Abstract

It is highly challenging for the available glasses-free 3D display to simultaneously possess the advantages of viewing freedom, homogeneous illuminance, high resolution and low crosstalk. This work proposes and demonstrates a directional backlight autostereoscopic display having these advantages with a substantially extended viewing volume and densely packed viewpoints. Low crosstalk and homogeneous illuminance are obtained using dynamically configured directional backlight, realized by a novel system design, in conjunction with viewer’s eye tracking and subsequent backlight control scenario. The autostereoscopy allows the viewers to move around continuously, while the illuminance homogeneity on the screen, high panel resolution and low crosstalk between the left and right eyes are realized, providing high-quality glasses-free 3D display with satisfying viewing experience.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]

2020 (3)

X. Li, Q. Wu, B. Xiao, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Li, B. Xu, and Y. Wang, “High-speed and robust infrared-guiding multiuser eye localization system for autostereoscopic display,” Appl. Opt. 59(14), 4199–4208 (2020).
[Crossref]

B. Huang, R. W. Chen, Q. B. Zhou, and W. Xu, “Eye landmarks detection via weakly supervised learning,” Pattern Recogn. 98, 107076 (2020).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, M. Chen, X. Li, K. Li, X. Chen, J. Wang, H. Liang, J. Zhou, W. Liang, H. Fan, R. Ding, S. Wang, and D. Deng, “Overcoming latency with motion prediction in directional autostereoscopic displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 28(3), 252–261 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (1)

2018 (6)

2017 (1)

P. Krebs, H. Liang, H. Fan, A. Zhang, Y. Zhou, and J. Chen, “Homogeneous free-form directional backlight for 3d display,” Opt. Commun. 397, 112–117 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

H. Fan, X. Wang, S. Liang, K. Li, R. Jian, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Quantitative measurement of global crosstalk for 3D display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(5), 323–329 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

2014 (3)

G. J. Lv, W. X. Zhao, D. H. Li, and Q. H. Wang, “Polarizer Parallax Barrier 3D Display with High Brightness, Resolution and Low Crosstalk,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(2), 120–124 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. J. Lv, Q. H. Wang, W. X. Zhao, and J. Wang, “3D display based on parallax barrier with Multiview zones,” Appl. Opt. 53(7), 1339–1342 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Liang, S. An, J. Wang, Y. Zhou, H. Fan, P. Krebs, and J. Zhou, “Optimizing time-multiplexing auto-stereoscopic displays with a genetic algorithm,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(8), 695–699 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

2011 (1)

N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, and L. Pockett, “Three-Dimensional Displays: A Review and Applications Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 57(2), 362–371 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

C. Y. Chen, T. Y. Hsieh, Q. L. Deng, W. C. Su, and Z. S. Cheng, “Design of a novel symmetric microprism array for dual-view display,” Displays 31(2), 99–103 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. X. Zhao, Q. H. Wang, A. H. Wang, and D. H. Li, “Autostereoscopic display based on two-layer lenticular lenses,” Opt. Lett. 35(24), 4127–4129 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Yuuki, S. Uehara, K. Taira, G. Hamagishi, K. Izumi, T. Nomura, K. Mashitani, A. Miyazawa, T. Koike, T. Horikoshi, S. Miyazaki, N. Watanabe, Y. Hisatake, and H. Ujike, “Influence of 3-D cross-talk on qualified viewing spaces in two- and multi-view autostereoscopic displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(7), 483–493 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Takaki and N. Nago, “Multi-projection of lenticular displays to construct a 256-view super multi-view display,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8824–8835 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

N. A. Dodgson, “On the number of views required for head-tracked autostereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE 6055, 60550Q (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

N. A. Dodgson, “Autostereoscopic 3D displays,” Comput. 38(8), 31–36 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

1996 (1)

Acerbi, F.

P. Ferroli, G. Tringali, F. Acerbi, M. Schiariti, M. Broggi, D. Aquino, and G. Broggi, “Advanced 3-dimensional planning in neurosurgery,” Neurosurg. 72(suppl_1), A54–A62 (2013).
[Crossref]

An, S.

H. Liang, S. An, J. Wang, Y. Zhou, H. Fan, P. Krebs, and J. Zhou, “Optimizing time-multiplexing auto-stereoscopic displays with a genetic algorithm,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(8), 695–699 (2014).
[Crossref]

Aquino, D.

P. Ferroli, G. Tringali, F. Acerbi, M. Schiariti, M. Broggi, D. Aquino, and G. Broggi, “Advanced 3-dimensional planning in neurosurgery,” Neurosurg. 72(suppl_1), A54–A62 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bates, R.

P. Surman, I. Sexton, K. Hopf, R. Bates, and W. Lee, “Head tracked 3D displays,” Springer LNCS 4105, 769–776 (2006).

Borjigjn, G.

G. Borjigjn and H. Kakeya, “An autostereoscopic display with time-multiplexed directional backlight using a decentered lens array,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging 2019, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W2A.2.

Broggi, G.

P. Ferroli, G. Tringali, F. Acerbi, M. Schiariti, M. Broggi, D. Aquino, and G. Broggi, “Advanced 3-dimensional planning in neurosurgery,” Neurosurg. 72(suppl_1), A54–A62 (2013).
[Crossref]

Broggi, M.

P. Ferroli, G. Tringali, F. Acerbi, M. Schiariti, M. Broggi, D. Aquino, and G. Broggi, “Advanced 3-dimensional planning in neurosurgery,” Neurosurg. 72(suppl_1), A54–A62 (2013).
[Crossref]

Byongmin, K.

Chang, Y.

Chen, C. H.

Chen, C. Y.

C. Y. Chen, T. Y. Hsieh, Q. L. Deng, W. C. Su, and Z. S. Cheng, “Design of a novel symmetric microprism array for dual-view display,” Displays 31(2), 99–103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

Y. Zhou, J. Zhou, H. Fan, K. Li, H. Chen, and Y. Xu, “Directional backlight stereoscopic display device,” U.S. Patent, 9,946,087[P]. (2018).

Chen, J.

P. Krebs, H. Liang, H. Fan, A. Zhang, Y. Zhou, and J. Chen, “Homogeneous free-form directional backlight for 3d display,” Opt. Commun. 397, 112–117 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, K. Y.

Chen, M.

H. Zhang, M. Chen, X. Li, K. Li, X. Chen, J. Wang, H. Liang, J. Zhou, W. Liang, H. Fan, R. Ding, S. Wang, and D. Deng, “Overcoming latency with motion prediction in directional autostereoscopic displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 28(3), 252–261 (2020).
[Crossref]

Chen, R. W.

B. Huang, R. W. Chen, Q. B. Zhou, and W. Xu, “Eye landmarks detection via weakly supervised learning,” Pattern Recogn. 98, 107076 (2020).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

H. Zhang, M. Chen, X. Li, K. Li, X. Chen, J. Wang, H. Liang, J. Zhou, W. Liang, H. Fan, R. Ding, S. Wang, and D. Deng, “Overcoming latency with motion prediction in directional autostereoscopic displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 28(3), 252–261 (2020).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Z. S.

C. Y. Chen, T. Y. Hsieh, Q. L. Deng, W. C. Su, and Z. S. Cheng, “Design of a novel symmetric microprism array for dual-view display,” Displays 31(2), 99–103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Choi, M.

Choi, S. Y.

Chuang, S. C.

Deng, D.

H. Zhang, M. Chen, X. Li, K. Li, X. Chen, J. Wang, H. Liang, J. Zhou, W. Liang, H. Fan, R. Ding, S. Wang, and D. Deng, “Overcoming latency with motion prediction in directional autostereoscopic displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 28(3), 252–261 (2020).
[Crossref]

Deng, Q. L.

C. Y. Chen, T. Y. Hsieh, Q. L. Deng, W. C. Su, and Z. S. Cheng, “Design of a novel symmetric microprism array for dual-view display,” Displays 31(2), 99–103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Deng, Y.

Ding, R.

H. Zhang, M. Chen, X. Li, K. Li, X. Chen, J. Wang, H. Liang, J. Zhou, W. Liang, H. Fan, R. Ding, S. Wang, and D. Deng, “Overcoming latency with motion prediction in directional autostereoscopic displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 28(3), 252–261 (2020).
[Crossref]

Dodgson, N. A.

N. A. Dodgson, “3D without the glasses,” Nature 495(7441), 316–317 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, and L. Pockett, “Three-Dimensional Displays: A Review and Applications Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 57(2), 362–371 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. A. Dodgson, “On the number of views required for head-tracked autostereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE 6055, 60550Q (2006).
[Crossref]

N. A. Dodgson, “Autostereoscopic 3D displays,” Comput. 38(8), 31–36 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. A. Dodgson, “Analysis of the viewing zone of multi-view autostereoscopic displays,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 254–265 (2002).
[Crossref]

N. A. Dodgson, “Analysis of the viewing zone of the Cambridge autostereoscopic display,” Appl. Opt. 35(10), 1705–1710 (1996).
[Crossref]

Dongkyung, N.

Dongwoo, K.

Ed Kelley, J. M. J. C. D. G. L. R. R.

J. M. J. C. D. G. L. R. R. Ed Kelley and J. Miseli, “Information display measurements standard,” SID Definitions and Standards Committee, ICDM, 1475 S. Bascom Ave., Ste. 114, Campbell, CA 95008-4006., version 1.03 Edition (June 2012).

Fan, H.

H. Zhang, M. Chen, X. Li, K. Li, X. Chen, J. Wang, H. Liang, J. Zhou, W. Liang, H. Fan, R. Ding, S. Wang, and D. Deng, “Overcoming latency with motion prediction in directional autostereoscopic displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 28(3), 252–261 (2020).
[Crossref]

P. Krebs, H. Liang, H. Fan, A. Zhang, Y. Zhou, and J. Chen, “Homogeneous free-form directional backlight for 3d display,” Opt. Commun. 397, 112–117 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Fan, X. Wang, S. Liang, K. Li, R. Jian, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Quantitative measurement of global crosstalk for 3D display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(5), 323–329 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Fan, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, H. Liang, P. Krebs, J. Su, D. Lin, K. Li, and J. Zhou, “Full Resolution, Low Crosstalk, and Wide Viewing Angle Auto-Stereoscopic Display with a Hybrid Spatial-Temporal Control Using Free-Form Surface Backlight Unit,” J. Display Technol. 11(7), 620–624 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, P. Krebs, H. Fan, H. Liang, J. Su, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Quantitative measurement and control of optical Moiré pattern in an autostereoscopic liquid crystal display system,” Appl. Opt. 54(6), 1521–1527 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Liang, S. An, J. Wang, Y. Zhou, H. Fan, P. Krebs, and J. Zhou, “Optimizing time-multiplexing auto-stereoscopic displays with a genetic algorithm,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(8), 695–699 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, H. Liang, H. Fan, Y. Zhou, P. Krebs, J. Su, Y. Deng, and J. Zhou, “High-quality autostereoscopic display with spatial and sequential hybrid control,” Appl. Opt. 52(35), 8549–8553 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, J. Zhou, H. Fan, K. Li, H. Chen, and Y. Xu, “Directional backlight stereoscopic display device,” U.S. Patent, 9,946,087[P]. (2018).

Fang, J. H.

Favalora, G. E.

N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, and L. Pockett, “Three-Dimensional Displays: A Review and Applications Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 57(2), 362–371 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ferroli, P.

P. Ferroli, G. Tringali, F. Acerbi, M. Schiariti, M. Broggi, D. Aquino, and G. Broggi, “Advanced 3-dimensional planning in neurosurgery,” Neurosurg. 72(suppl_1), A54–A62 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hamagishi, G.

A. Yuuki, S. Uehara, K. Taira, G. Hamagishi, K. Izumi, T. Nomura, K. Mashitani, A. Miyazawa, T. Koike, T. Horikoshi, S. Miyazaki, N. Watanabe, Y. Hisatake, and H. Ujike, “Influence of 3-D cross-talk on qualified viewing spaces in two- and multi-view autostereoscopic displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(7), 483–493 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Yuuki, S. Uehara, K. Taira, G. Hamagishi, K. Izumi, T. Nomura, K. Mashitani, A. Miyazawa, T. Koike, T. Horikoshi, and H. Ujike, “Viewing Zones of Autostereoscopic Displays and their Measurement Methods,” Proc. 15th IDW, 1111–1114 (2008).

Han, B.

Hayasaki, Y.

He, J.

Hisatake, Y.

A. Yuuki, S. Uehara, K. Taira, G. Hamagishi, K. Izumi, T. Nomura, K. Mashitani, A. Miyazawa, T. Koike, T. Horikoshi, S. Miyazaki, N. Watanabe, Y. Hisatake, and H. Ujike, “Influence of 3-D cross-talk on qualified viewing spaces in two- and multi-view autostereoscopic displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(7), 483–493 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ho, Y. H.

Holliman, N. S.

N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, and L. Pockett, “Three-Dimensional Displays: A Review and Applications Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 57(2), 362–371 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hong, K.

Hopf, K.

P. Surman, I. Sexton, K. Hopf, R. Bates, and W. Lee, “Head tracked 3D displays,” Springer LNCS 4105, 769–776 (2006).

Horikoshi, T.

A. Yuuki, S. Uehara, K. Taira, G. Hamagishi, K. Izumi, T. Nomura, K. Mashitani, A. Miyazawa, T. Koike, T. Horikoshi, S. Miyazaki, N. Watanabe, Y. Hisatake, and H. Ujike, “Influence of 3-D cross-talk on qualified viewing spaces in two- and multi-view autostereoscopic displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(7), 483–493 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Yuuki, S. Uehara, K. Taira, G. Hamagishi, K. Izumi, T. Nomura, K. Mashitani, A. Miyazawa, T. Koike, T. Horikoshi, and H. Ujike, “Viewing Zones of Autostereoscopic Displays and their Measurement Methods,” Proc. 15th IDW, 1111–1114 (2008).

Hsieh, C. T.

Hsieh, T. Y.

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Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       The motion smoothness of 3D images follow “z-axis”
» Visualization 2       The motion smoothness of 3D images follow “x-axis”

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Autostereoscopic displays with (a) Barrier, (b) Lenticular lens and (c) Directional backlight. (d) The relationship among the visual effect, LCD signal (displayed images) and LED backlight modulation signal in one frame of directional backlight.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Optical path sketch in a DB3D system. The 1-7 denote the 7 backlight units illuminating LCD relate to 7 units Fresnel lens array. (b) The flow chart of numerical simulation. (c) The LEDs overlap arranged in one backlight unit. (d) The experimental set-up of LEDs backlight and longitudinal linear diffuser film (LLDF). (e) The luminance distribution of backlight transmitted through the LLDF. (f) The illuminance contribution of LEDs are combined with a LLDF, and become a staggered dense distribution.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) The “switching on” LED serial number of unit 1. (b) The “switching on” LED serial number of unit 2. (c) The “switching on” LED serial number of unit 3. (d) The “switching on” LED serial number of unit 4. From (a) to (d), the color bars and numbers represent each “switching on” LED within a unique color and LED serial number, respectively. (e) The spatial coordinate system of calculation. The unit number is match to Fig. 2(a).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) The difference between simulation and experiment with the “switching on” LED of unit 3. (b) The difference between simulation and experiment with the “switching on” LED of unit 1. The blue line and the red circle represent the experimental and simulated results at 850 mm away from the display, respectively.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Simulating the illuminance trajectories emanating from different arrays of the “switching on” LED in each unit on the x-z plane. In the figure, (a) the OVL is (100 mm, 0 mm, 600 mm) from the display, and the LED column numbers are given by (11, 13, 16, 19, 22, 25, 29). (b) the OVL is (50 mm, 0 mm, 700 mm) from the display, and the LED column numbers are given by (22, 24, 25, 27, 29, 31, 33). (c) the OVL is (0 mm, 0 mm, 850 mm) from the display, and the LED column numbers are given by (35, 35, 35, 35, 35, 35, 35). (d) the OVL is (0 mm, 0 mm, 1000 mm) from the display, and the LED column numbers are given by (44, 42, 41, 40, 38, 37, 36). Fig. (a) to (d), the color bars represent the normalized illumination of 7 units backlight combinations. And from blue to red, the convergence is from low to high. The number represents the normalized illumination data compared with the initial emission rays. In addition, the center position of the display is (0 mm, 0 mm, 0 mm).
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Comparison of the (a) crosstalk and (b) uniformity with optimized control to that without control at the z-axis position from the center of display. Comparison of the (c) crosstalk and (d) uniformity with optimized control to that without control at the x-axis position from the center of display. The black dotted lines represent the effect of the latter and the solid red lines represent the former case. See Visualization 1 and Visualization 2.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Photo of the exterior of the 24-inch LCD autostereoscopy. The display images viewed at 850 mm and 600 mm are shown in fig. (b) and (c), respectively.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Test results of crosstalk (Left) and luminance uniformity (Right) of the autostereoscopic display in the viewing zone with dynamically configured backlight modular, z axis shows the central distance from the display, x is the center position of the face.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. The principle of real-time adjustment of viewing zone when the viewer moves. Horizontal axis is the frames of camera used in the eye tracking, and vertical axis shows the pupil x-axis position from the center of display. Red boxes represent different viewing zones. We set the adjustment criterion of viewing zone to ± 4 mm in the viewing space as best design.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Pupil position measured by eye tracking software when a viewer keeps still for a long time at (75 mm, 0 mm, 850 mm) away from display. Among of them horizontal axis is frames, and vertical axis is defined as pupil x-axis position from the center of display.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Crosstalk changed within different deviations at (75 mm, 0 mm, 850 mm).

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Table 2. Configuration of experiments.

Equations (2)

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U = 1 L max L min L max + L min × 100 %
CR = L C R L B A L M A L B A × 100 %

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