cho, “Oscillator-free atomic clock using a multimode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211119 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  26. D. Strekalov, A. B. Matsko, N. Yu, D. Aveline, and L. Maleki, “Application of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers in self-oscillating atomic clocks,” J. Mod. Opt. 53(16-17), 2469–2484 (2006).
    [Crossref]

2019 (3)

Y. Zhang, Y. Tian, S. Li, J. Chen, and S. Gu, “Faraday-Rotation atomic magnetometer using triple-chromatic laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 12(1), 011004 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. D. Elgin, T. P. Heavner, J. Kitching, E. A. Donley, J. Denney, and E. A. Salim, “A cold-atom beam clock based on coherent population trapping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 115(3), 033503 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Qu and D. Cai, “Interference-enhanced and power-reduced CPT atomic realization approach with an external cavity,” Appl. Opt. 58(21), 5848 (2019).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

K. Wang, Y. Tian, Y. Yin, Y. Wang, and S. Gu, “A polarization converting device for an interfering enhanced CPT atomic clock,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88(11), 113107 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Lin, Y. Tian, B. Tan, and S. Gu, “Differential detection scheme for compact CPT atomic clocks,” Europhys. Lett. 119(2), 23001 (2017).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

F.-X. Esnault, E. Blanshan, E. N. Ivanov, R. E. Scholten, J. Kitching, and E. A. Donley, “Cold-atom double-Λ coherent population trapping clock,” Phys. Rev. A 88(4), 042120 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2010 (3)

S. H. Yim and D. Cho, “Oscillator-free atomic clock using a multimode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211119 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, Q. Yang G, J. Wang, and S. Zhan M, “Coherent Population Trapping-Ramsey Interference in Cold Atoms,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 27(11), 113201 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. A. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, A. S. Zibrov, V. L. Velichansky, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “”Three-photon-absorption resonance for all-optical atomic clocks,” Phys. Rev. A 81(1), 013833 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

V. Shah and M. V. Romalis, “Spin-exchange relaxation-free magnetometry using elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 80(1), 013416 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

N. Gavra, V. Ruseva, and M. Rosenbluh, “Enhancement in microwave modulation efficiency of vertical cavity surface-emitting laser by optical feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221113 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

Y. Y. Jau and W. Happer, “Push-pull laser-atomic oscillator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 223001 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

2005 (4)

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the Unique Possibility of Significantly Increasing the Contrast of Dark Resonances on the D1 Line of 87Rb,” JETP Lett. 82(7), 398–403 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Zanon, S. Guerandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “High contrast ramsey fringes with coherent- population-trapping pulses in a double lambda atomic system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(19), 193002 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the Unique Possibility of Significantly Increasing the Contrast of Dark Resonances on the D1 Line of 87Rb,” JETP Lett. 82(7), 398–403 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Vanier, “Atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping: a review,” Appl. Phys. B 81(4), 421–442 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

P. D. D. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, “Chip-scale atomic magnetometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(26), 6409–6411 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. V. Kargapoltsev, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenachev, V. L. Velichansky, and V. I. Yudin, “High-contrast dark resonance in σ+ – σ– optical field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1(10), 495–499 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Jau, E. Miron, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, “Push-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(16), 160802 (2004).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. Kitching, N. Vukicevic, W. Weidemann, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, S. Knappe, C. Affolderbach, and R. Wynands, “A microwave frequency reference based on VCSEL driven dark line resonances in Cs vapor,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49(6), 1313–1317 (2000).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriols, “Exprimental-method for observation of RF transitions and laser beat resonance in oriented Na vapor,” Nuov. Cim. B 36(1), 5–20 (1976).
[Crossref]

Affolderbach, C.

J. Kitching, N. Vukicevic, W. Weidemann, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, S. Knappe, C. Affolderbach, and R. Wynands, “A microwave frequency reference based on VCSEL driven dark line resonances in Cs vapor,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49(6), 1313–1317 (2000).
[Crossref]

Alzetta, G.

G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriols, “Exprimental-method for observation of RF transitions and laser beat resonance in oriented Na vapor,” Nuov. Cim. B 36(1), 5–20 (1976).
[Crossref]

Aveline, D.

D. Strekalov, A. B. Matsko, N. Yu, D. Aveline, and L. Maleki, “Application of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers in self-oscillating atomic clocks,” J. Mod. Opt. 53(16-17), 2469–2484 (2006).
[Crossref]

Blanshan, E.

F.-X. Esnault, E. Blanshan, E. N. Ivanov, R. E. Scholten, J. Kitching, and E. A. Donley, “Cold-atom double-Λ coherent population trapping clock,” Phys. Rev. A 88(4), 042120 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cai, D.

Chen, J.

Y. Zhang, Y. Tian, S. Li, J. Chen, and S. Gu, “Faraday-Rotation atomic magnetometer using triple-chromatic laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 12(1), 011004 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, Q. Yang G, J. Wang, and S. Zhan M, “Coherent Population Trapping-Ramsey Interference in Cold Atoms,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 27(11), 113201 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cho, D.

S. H. Yim and D. Cho, “Oscillator-free atomic clock using a multimode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211119 (2010).
[Crossref]

Clairon, A.

T. Zanon, S. Guerandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “High contrast ramsey fringes with coherent- population-trapping pulses in a double lambda atomic system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(19), 193002 (2005).
[Crossref]

de Clercq, E.

T. Zanon, S. Guerandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “High contrast ramsey fringes with coherent- population-trapping pulses in a double lambda atomic system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(19), 193002 (2005).
[Crossref]

Denney, J.

J. D. Elgin, T. P. Heavner, J. Kitching, E. A. Donley, J. Denney, and E. A. Salim, “A cold-atom beam clock based on coherent population trapping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 115(3), 033503 (2019).
[Crossref]

Dimarcq, N.

T. Zanon, S. Guerandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “High contrast ramsey fringes with coherent- population-trapping pulses in a double lambda atomic system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(19), 193002 (2005).
[Crossref]

Donley, E. A.

J. D. Elgin, T. P. Heavner, J. Kitching, E. A. Donley, J. Denney, and E. A. Salim, “A cold-atom beam clock based on coherent population trapping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 115(3), 033503 (2019).
[Crossref]

F.-X. Esnault, E. Blanshan, E. N. Ivanov, R. E. Scholten, J. Kitching, and E. A. Donley, “Cold-atom double-Λ coherent population trapping clock,” Phys. Rev. A 88(4), 042120 (2013).
[Crossref]

Elgin, J. D.

J. D. Elgin, T. P. Heavner, J. Kitching, E. A. Donley, J. Denney, and E. A. Salim, “A cold-atom beam clock based on coherent population trapping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 115(3), 033503 (2019).
[Crossref]

Esnault, F.-X.

F.-X. Esnault, E. Blanshan, E. N. Ivanov, R. E. Scholten, J. Kitching, and E. A. Donley, “Cold-atom double-Λ coherent population trapping clock,” Phys. Rev. A 88(4), 042120 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gavra, N.

N. Gavra, V. Ruseva, and M. Rosenbluh, “Enhancement in microwave modulation efficiency of vertical cavity surface-emitting laser by optical feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221113 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gerginov, V.

Gozzini, A.

G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriols, “Exprimental-method for observation of RF transitions and laser beat resonance in oriented Na vapor,” Nuov. Cim. B 36(1), 5–20 (1976).
[Crossref]

Gu, S.

Y. Zhang, Y. Tian, S. Li, J. Chen, and S. Gu, “Faraday-Rotation atomic magnetometer using triple-chromatic laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 12(1), 011004 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Lin, Y. Tian, B. Tan, and S. Gu, “Differential detection scheme for compact CPT atomic clocks,” Europhys. Lett. 119(2), 23001 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, Y. Tian, Y. Yin, Y. Wang, and S. Gu, “A polarization converting device for an interfering enhanced CPT atomic clock,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88(11), 113107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, S. Qu, and S. Gu, “Spin-polarized dark state free CPT state preparation with co-propagating left and right circularly polarized lasers,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6400 (2012).
[Crossref]

Guerandel, S.

T. Zanon, S. Guerandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “High contrast ramsey fringes with coherent- population-trapping pulses in a double lambda atomic system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(19), 193002 (2005).
[Crossref]

Happer, W.

Y. Y. Jau and W. Happer, “Push-pull laser-atomic oscillator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 223001 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Jau, E. Miron, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, “Push-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(16), 160802 (2004).
[Crossref]

Heavner, T. P.

J. D. Elgin, T. P. Heavner, J. Kitching, E. A. Donley, J. Denney, and E. A. Salim, “A cold-atom beam clock based on coherent population trapping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 115(3), 033503 (2019).
[Crossref]

Hollberg, L.

S. V. Kargapoltsev, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenachev, V. L. Velichansky, and V. I. Yudin, “High-contrast dark resonance in σ+ – σ– optical field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1(10), 495–499 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. D. D. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, “Chip-scale atomic magnetometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(26), 6409–6411 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Kitching, N. Vukicevic, W. Weidemann, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, S. Knappe, C. Affolderbach, and R. Wynands, “A microwave frequency reference based on VCSEL driven dark line resonances in Cs vapor,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49(6), 1313–1317 (2000).
[Crossref]

Holleville, D.

T. Zanon, S. Guerandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “High contrast ramsey fringes with coherent- population-trapping pulses in a double lambda atomic system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(19), 193002 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ivanov, E. N.

F.-X. Esnault, E. Blanshan, E. N. Ivanov, R. E. Scholten, J. Kitching, and E. A. Donley, “Cold-atom double-Λ coherent population trapping clock,” Phys. Rev. A 88(4), 042120 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jau, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Jau and W. Happer, “Push-pull laser-atomic oscillator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 223001 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Jau, E. Miron, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, “Push-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(16), 160802 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kargapoltsev, S. V.

S. V. Kargapoltsev, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenachev, V. L. Velichansky, and V. I. Yudin, “High-contrast dark resonance in σ+ – σ– optical field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1(10), 495–499 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kitching, J.

J. D. Elgin, T. P. Heavner, J. Kitching, E. A. Donley, J. Denney, and E. A. Salim, “A cold-atom beam clock based on coherent population trapping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 115(3), 033503 (2019).
[Crossref]

F.-X. Esnault, E. Blanshan, E. N. Ivanov, R. E. Scholten, J. Kitching, and E. A. Donley, “Cold-atom double-Λ coherent population trapping clock,” Phys. Rev. A 88(4), 042120 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. Shah, S. Knappe, P. D. Schwindt, V. Gerginov, and J. Kitching, “Compact phase delay technique for increasing the amplitude of coherent population trapping resonances in open Λ systems,” Opt. Lett. 31(15), 2335 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Rosenbluh, V. Shah, S. Knappe, and J. Kitching, “Differentially detected coherent population trapping resonances excited by orthogonally polarized laser fields,” Opt. Express 14(15), 6588 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. V. Kargapoltsev, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenachev, V. L. Velichansky, and V. I. Yudin, “High-contrast dark resonance in σ+ – σ– optical field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1(10), 495–499 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. D. D. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, “Chip-scale atomic magnetometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(26), 6409–6411 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Kitching, N. Vukicevic, W. Weidemann, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, S. Knappe, C. Affolderbach, and R. Wynands, “A microwave frequency reference based on VCSEL driven dark line resonances in Cs vapor,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49(6), 1313–1317 (2000).
[Crossref]

Knappe, S.

V. Shah, S. Knappe, P. D. Schwindt, V. Gerginov, and J. Kitching, “Compact phase delay technique for increasing the amplitude of coherent population trapping resonances in open Λ systems,” Opt. Lett. 31(15), 2335 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Rosenbluh, V. Shah, S. Knappe, and J. Kitching, “Differentially detected coherent population trapping resonances excited by orthogonally polarized laser fields,” Opt. Express 14(15), 6588 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. D. D. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, “Chip-scale atomic magnetometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(26), 6409–6411 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Kitching, N. Vukicevic, W. Weidemann, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, S. Knappe, C. Affolderbach, and R. Wynands, “A microwave frequency reference based on VCSEL driven dark line resonances in Cs vapor,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49(6), 1313–1317 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kuzma, N. N.

Y. Y. Jau, E. Miron, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, “Push-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(16), 160802 (2004).
[Crossref]

Li, S.

Y. Zhang, Y. Tian, S. Li, J. Chen, and S. Gu, “Faraday-Rotation atomic magnetometer using triple-chromatic laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 12(1), 011004 (2019).
[Crossref]

Liew, L. A.

P. D. D. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, “Chip-scale atomic magnetometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(26), 6409–6411 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lin, H.

H. Lin, Y. Tian, B. Tan, and S. Gu, “Differential detection scheme for compact CPT atomic clocks,” Europhys. Lett. 119(2), 23001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lutwak, R.

R. Lutwak, “The chip-scale atomic clock - recent developments,” IEEE Inter. Frequency Control Symp., 573 (2009).

Maleki, L.

D. Strekalov, A. B. Matsko, N. Yu, D. Aveline, and L. Maleki, “Application of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers in self-oscillating atomic clocks,” J. Mod. Opt. 53(16-17), 2469–2484 (2006).
[Crossref]

Matsko, A. B.

D. Strekalov, A. B. Matsko, N. Yu, D. Aveline, and L. Maleki, “Application of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers in self-oscillating atomic clocks,” J. Mod. Opt. 53(16-17), 2469–2484 (2006).
[Crossref]

Miron, E.

Y. Y. Jau, E. Miron, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, “Push-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(16), 160802 (2004).
[Crossref]

Moi, L.

G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriols, “Exprimental-method for observation of RF transitions and laser beat resonance in oriented Na vapor,” Nuov. Cim. B 36(1), 5–20 (1976).
[Crossref]

Moreland, J.

P. D. D. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, “Chip-scale atomic magnetometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(26), 6409–6411 (2004).
[Crossref]

Novikova, I.

S. A. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, A. S. Zibrov, V. L. Velichansky, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “”Three-photon-absorption resonance for all-optical atomic clocks,” Phys. Rev. A 81(1), 013833 (2010).
[Crossref]

Orriols, G.

G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriols, “Exprimental-method for observation of RF transitions and laser beat resonance in oriented Na vapor,” Nuov. Cim. B 36(1), 5–20 (1976).
[Crossref]

Phillips, D. F.

S. A. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, A. S. Zibrov, V. L. Velichansky, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “”Three-photon-absorption resonance for all-optical atomic clocks,” Phys. Rev. A 81(1), 013833 (2010).
[Crossref]

Post, A. B.

Y. Y. Jau, E. Miron, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, “Push-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(16), 160802 (2004).
[Crossref]

Qu, S.

Romalis, M. V.

V. Shah and M. V. Romalis, “Spin-exchange relaxation-free magnetometry using elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 80(1), 013416 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rosenbluh, M.

N. Gavra, V. Ruseva, and M. Rosenbluh, “Enhancement in microwave modulation efficiency of vertical cavity surface-emitting laser by optical feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221113 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Rosenbluh, V. Shah, S. Knappe, and J. Kitching, “Differentially detected coherent population trapping resonances excited by orthogonally polarized laser fields,” Opt. Express 14(15), 6588 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ruseva, V.

N. Gavra, V. Ruseva, and M. Rosenbluh, “Enhancement in microwave modulation efficiency of vertical cavity surface-emitting laser by optical feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221113 (2008).
[Crossref]

Salim, E. A.

J. D. Elgin, T. P. Heavner, J. Kitching, E. A. Donley, J. Denney, and E. A. Salim, “A cold-atom beam clock based on coherent population trapping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 115(3), 033503 (2019).
[Crossref]

Scholten, R. E.

F.-X. Esnault, E. Blanshan, E. N. Ivanov, R. E. Scholten, J. Kitching, and E. A. Donley, “Cold-atom double-Λ coherent population trapping clock,” Phys. Rev. A 88(4), 042120 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schwindt, P. D.

Schwindt, P. D. D.

P. D. D. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, “Chip-scale atomic magnetometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(26), 6409–6411 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shah, V.

V. Shah and M. V. Romalis, “Spin-exchange relaxation-free magnetometry using elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 80(1), 013416 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Rosenbluh, V. Shah, S. Knappe, and J. Kitching, “Differentially detected coherent population trapping resonances excited by orthogonally polarized laser fields,” Opt. Express 14(15), 6588 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. Shah, S. Knappe, P. D. Schwindt, V. Gerginov, and J. Kitching, “Compact phase delay technique for increasing the amplitude of coherent population trapping resonances in open Λ systems,” Opt. Lett. 31(15), 2335 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. D. D. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, “Chip-scale atomic magnetometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(26), 6409–6411 (2004).
[Crossref]

Strekalov, D.

D. Strekalov, A. B. Matsko, N. Yu, D. Aveline, and L. Maleki, “Application of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers in self-oscillating atomic clocks,” J. Mod. Opt. 53(16-17), 2469–2484 (2006).
[Crossref]

Taichenachev, A. V.

S. A. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, A. S. Zibrov, V. L. Velichansky, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “”Three-photon-absorption resonance for all-optical atomic clocks,” Phys. Rev. A 81(1), 013833 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the Unique Possibility of Significantly Increasing the Contrast of Dark Resonances on the D1 Line of 87Rb,” JETP Lett. 82(7), 398–403 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the Unique Possibility of Significantly Increasing the Contrast of Dark Resonances on the D1 Line of 87Rb,” JETP Lett. 82(7), 398–403 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. V. Kargapoltsev, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenachev, V. L. Velichansky, and V. I. Yudin, “High-contrast dark resonance in σ+ – σ– optical field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1(10), 495–499 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tan, B.

H. Lin, Y. Tian, B. Tan, and S. Gu, “Differential detection scheme for compact CPT atomic clocks,” Europhys. Lett. 119(2), 23001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tian, Y.

Y. Zhang, Y. Tian, S. Li, J. Chen, and S. Gu, “Faraday-Rotation atomic magnetometer using triple-chromatic laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 12(1), 011004 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Lin, Y. Tian, B. Tan, and S. Gu, “Differential detection scheme for compact CPT atomic clocks,” Europhys. Lett. 119(2), 23001 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, Y. Tian, Y. Yin, Y. Wang, and S. Gu, “A polarization converting device for an interfering enhanced CPT atomic clock,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88(11), 113107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Vanier, J.

J. Vanier, “Atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping: a review,” Appl. Phys. B 81(4), 421–442 (2005).
[Crossref]

Velichansky, V. L.

S. A. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, A. S. Zibrov, V. L. Velichansky, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “”Three-photon-absorption resonance for all-optical atomic clocks,” Phys. Rev. A 81(1), 013833 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the Unique Possibility of Significantly Increasing the Contrast of Dark Resonances on the D1 Line of 87Rb,” JETP Lett. 82(7), 398–403 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the Unique Possibility of Significantly Increasing the Contrast of Dark Resonances on the D1 Line of 87Rb,” JETP Lett. 82(7), 398–403 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. V. Kargapoltsev, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenachev, V. L. Velichansky, and V. I. Yudin, “High-contrast dark resonance in σ+ – σ– optical field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1(10), 495–499 (2004).
[Crossref]

Vukicevic, N.

J. Kitching, N. Vukicevic, W. Weidemann, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, S. Knappe, C. Affolderbach, and R. Wynands, “A microwave frequency reference based on VCSEL driven dark line resonances in Cs vapor,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49(6), 1313–1317 (2000).
[Crossref]

Walsworth, R. L.

S. A. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, A. S. Zibrov, V. L. Velichansky, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “”Three-photon-absorption resonance for all-optical atomic clocks,” Phys. Rev. A 81(1), 013833 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

X. Chen, Q. Yang G, J. Wang, and S. Zhan M, “Coherent Population Trapping-Ramsey Interference in Cold Atoms,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 27(11), 113201 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, K.

K. Wang, Y. Tian, Y. Yin, Y. Wang, and S. Gu, “A polarization converting device for an interfering enhanced CPT atomic clock,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88(11), 113107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

K. Wang, Y. Tian, Y. Yin, Y. Wang, and S. Gu, “A polarization converting device for an interfering enhanced CPT atomic clock,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88(11), 113107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Weidemann, W.

J. Kitching, N. Vukicevic, W. Weidemann, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, S. Knappe, C. Affolderbach, and R. Wynands, “A microwave frequency reference based on VCSEL driven dark line resonances in Cs vapor,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49(6), 1313–1317 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wynands, R.

J. Kitching, N. Vukicevic, W. Weidemann, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, S. Knappe, C. Affolderbach, and R. Wynands, “A microwave frequency reference based on VCSEL driven dark line resonances in Cs vapor,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49(6), 1313–1317 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yang G, Q.

X. Chen, Q. Yang G, J. Wang, and S. Zhan M, “Coherent Population Trapping-Ramsey Interference in Cold Atoms,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 27(11), 113201 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yim, S. H.

S. H. Yim and D. Cho, “Oscillator-free atomic clock using a multimode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211119 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yin, Y.

K. Wang, Y. Tian, Y. Yin, Y. Wang, and S. Gu, “A polarization converting device for an interfering enhanced CPT atomic clock,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88(11), 113107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yu, N.

D. Strekalov, A. B. Matsko, N. Yu, D. Aveline, and L. Maleki, “Application of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers in self-oscillating atomic clocks,” J. Mod. Opt. 53(16-17), 2469–2484 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yudin, V. I.

S. A. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, A. S. Zibrov, V. L. Velichansky, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “”Three-photon-absorption resonance for all-optical atomic clocks,” Phys. Rev. A 81(1), 013833 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the Unique Possibility of Significantly Increasing the Contrast of Dark Resonances on the D1 Line of 87Rb,” JETP Lett. 82(7), 398–403 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the Unique Possibility of Significantly Increasing the Contrast of Dark Resonances on the D1 Line of 87Rb,” JETP Lett. 82(7), 398–403 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. V. Kargapoltsev, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenachev, V. L. Velichansky, and V. I. Yudin, “High-contrast dark resonance in σ+ – σ– optical field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1(10), 495–499 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zanon, T.

T. Zanon, S. Guerandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “High contrast ramsey fringes with coherent- population-trapping pulses in a double lambda atomic system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(19), 193002 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhan M, S.

X. Chen, Q. Yang G, J. Wang, and S. Zhan M, “Coherent Population Trapping-Ramsey Interference in Cold Atoms,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 27(11), 113201 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, Y. Tian, S. Li, J. Chen, and S. Gu, “Faraday-Rotation atomic magnetometer using triple-chromatic laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 12(1), 011004 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, S. Qu, and S. Gu, “Spin-polarized dark state free CPT state preparation with co-propagating left and right circularly polarized lasers,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6400 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zibrov, A. S.

S. A. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, A. S. Zibrov, V. L. Velichansky, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “”Three-photon-absorption resonance for all-optical atomic clocks,” Phys. Rev. A 81(1), 013833 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Kitching, N. Vukicevic, W. Weidemann, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, S. Knappe, C. Affolderbach, and R. Wynands, “A microwave frequency reference based on VCSEL driven dark line resonances in Cs vapor,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49(6), 1313–1317 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zibrov, S. A.

S. A. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, A. S. Zibrov, V. L. Velichansky, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “”Three-photon-absorption resonance for all-optical atomic clocks,” Phys. Rev. A 81(1), 013833 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the Unique Possibility of Significantly Increasing the Contrast of Dark Resonances on the D1 Line of 87Rb,” JETP Lett. 82(7), 398–403 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the Unique Possibility of Significantly Increasing the Contrast of Dark Resonances on the D1 Line of 87Rb,” JETP Lett. 82(7), 398–403 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. Vanier, “Atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping: a review,” Appl. Phys. B 81(4), 421–442 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

P. D. D. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, “Chip-scale atomic magnetometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(26), 6409–6411 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. D. Elgin, T. P. Heavner, J. Kitching, E. A. Donley, J. Denney, and E. A. Salim, “A cold-atom beam clock based on coherent population trapping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 115(3), 033503 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Gavra, V. Ruseva, and M. Rosenbluh, “Enhancement in microwave modulation efficiency of vertical cavity surface-emitting laser by optical feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221113 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. H. Yim and D. Cho, “Oscillator-free atomic clock using a multimode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211119 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

X. Chen, Q. Yang G, J. Wang, and S. Zhan M, “Coherent Population Trapping-Ramsey Interference in Cold Atoms,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 27(11), 113201 (2010).
[Crossref]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

H. Lin, Y. Tian, B. Tan, and S. Gu, “Differential detection scheme for compact CPT atomic clocks,” Europhys. Lett. 119(2), 23001 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

J. Kitching, N. Vukicevic, W. Weidemann, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, S. Knappe, C. Affolderbach, and R. Wynands, “A microwave frequency reference based on VCSEL driven dark line resonances in Cs vapor,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49(6), 1313–1317 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

D. Strekalov, A. B. Matsko, N. Yu, D. Aveline, and L. Maleki, “Application of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers in self-oscillating atomic clocks,” J. Mod. Opt. 53(16-17), 2469–2484 (2006).
[Crossref]

JETP Lett. (2)

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the Unique Possibility of Significantly Increasing the Contrast of Dark Resonances on the D1 Line of 87Rb,” JETP Lett. 82(7), 398–403 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the Unique Possibility of Significantly Increasing the Contrast of Dark Resonances on the D1 Line of 87Rb,” JETP Lett. 82(7), 398–403 (2005).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

S. V. Kargapoltsev, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenachev, V. L. Velichansky, and V. I. Yudin, “High-contrast dark resonance in σ+ – σ– optical field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1(10), 495–499 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nuov. Cim. B (1)

G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriols, “Exprimental-method for observation of RF transitions and laser beat resonance in oriented Na vapor,” Nuov. Cim. B 36(1), 5–20 (1976).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

V. Shah and M. V. Romalis, “Spin-exchange relaxation-free magnetometry using elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 80(1), 013416 (2009).
[Crossref]

F.-X. Esnault, E. Blanshan, E. N. Ivanov, R. E. Scholten, J. Kitching, and E. A. Donley, “Cold-atom double-Λ coherent population trapping clock,” Phys. Rev. A 88(4), 042120 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. A. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, A. S. Zibrov, V. L. Velichansky, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “”Three-photon-absorption resonance for all-optical atomic clocks,” Phys. Rev. A 81(1), 013833 (2010).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Appl. (1)

Y. Zhang, Y. Tian, S. Li, J. Chen, and S. Gu, “Faraday-Rotation atomic magnetometer using triple-chromatic laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 12(1), 011004 (2019).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

T. Zanon, S. Guerandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “High contrast ramsey fringes with coherent- population-trapping pulses in a double lambda atomic system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(19), 193002 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Jau, E. Miron, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, “Push-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(16), 160802 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Jau and W. Happer, “Push-pull laser-atomic oscillator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 223001 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

K. Wang, Y. Tian, Y. Yin, Y. Wang, and S. Gu, “A polarization converting device for an interfering enhanced CPT atomic clock,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88(11), 113107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

R. Lutwak, “The chip-scale atomic clock - recent developments,” IEEE Inter. Frequency Control Symp., 573 (2009).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Laser and optical feedback configuration. L - lens, A - adjustable attenuation plate, P - polarizer, λ/4 - a quarter-wave plate, PR - partial retroreflector, PD - photodetector, DC - direct current. (b) Energy level diagram of the D1 line in 87Rb showing the σ+-σ- transition used for CPT analysis.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. The microwave spectrum measured by the fast photodetector with the 30 dB amplification. Spectrum analyzer: resolution/video bandwidth is equal to 1 Hz and span is equal to 100 Hz. The solid and dotted lines show VCSEL with and without an extended cavity.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. The response curve of the CPT resonance amplitude to the microwave power of the two schemes at light intensity of 2.4 mW/cm2. The black squares represent the left-right scheme, and the red circle represents the conventional circular polarization scheme.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The CPT resonance signals excited by the conventional scheme (top image) and the left-right scheme (bottom image) at the 2.4 mW/cm2 light intensity. The application of the left-right scheme (bottom curve) resulted in 11.8 mV resonance amplitude and 1.16 kHz line width. Implementation of the conventional scheme (top curve) yielded 4.8 mV resonance amplitude and 1.26 kHz line width.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. The noise spectra of the two schemes. The parameters are consistent with those shown in Fig. 4.

Equations (1)

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σ ( τ ) = K Δ ν 1 / 1 2 2 ν h f s 1 S N R τ 1 / 1 2 2 ,

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