Abstract

Metasurfaces offer a promising means for realizing compact high-performance optical devices. This study numerically and analytically investigated reflection control using a metal–dielectric–metal (MDM) metasurface. Its reflection wavelength and angle were determined using the thickness and refractive index of the dielectric layer owing to a phase change induced by the hybridized resonance mode formed therein. MDM metasurfaces with offset micropatches comprise a continuous metal layer with periodic dielectric and micropatch layers having different widths. These layers are offset to one side with respect to one another. These offset micropatches realized better control over the reflection direction and wavelength.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (4)

2018 (6)

G. Quaranta, G. Basset, O. J. F. Martin, and B. Gallinet, “Recent Advances in Resonant Waveguide Gratings,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(9), 1800017 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Ra’di and A. Alù, “Reconfigurable Metagratings,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1779–1785 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Fan, J. Zhang, X. Liu, G.-F. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “Phototunable Dielectric Huygens’ Metasurfaces,” Adv. Mater. 30(22), 1800278 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. M. H. Wong and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Perfect Anomalous Reflection with a Bipartite Huygens’ Metasurface,” Phys. Rev. X 8(1), 011036 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Kafaie Shirmanesh, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, and H. A. Atwater, “Dual-Gated Active Metasurface at 1550 nm with Wide (>300°) Phase Tunability,” Nano Lett. 18(5), 2957–2963 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Ogawa and M. Kimata, “Metal-Insulator-Metal-Based Plasmonic Metamaterial Absorbers at Visible and Infrared Wavelengths: A Review,” Materials 11(3), 458 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (6)

S. Ogawa and M. Kimata, “Wavelength- or Polarization-Selective Thermal Infrared Detectors for Multi-Color or Polarimetric Imaging Using Plasmonics and Metamaterials,” Materials 10(5), 493 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Ra’di, D. L. Sounas, and A. Alù, “Metagratings: Beyond the Limits of Graded Metasurfaces for Wave Front Control,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(6), 067404 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Zhu, X. Yin, L. Chen, and X. Li, “Directional beaming of light from a subwavelength metal slit with phase-gradient metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12098 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental Demonstration of >230° Phase Modulation in Gate-Tunable Graphene–Gold Reconfigurable Mid-Infrared Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

V. S. Asadchy, A. Wickberg, A. Díaz-Rubio, and M. Wegener, “Eliminating Scattering Loss in Anomalously Reflecting Optical Metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 4(5), 1264–1270 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

X. Su, Z. Wei, C. Wu, Y. Long, and H. Li, “Negative reflection from metal/graphene plasmonic gratings,” Opt. Lett. 41(2), 348–351 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Kruk, B. Hopkins, I. I. Kravchenko, A. Miroshnichenko, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Invited Article: Broadband highly efficient dielectric metadevices for polarization control,” APL Photonics 1(3), 030801 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Miyata, H. Hatada, and J. Takahara, “Full-Color Subwavelength Printing with Gap-Plasmonic Optical Antennas,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 3166–3172 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y.-W. Huang, H. W. H. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-Tunable Conducting Oxide Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, E. Palacios, S. Butun, and K. Aydin, “Visible-Frequency Metasurfaces for Broadband Anomalous Reflection and High-Efficiency Spectrum Splitting,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1615–1621 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Multiwavelength achromatic metasurfaces by dispersive phase compensation,” Science 347(6228), 1342–1345 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

N. Meinzer, W. L. Barnes, and I. R. Hooper, “Plasmonic meta-atoms and metasurfaces,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 889–898 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (3)

C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP98–OP120 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-Efficiency Broadband Anomalous Reflection by Gradient Meta-Surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light Propagation with Phase Discontinuities: Generalized Laws of Reflection and Refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

1998 (1)

1995 (1)

1980 (1)

Aieta, F.

F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Multiwavelength achromatic metasurfaces by dispersive phase compensation,” Science 347(6228), 1342–1345 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light Propagation with Phase Discontinuities: Generalized Laws of Reflection and Refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Alù, A.

Y. Ra’di and A. Alù, “Reconfigurable Metagratings,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1779–1785 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Ra’di, D. L. Sounas, and A. Alù, “Metagratings: Beyond the Limits of Graded Metasurfaces for Wave Front Control,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(6), 067404 (2017).
[Crossref]

Asadchy, V. S.

V. S. Asadchy, A. Wickberg, A. Díaz-Rubio, and M. Wegener, “Eliminating Scattering Loss in Anomalously Reflecting Optical Metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 4(5), 1264–1270 (2017).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

G. Kafaie Shirmanesh, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, and H. A. Atwater, “Dual-Gated Active Metasurface at 1550 nm with Wide (>300°) Phase Tunability,” Nano Lett. 18(5), 2957–2963 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental Demonstration of >230° Phase Modulation in Gate-Tunable Graphene–Gold Reconfigurable Mid-Infrared Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y.-W. Huang, H. W. H. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-Tunable Conducting Oxide Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
[Crossref]

Averitt, R. D.

K. Fan, J. Zhang, X. Liu, G.-F. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “Phototunable Dielectric Huygens’ Metasurfaces,” Adv. Mater. 30(22), 1800278 (2018).
[Crossref]

Aydin, K.

Z. Li, E. Palacios, S. Butun, and K. Aydin, “Visible-Frequency Metasurfaces for Broadband Anomalous Reflection and High-Efficiency Spectrum Splitting,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1615–1621 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baranzadeh, F.

Barnes, W. L.

N. Meinzer, W. L. Barnes, and I. R. Hooper, “Plasmonic meta-atoms and metasurfaces,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 889–898 (2014).
[Crossref]

Basset, G.

G. Quaranta, G. Basset, O. J. F. Martin, and B. Gallinet, “Recent Advances in Resonant Waveguide Gratings,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(9), 1800017 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

Brar, V. W.

M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental Demonstration of >230° Phase Modulation in Gate-Tunable Graphene–Gold Reconfigurable Mid-Infrared Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
[Crossref]

Butun, S.

Z. Li, E. Palacios, S. Butun, and K. Aydin, “Visible-Frequency Metasurfaces for Broadband Anomalous Reflection and High-Efficiency Spectrum Splitting,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1615–1621 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bykov, D. A.

Capasso, F.

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Multiwavelength achromatic metasurfaces by dispersive phase compensation,” Science 347(6228), 1342–1345 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light Propagation with Phase Discontinuities: Generalized Laws of Reflection and Refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

H. Zhu, X. Yin, L. Chen, and X. Li, “Directional beaming of light from a subwavelength metal slit with phase-gradient metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12098 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

V. Molebny, P. McManamon, O. Steinvall, T. Kobayashi, and W. Chen, “Laser radar: historical prospective—from the East to the West,” Opt. Eng. 56(3), 031220 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, W. T.

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-Efficiency Broadband Anomalous Reflection by Gradient Meta-Surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cui, Y.

Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

Devlin, R. C.

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref]

Díaz-Rubio, A.

V. S. Asadchy, A. Wickberg, A. Díaz-Rubio, and M. Wegener, “Eliminating Scattering Loss in Anomalously Reflecting Optical Metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 4(5), 1264–1270 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ding, F.

Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

Djurišic, A. B.

Edwards, D. F.

Elazar, J. M.

Eleftheriades, G. V.

A. M. H. Wong and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Perfect Anomalous Reflection with a Bipartite Huygens’ Metasurface,” Phys. Rev. X 8(1), 011036 (2018).
[Crossref]

Fan, K.

K. Fan, J. Zhang, X. Liu, G.-F. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “Phototunable Dielectric Huygens’ Metasurfaces,” Adv. Mater. 30(22), 1800278 (2018).
[Crossref]

Fountaine, K. T.

M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental Demonstration of >230° Phase Modulation in Gate-Tunable Graphene–Gold Reconfigurable Mid-Infrared Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gaburro, Z.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light Propagation with Phase Discontinuities: Generalized Laws of Reflection and Refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gallinet, B.

G. Quaranta, G. Basset, O. J. F. Martin, and B. Gallinet, “Recent Advances in Resonant Waveguide Gratings,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(9), 1800017 (2018).
[Crossref]

Garcia, J. C.

M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental Demonstration of >230° Phase Modulation in Gate-Tunable Graphene–Gold Reconfigurable Mid-Infrared Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gaylord, T. K.

Genevet, P.

F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Multiwavelength achromatic metasurfaces by dispersive phase compensation,” Science 347(6228), 1342–1345 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light Propagation with Phase Discontinuities: Generalized Laws of Reflection and Refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Grann, E. B.

Guo, G.-Y.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-Efficiency Broadband Anomalous Reflection by Gradient Meta-Surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

Guo, Y.

Ha, Y.

Han, S.

Y.-W. Huang, H. W. H. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-Tunable Conducting Oxide Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hao, J.

S. Sun, Q. He, J. Hao, S. Xiao, and L. Zhou, “Electromagnetic metasurfaces: physics and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 11(2), 380–479 (2019).
[Crossref]

Hatada, H.

M. Miyata, H. Hatada, and J. Takahara, “Full-Color Subwavelength Printing with Gap-Plasmonic Optical Antennas,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 3166–3172 (2016).
[Crossref]

He, Q.

S. Sun, Q. He, J. Hao, S. Xiao, and L. Zhou, “Electromagnetic metasurfaces: physics and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 11(2), 380–479 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
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S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-Efficiency Broadband Anomalous Reflection by Gradient Meta-Surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
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Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
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M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental Demonstration of >230° Phase Modulation in Gate-Tunable Graphene–Gold Reconfigurable Mid-Infrared Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
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N. Meinzer, W. L. Barnes, and I. R. Hooper, “Plasmonic meta-atoms and metasurfaces,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 889–898 (2014).
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Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
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Jonasz, M.

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G. Kafaie Shirmanesh, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, and H. A. Atwater, “Dual-Gated Active Metasurface at 1550 nm with Wide (>300°) Phase Tunability,” Nano Lett. 18(5), 2957–2963 (2018).
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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light Propagation with Phase Discontinuities: Generalized Laws of Reflection and Refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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Kenney, M.

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
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M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
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S. Ogawa and M. Kimata, “Metal-Insulator-Metal-Based Plasmonic Metamaterial Absorbers at Visible and Infrared Wavelengths: A Review,” Materials 11(3), 458 (2018).
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S. Ogawa and M. Kimata, “Wavelength- or Polarization-Selective Thermal Infrared Detectors for Multi-Color or Polarimetric Imaging Using Plasmonics and Metamaterials,” Materials 10(5), 493 (2017).
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V. Molebny, P. McManamon, O. Steinvall, T. Kobayashi, and W. Chen, “Laser radar: historical prospective—from the East to the West,” Opt. Eng. 56(3), 031220 (2017).
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S. Kruk, B. Hopkins, I. I. Kravchenko, A. Miroshnichenko, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Invited Article: Broadband highly efficient dielectric metadevices for polarization control,” APL Photonics 1(3), 030801 (2016).
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S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-Efficiency Broadband Anomalous Reflection by Gradient Meta-Surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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Y.-W. Huang, H. W. H. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-Tunable Conducting Oxide Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
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G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
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H. Zhu, X. Yin, L. Chen, and X. Li, “Directional beaming of light from a subwavelength metal slit with phase-gradient metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12098 (2017).
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S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
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Z. Li, E. Palacios, S. Butun, and K. Aydin, “Visible-Frequency Metasurfaces for Broadband Anomalous Reflection and High-Efficiency Spectrum Splitting,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1615–1621 (2015).
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S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-Efficiency Broadband Anomalous Reflection by Gradient Meta-Surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
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K. Fan, J. Zhang, X. Liu, G.-F. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “Phototunable Dielectric Huygens’ Metasurfaces,” Adv. Mater. 30(22), 1800278 (2018).
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V. Molebny, P. McManamon, O. Steinvall, T. Kobayashi, and W. Chen, “Laser radar: historical prospective—from the East to the West,” Opt. Eng. 56(3), 031220 (2017).
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N. Meinzer, W. L. Barnes, and I. R. Hooper, “Plasmonic meta-atoms and metasurfaces,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 889–898 (2014).
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S. Kruk, B. Hopkins, I. I. Kravchenko, A. Miroshnichenko, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Invited Article: Broadband highly efficient dielectric metadevices for polarization control,” APL Photonics 1(3), 030801 (2016).
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M. Miyata, H. Hatada, and J. Takahara, “Full-Color Subwavelength Printing with Gap-Plasmonic Optical Antennas,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 3166–3172 (2016).
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Molebny, V.

V. Molebny, P. McManamon, O. Steinvall, T. Kobayashi, and W. Chen, “Laser radar: historical prospective—from the East to the West,” Opt. Eng. 56(3), 031220 (2017).
[Crossref]

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G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
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S. Kruk, B. Hopkins, I. I. Kravchenko, A. Miroshnichenko, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Invited Article: Broadband highly efficient dielectric metadevices for polarization control,” APL Photonics 1(3), 030801 (2016).
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Ochoa, E.

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S. Ogawa and M. Kimata, “Metal-Insulator-Metal-Based Plasmonic Metamaterial Absorbers at Visible and Infrared Wavelengths: A Review,” Materials 11(3), 458 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Ogawa and M. Kimata, “Wavelength- or Polarization-Selective Thermal Infrared Detectors for Multi-Color or Polarimetric Imaging Using Plasmonics and Metamaterials,” Materials 10(5), 493 (2017).
[Crossref]

Oh, J.

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
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K. Fan, J. Zhang, X. Liu, G.-F. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “Phototunable Dielectric Huygens’ Metasurfaces,” Adv. Mater. 30(22), 1800278 (2018).
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C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP98–OP120 (2012).
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G. Kafaie Shirmanesh, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, and H. A. Atwater, “Dual-Gated Active Metasurface at 1550 nm with Wide (>300°) Phase Tunability,” Nano Lett. 18(5), 2957–2963 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y.-W. Huang, H. W. H. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-Tunable Conducting Oxide Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Z. Li, E. Palacios, S. Butun, and K. Aydin, “Visible-Frequency Metasurfaces for Broadband Anomalous Reflection and High-Efficiency Spectrum Splitting,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1615–1621 (2015).
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Pommet, D. A.

Ponti, S. M.

M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental Demonstration of >230° Phase Modulation in Gate-Tunable Graphene–Gold Reconfigurable Mid-Infrared Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
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Pu, M.

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G. Quaranta, G. Basset, O. J. F. Martin, and B. Gallinet, “Recent Advances in Resonant Waveguide Gratings,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(9), 1800017 (2018).
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Y. Ra’di and A. Alù, “Reconfigurable Metagratings,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1779–1785 (2018).
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M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental Demonstration of >230° Phase Modulation in Gate-Tunable Graphene–Gold Reconfigurable Mid-Infrared Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sokhoyan, R.

G. Kafaie Shirmanesh, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, and H. A. Atwater, “Dual-Gated Active Metasurface at 1550 nm with Wide (>300°) Phase Tunability,” Nano Lett. 18(5), 2957–2963 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y.-W. Huang, H. W. H. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-Tunable Conducting Oxide Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
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Y. Ra’di, D. L. Sounas, and A. Alù, “Metagratings: Beyond the Limits of Graded Metasurfaces for Wave Front Control,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(6), 067404 (2017).
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V. Molebny, P. McManamon, O. Steinvall, T. Kobayashi, and W. Chen, “Laser radar: historical prospective—from the East to the West,” Opt. Eng. 56(3), 031220 (2017).
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Su, X.

Sun, S.

S. Sun, Q. He, J. Hao, S. Xiao, and L. Zhou, “Electromagnetic metasurfaces: physics and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 11(2), 380–479 (2019).
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S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
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S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-Efficiency Broadband Anomalous Reflection by Gradient Meta-Surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

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M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental Demonstration of >230° Phase Modulation in Gate-Tunable Graphene–Gold Reconfigurable Mid-Infrared Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
[Crossref]

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M. Miyata, H. Hatada, and J. Takahara, “Full-Color Subwavelength Printing with Gap-Plasmonic Optical Antennas,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 3166–3172 (2016).
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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light Propagation with Phase Discontinuities: Generalized Laws of Reflection and Refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

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Y.-W. Huang, H. W. H. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-Tunable Conducting Oxide Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
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Y.-W. Huang, H. W. H. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-Tunable Conducting Oxide Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
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S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-Efficiency Broadband Anomalous Reflection by Gradient Meta-Surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-Efficiency Broadband Anomalous Reflection by Gradient Meta-Surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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Wang, K.

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C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP98–OP120 (2012).
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V. S. Asadchy, A. Wickberg, A. Díaz-Rubio, and M. Wegener, “Eliminating Scattering Loss in Anomalously Reflecting Optical Metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 4(5), 1264–1270 (2017).
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Wickberg, A.

V. S. Asadchy, A. Wickberg, A. Díaz-Rubio, and M. Wegener, “Eliminating Scattering Loss in Anomalously Reflecting Optical Metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 4(5), 1264–1270 (2017).
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Xiao, S.

S. Sun, Q. He, J. Hao, S. Xiao, and L. Zhou, “Electromagnetic metasurfaces: physics and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 11(2), 380–479 (2019).
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S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
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S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-Efficiency Broadband Anomalous Reflection by Gradient Meta-Surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
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Xu, Y.

Yan, C.

Yang, K.-Y.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-Efficiency Broadband Anomalous Reflection by Gradient Meta-Surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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Yang, L.

Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
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Ye, Y.

Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
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Yin, X.

H. Zhu, X. Yin, L. Chen, and X. Li, “Directional beaming of light from a subwavelength metal slit with phase-gradient metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12098 (2017).
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N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light Propagation with Phase Discontinuities: Generalized Laws of Reflection and Refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zentgraf, T.

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G.-F.

K. Fan, J. Zhang, X. Liu, G.-F. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “Phototunable Dielectric Huygens’ Metasurfaces,” Adv. Mater. 30(22), 1800278 (2018).
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Zhang, J.

K. Fan, J. Zhang, X. Liu, G.-F. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “Phototunable Dielectric Huygens’ Metasurfaces,” Adv. Mater. 30(22), 1800278 (2018).
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Zhang, S.

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zheng, G.

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
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Zhong, S.

Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

S. Sun, Q. He, J. Hao, S. Xiao, and L. Zhou, “Electromagnetic metasurfaces: physics and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 11(2), 380–479 (2019).
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S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-Efficiency Broadband Anomalous Reflection by Gradient Meta-Surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhu, A. Y.

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhu, H.

H. Zhu, X. Yin, L. Chen, and X. Li, “Directional beaming of light from a subwavelength metal slit with phase-gradient metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12098 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhu, L.

ACS Photonics (2)

V. S. Asadchy, A. Wickberg, A. Díaz-Rubio, and M. Wegener, “Eliminating Scattering Loss in Anomalously Reflecting Optical Metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 4(5), 1264–1270 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Ra’di and A. Alù, “Reconfigurable Metagratings,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1779–1785 (2018).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (2)

C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP98–OP120 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Fan, J. Zhang, X. Liu, G.-F. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “Phototunable Dielectric Huygens’ Metasurfaces,” Adv. Mater. 30(22), 1800278 (2018).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

S. Sun, Q. He, J. Hao, S. Xiao, and L. Zhou, “Electromagnetic metasurfaces: physics and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 11(2), 380–479 (2019).
[Crossref]

APL Photonics (1)

S. Kruk, B. Hopkins, I. I. Kravchenko, A. Miroshnichenko, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Invited Article: Broadband highly efficient dielectric metadevices for polarization control,” APL Photonics 1(3), 030801 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (5)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Laser Photonics Rev. (2)

G. Quaranta, G. Basset, O. J. F. Martin, and B. Gallinet, “Recent Advances in Resonant Waveguide Gratings,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(9), 1800017 (2018).
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Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

Materials (2)

S. Ogawa and M. Kimata, “Wavelength- or Polarization-Selective Thermal Infrared Detectors for Multi-Color or Polarimetric Imaging Using Plasmonics and Metamaterials,” Materials 10(5), 493 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Ogawa and M. Kimata, “Metal-Insulator-Metal-Based Plasmonic Metamaterial Absorbers at Visible and Infrared Wavelengths: A Review,” Materials 11(3), 458 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (6)

M. Miyata, H. Hatada, and J. Takahara, “Full-Color Subwavelength Printing with Gap-Plasmonic Optical Antennas,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 3166–3172 (2016).
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Y.-W. Huang, H. W. H. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-Tunable Conducting Oxide Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
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S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-Efficiency Broadband Anomalous Reflection by Gradient Meta-Surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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Z. Li, E. Palacios, S. Butun, and K. Aydin, “Visible-Frequency Metasurfaces for Broadband Anomalous Reflection and High-Efficiency Spectrum Splitting,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1615–1621 (2015).
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M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental Demonstration of >230° Phase Modulation in Gate-Tunable Graphene–Gold Reconfigurable Mid-Infrared Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
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G. Kafaie Shirmanesh, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, and H. A. Atwater, “Dual-Gated Active Metasurface at 1550 nm with Wide (>300°) Phase Tunability,” Nano Lett. 18(5), 2957–2963 (2018).
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Nat. Mater. (2)

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
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N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
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Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

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Nat. Photonics (1)

N. Meinzer, W. L. Barnes, and I. R. Hooper, “Plasmonic meta-atoms and metasurfaces,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 889–898 (2014).
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Opt. Eng. (1)

V. Molebny, P. McManamon, O. Steinvall, T. Kobayashi, and W. Chen, “Laser radar: historical prospective—from the East to the West,” Opt. Eng. 56(3), 031220 (2017).
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Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Y. Ra’di, D. L. Sounas, and A. Alù, “Metagratings: Beyond the Limits of Graded Metasurfaces for Wave Front Control,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(6), 067404 (2017).
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Phys. Rev. X (1)

A. M. H. Wong and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Perfect Anomalous Reflection with a Bipartite Huygens’ Metasurface,” Phys. Rev. X 8(1), 011036 (2018).
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Sci. Rep. (1)

H. Zhu, X. Yin, L. Chen, and X. Li, “Directional beaming of light from a subwavelength metal slit with phase-gradient metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12098 (2017).
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Science (3)

F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Multiwavelength achromatic metasurfaces by dispersive phase compensation,” Science 347(6228), 1342–1345 (2015).
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M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light Propagation with Phase Discontinuities: Generalized Laws of Reflection and Refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Cross-sectional view of MDM metasurface with descriptions of AR modes.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Reflection and absorption spectra for total reflection, R0, R1, and total absorption at normal incidence. (b) Reflection angles of R0, R1, and R−1 at wavelength of 4.15 µm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. θi dependence of (a) R0, (c) A, (e) R1 and (g) R−1. Calculated spectra of (b) R0, (d) A, (f) R1, and (h) R−1 for θi = 0°, 20°, 40°, and 60°. The color bar indicates the reflectance.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Dependence of R−1 on (a) h, (b) p, and (c) d. Color bar indicates reflectance.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Amplitudes of (a) electric, and (b) magnetic field distributions at an λAR of 4.15 µm for normal incidence.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Comparison between RCWA simulation and Eq. (4) of the θi dependence of (a) θ1 and (b) θ−1.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Cross-sectional view of MDM metasurfaces with offset micropatch.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Calculated (a) R1 and (b) R−1 for d of 600, 650, 700, 750, and 800 nm. (c) Electric field profile of d of 800 nm, showing the direction of the reflected wave.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Calculated (a) R1 and (b) R−1 as a function of d and wavelength. Color bar indicates reflectance.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Incident angle dependence of (a) R1, and (b) R−1 for d value of 500 nm, and (c) R1, and (d) R−1 for d value of 750 nm. Color bar indicates reflectance.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

p ( sin θ m sin θ i ) = ± m λ .
( 2 π m a r g C 1 a r g C 2 2 h ) 2 = ( 2 π λ ) 2 n 2 ( 2 π λ s i n θ i 2 π p i ) 2 .
λ A R 4 = n h ,
p 2 ( sin θ ± m sin θ i ) λ A R / 2 = ± m λ A R .

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