Abstract

In this paper, a new method for the modulation format and bit rate recognition (MFR) is proposed. The method analyzes the asynchronously sampled signal data and uses the tools such as asynchronous delay tap plots (ADTP), principal component analysis (PCA), artificial neural network (ANN) and supported vector machine (SVM) to distinguish the different modulation format and bit rate. The mixed algorithm is able to provide accurate MFR for unprecedented number of signal modulation formats/bit rates. An example is demonstrated to recognize 18 different modulate formats/bit rates with higher than 96.17% accuracy. Such recognition performance is beyond the existing methods.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Simultaneous Optical Performance Monitoring and Modulation Format/Bit-Rate Identification Using Principal Component Analysis

Ming Chieng Tan, Faisal Nadeem Khan, Waled Hussein Al-Arashi, Yudi Zhou, and Alan Pak Tao Lau
J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 6(5) 441-448 (2014)

Cost-effective and data size–adaptive OPM at intermediated node using convolutional neural network-based image processor

Danshi Wang, Mengyuan Wang, Min Zhang, Zhiguo Zhang, Hui Yang, Jin Li, Jianqiang Li, and Xue Chen
Opt. Express 27(7) 9403-9419 (2019)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. N. G. Gonzalez, D. Zibar, and I. T. Monroy., “Cognitive digital receiver for burst mode phase modulated radio over fiber links,” in 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) 2010, Proc. ECOC’10, paper P6.11.
  2. M. Zaerin and B. Seyfe, “Multiuser modulation classification based on cumulants in additive white Gaussian noise channel,” IET Signal Process 6(9), 815–823 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. Liu, Z. Dong, K. Zhong, A. P. T. Lau, C. Lu, and Y. Lu, “Modulation format identification based on received signal power distributions for digital coherent receivers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Th4D.3.
  4. S. M. Bilal, G. Bosco, Z. Dong, A. P. T. Lau, and C. Lu, “Blind modulation format identification for digital coherent receivers,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26769–26778 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  5. R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Optical Modulation Format Recognition in Stokes Space for Digital Coherent Receivers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTh3B.3.
  6. R. Boada, R. Borkowski, and I. T. Monroy, “Clustering algorithms for Stokes space modulation format recognition,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15521–15531 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. Xiang, Q. Zhuge, M. Qiu, X. Zhou, F. Zhang, M. Tang, D. Liu, S. Fu, and D. V. Plant, “Modulation format identification aided hitless flexible coherent transceiver,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15642–15655 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. Fu, Z. Xu, J. Lu, H. Jiang, Q. Wu, Z. Hu, M. Tang, D. Liu, and C. C.-K. Chan, “Modulation format identification enabled by the digital frequency-offset loading technique for hitless coherent transceiver,” Opt. Express 26(6), 7288–7296 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  9. H. Zhou, M. Tang, X. Chen, Z. Feng, Q. Wu, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “Fractal dimension aided modulation formats identification based on support vector machines,” in 43th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) 2017, Proc. ECOC’17, pp. 1–3
  10. M. C. Tan, F. N. Khan, W. H. Al-Arashi, Y. Zhou, and A. P. T. Lau, “Simultaneous Optical Performance Monitoring and Modulation Format/Bit-Rate Identification Using Principal Component Analysis,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 6(5), 441–448 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  11. F. N. Khan, Y. Yu, M. C. Tan, W. H. Al-Arashi, C. Yu, A. P. T. Lau, and C. Lu, “Experimental demonstration of joint OSNR monitoring and modulation format identification using asynchronous single channel sampling,” Opt. Express 23(23), 30337–30346 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  12. F. N. Khan, Y. Zhou, A. P. T. Lau, and C. Lu, “Modulation format identification in heterogeneous fiber-optic networks using artificial neural networks,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12422–12431 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  13. L. Guesmi, A. M. Ragheb, H. Fathallah, and M. Menif, “Experimental Demonstration of Simultaneous Modulation Format/Symbol Rate Identification and Optical Performance Monitoring for Coherent Optical Systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(11), 2230–2239 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  14. B. Kozicki, A. Maruta, and K. Kitayama, “Transparent performance monitoring of RZ-DQPSK systems employing delay-tap sampling,” J. Opt. Netw. 6(11), 1257–1269 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  15. F. N. Khan, C. H. Teow, S. G. Kiu, M. C. Tan, Y. Zhou, W. H. Al-Arashie, A. P. T. Lau, and C. Lu, “Automatic modulation format/bit-rate classification and signal-to-noise ratio estimation using asynchronous delay-tap sampling,” Computers & Electrical Engineering 47, 126–133 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  16. J. Zhou and P. Fan, “Modulation format/bit rate recognition based on principal component analysis (PCA) and artificial neural networks (ANNs),” OSA Continuum 2(3), 923–937 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  17. G. Han, J. Li, and D. Lu, “Study of modulation recognition based on HOCs and SVM,” 2004 IEEE 59th Vehicular Technology Conference. VTC 2004-Spring, 898–902, 2004.
  18. J. Wei, Z. Huang, S. Su, and Z. Zuo, “Using Multidimensional ADTPE and SVM for Optical Modulation Real-Time Recognition,” Entropy 18(1), 30 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  19. The MathWorks, Inc., Neural Network Toolbox User’s Guide version 4 (2004).
  20. C.-C. Chang and C.-J. Lin, LIBSVM: A Library for Support Vector Machines, 2001, maintained at http://www.csie.ntu.edu.tw/∼cjlin/papers/libsvm.pdf .
  21. P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, Y. Jiang, and F. Forghieri, “The GN-Model of Fiber Non-Linear Propagation and its Applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(4), 694–721 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2019 (1)

2018 (2)

2016 (2)

2015 (4)

2014 (2)

2012 (2)

F. N. Khan, Y. Zhou, A. P. T. Lau, and C. Lu, “Modulation format identification in heterogeneous fiber-optic networks using artificial neural networks,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12422–12431 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Zaerin and B. Seyfe, “Multiuser modulation classification based on cumulants in additive white Gaussian noise channel,” IET Signal Process 6(9), 815–823 (2012).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

Al-Arashi, W. H.

Al-Arashie, W. H.

F. N. Khan, C. H. Teow, S. G. Kiu, M. C. Tan, Y. Zhou, W. H. Al-Arashie, A. P. T. Lau, and C. Lu, “Automatic modulation format/bit-rate classification and signal-to-noise ratio estimation using asynchronous delay-tap sampling,” Computers & Electrical Engineering 47, 126–133 (2015).
[Crossref]

Arlunno, V.

R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Optical Modulation Format Recognition in Stokes Space for Digital Coherent Receivers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTh3B.3.

Bilal, S. M.

Boada, R.

Borkowski, R.

R. Boada, R. Borkowski, and I. T. Monroy, “Clustering algorithms for Stokes space modulation format recognition,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15521–15531 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Optical Modulation Format Recognition in Stokes Space for Digital Coherent Receivers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTh3B.3.

Bosco, G.

Caballero, A.

R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Optical Modulation Format Recognition in Stokes Space for Digital Coherent Receivers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTh3B.3.

Carena, A.

Chan, C. C.-K.

Chang, C.-C.

C.-C. Chang and C.-J. Lin, LIBSVM: A Library for Support Vector Machines, 2001, maintained at http://www.csie.ntu.edu.tw/∼cjlin/papers/libsvm.pdf .

Chen, X.

H. Zhou, M. Tang, X. Chen, Z. Feng, Q. Wu, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “Fractal dimension aided modulation formats identification based on support vector machines,” in 43th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) 2017, Proc. ECOC’17, pp. 1–3

Curri, V.

Dong, Z.

S. M. Bilal, G. Bosco, Z. Dong, A. P. T. Lau, and C. Lu, “Blind modulation format identification for digital coherent receivers,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26769–26778 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, Z. Dong, K. Zhong, A. P. T. Lau, C. Lu, and Y. Lu, “Modulation format identification based on received signal power distributions for digital coherent receivers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Th4D.3.

Fan, P.

Fathallah, H.

Feng, Z.

H. Zhou, M. Tang, X. Chen, Z. Feng, Q. Wu, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “Fractal dimension aided modulation formats identification based on support vector machines,” in 43th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) 2017, Proc. ECOC’17, pp. 1–3

Forghieri, F.

Fu, S.

Gonzalez, N. G.

N. G. Gonzalez, D. Zibar, and I. T. Monroy., “Cognitive digital receiver for burst mode phase modulated radio over fiber links,” in 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) 2010, Proc. ECOC’10, paper P6.11.

Guesmi, L.

Han, G.

G. Han, J. Li, and D. Lu, “Study of modulation recognition based on HOCs and SVM,” 2004 IEEE 59th Vehicular Technology Conference. VTC 2004-Spring, 898–902, 2004.

Hu, Z.

Huang, Z.

J. Wei, Z. Huang, S. Su, and Z. Zuo, “Using Multidimensional ADTPE and SVM for Optical Modulation Real-Time Recognition,” Entropy 18(1), 30 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H.

Jiang, Y.

Khan, F. N.

Kitayama, K.

Kiu, S. G.

F. N. Khan, C. H. Teow, S. G. Kiu, M. C. Tan, Y. Zhou, W. H. Al-Arashie, A. P. T. Lau, and C. Lu, “Automatic modulation format/bit-rate classification and signal-to-noise ratio estimation using asynchronous delay-tap sampling,” Computers & Electrical Engineering 47, 126–133 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kozicki, B.

Lau, A. P. T.

F. N. Khan, C. H. Teow, S. G. Kiu, M. C. Tan, Y. Zhou, W. H. Al-Arashie, A. P. T. Lau, and C. Lu, “Automatic modulation format/bit-rate classification and signal-to-noise ratio estimation using asynchronous delay-tap sampling,” Computers & Electrical Engineering 47, 126–133 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. N. Khan, Y. Yu, M. C. Tan, W. H. Al-Arashi, C. Yu, A. P. T. Lau, and C. Lu, “Experimental demonstration of joint OSNR monitoring and modulation format identification using asynchronous single channel sampling,” Opt. Express 23(23), 30337–30346 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. M. Bilal, G. Bosco, Z. Dong, A. P. T. Lau, and C. Lu, “Blind modulation format identification for digital coherent receivers,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26769–26778 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. C. Tan, F. N. Khan, W. H. Al-Arashi, Y. Zhou, and A. P. T. Lau, “Simultaneous Optical Performance Monitoring and Modulation Format/Bit-Rate Identification Using Principal Component Analysis,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 6(5), 441–448 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. N. Khan, Y. Zhou, A. P. T. Lau, and C. Lu, “Modulation format identification in heterogeneous fiber-optic networks using artificial neural networks,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12422–12431 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, Z. Dong, K. Zhong, A. P. T. Lau, C. Lu, and Y. Lu, “Modulation format identification based on received signal power distributions for digital coherent receivers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Th4D.3.

Li, J.

G. Han, J. Li, and D. Lu, “Study of modulation recognition based on HOCs and SVM,” 2004 IEEE 59th Vehicular Technology Conference. VTC 2004-Spring, 898–902, 2004.

Lin, C.-J.

C.-C. Chang and C.-J. Lin, LIBSVM: A Library for Support Vector Machines, 2001, maintained at http://www.csie.ntu.edu.tw/∼cjlin/papers/libsvm.pdf .

Liu, D.

Liu, J.

J. Liu, Z. Dong, K. Zhong, A. P. T. Lau, C. Lu, and Y. Lu, “Modulation format identification based on received signal power distributions for digital coherent receivers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Th4D.3.

Lu, C.

S. M. Bilal, G. Bosco, Z. Dong, A. P. T. Lau, and C. Lu, “Blind modulation format identification for digital coherent receivers,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26769–26778 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. N. Khan, Y. Yu, M. C. Tan, W. H. Al-Arashi, C. Yu, A. P. T. Lau, and C. Lu, “Experimental demonstration of joint OSNR monitoring and modulation format identification using asynchronous single channel sampling,” Opt. Express 23(23), 30337–30346 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. N. Khan, C. H. Teow, S. G. Kiu, M. C. Tan, Y. Zhou, W. H. Al-Arashie, A. P. T. Lau, and C. Lu, “Automatic modulation format/bit-rate classification and signal-to-noise ratio estimation using asynchronous delay-tap sampling,” Computers & Electrical Engineering 47, 126–133 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. N. Khan, Y. Zhou, A. P. T. Lau, and C. Lu, “Modulation format identification in heterogeneous fiber-optic networks using artificial neural networks,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12422–12431 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, Z. Dong, K. Zhong, A. P. T. Lau, C. Lu, and Y. Lu, “Modulation format identification based on received signal power distributions for digital coherent receivers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Th4D.3.

Lu, D.

G. Han, J. Li, and D. Lu, “Study of modulation recognition based on HOCs and SVM,” 2004 IEEE 59th Vehicular Technology Conference. VTC 2004-Spring, 898–902, 2004.

Lu, J.

Lu, Y.

J. Liu, Z. Dong, K. Zhong, A. P. T. Lau, C. Lu, and Y. Lu, “Modulation format identification based on received signal power distributions for digital coherent receivers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Th4D.3.

Maruta, A.

Menif, M.

Monroy, I. T.

R. Boada, R. Borkowski, and I. T. Monroy, “Clustering algorithms for Stokes space modulation format recognition,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15521–15531 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Optical Modulation Format Recognition in Stokes Space for Digital Coherent Receivers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTh3B.3.

N. G. Gonzalez, D. Zibar, and I. T. Monroy., “Cognitive digital receiver for burst mode phase modulated radio over fiber links,” in 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) 2010, Proc. ECOC’10, paper P6.11.

Plant, D. V.

Poggiolini, P.

Qiu, M.

Ragheb, A. M.

Seyfe, B.

M. Zaerin and B. Seyfe, “Multiuser modulation classification based on cumulants in additive white Gaussian noise channel,” IET Signal Process 6(9), 815–823 (2012).
[Crossref]

Su, S.

J. Wei, Z. Huang, S. Su, and Z. Zuo, “Using Multidimensional ADTPE and SVM for Optical Modulation Real-Time Recognition,” Entropy 18(1), 30 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tan, M. C.

Tang, M.

Teow, C. H.

F. N. Khan, C. H. Teow, S. G. Kiu, M. C. Tan, Y. Zhou, W. H. Al-Arashie, A. P. T. Lau, and C. Lu, “Automatic modulation format/bit-rate classification and signal-to-noise ratio estimation using asynchronous delay-tap sampling,” Computers & Electrical Engineering 47, 126–133 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wei, J.

J. Wei, Z. Huang, S. Su, and Z. Zuo, “Using Multidimensional ADTPE and SVM for Optical Modulation Real-Time Recognition,” Entropy 18(1), 30 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wu, Q.

S. Fu, Z. Xu, J. Lu, H. Jiang, Q. Wu, Z. Hu, M. Tang, D. Liu, and C. C.-K. Chan, “Modulation format identification enabled by the digital frequency-offset loading technique for hitless coherent transceiver,” Opt. Express 26(6), 7288–7296 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Zhou, M. Tang, X. Chen, Z. Feng, Q. Wu, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “Fractal dimension aided modulation formats identification based on support vector machines,” in 43th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) 2017, Proc. ECOC’17, pp. 1–3

Xiang, M.

Xu, Z.

Yu, C.

Yu, Y.

Zaerin, M.

M. Zaerin and B. Seyfe, “Multiuser modulation classification based on cumulants in additive white Gaussian noise channel,” IET Signal Process 6(9), 815–823 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, F.

Zhong, K.

J. Liu, Z. Dong, K. Zhong, A. P. T. Lau, C. Lu, and Y. Lu, “Modulation format identification based on received signal power distributions for digital coherent receivers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Th4D.3.

Zhou, H.

H. Zhou, M. Tang, X. Chen, Z. Feng, Q. Wu, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “Fractal dimension aided modulation formats identification based on support vector machines,” in 43th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) 2017, Proc. ECOC’17, pp. 1–3

Zhou, J.

Zhou, X.

Zhou, Y.

Zhuge, Q.

Zibar, D.

N. G. Gonzalez, D. Zibar, and I. T. Monroy., “Cognitive digital receiver for burst mode phase modulated radio over fiber links,” in 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) 2010, Proc. ECOC’10, paper P6.11.

R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Optical Modulation Format Recognition in Stokes Space for Digital Coherent Receivers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTh3B.3.

Zuo, Z.

J. Wei, Z. Huang, S. Su, and Z. Zuo, “Using Multidimensional ADTPE and SVM for Optical Modulation Real-Time Recognition,” Entropy 18(1), 30 (2016).
[Crossref]

Computers & Electrical Engineering (1)

F. N. Khan, C. H. Teow, S. G. Kiu, M. C. Tan, Y. Zhou, W. H. Al-Arashie, A. P. T. Lau, and C. Lu, “Automatic modulation format/bit-rate classification and signal-to-noise ratio estimation using asynchronous delay-tap sampling,” Computers & Electrical Engineering 47, 126–133 (2015).
[Crossref]

Entropy (1)

J. Wei, Z. Huang, S. Su, and Z. Zuo, “Using Multidimensional ADTPE and SVM for Optical Modulation Real-Time Recognition,” Entropy 18(1), 30 (2016).
[Crossref]

IET Signal Process (1)

M. Zaerin and B. Seyfe, “Multiuser modulation classification based on cumulants in additive white Gaussian noise channel,” IET Signal Process 6(9), 815–823 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Opt. Express (6)

OSA Continuum (1)

Other (7)

G. Han, J. Li, and D. Lu, “Study of modulation recognition based on HOCs and SVM,” 2004 IEEE 59th Vehicular Technology Conference. VTC 2004-Spring, 898–902, 2004.

The MathWorks, Inc., Neural Network Toolbox User’s Guide version 4 (2004).

C.-C. Chang and C.-J. Lin, LIBSVM: A Library for Support Vector Machines, 2001, maintained at http://www.csie.ntu.edu.tw/∼cjlin/papers/libsvm.pdf .

H. Zhou, M. Tang, X. Chen, Z. Feng, Q. Wu, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “Fractal dimension aided modulation formats identification based on support vector machines,” in 43th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) 2017, Proc. ECOC’17, pp. 1–3

R. Borkowski, D. Zibar, A. Caballero, V. Arlunno, and I. T. Monroy, “Optical Modulation Format Recognition in Stokes Space for Digital Coherent Receivers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTh3B.3.

J. Liu, Z. Dong, K. Zhong, A. P. T. Lau, C. Lu, and Y. Lu, “Modulation format identification based on received signal power distributions for digital coherent receivers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Th4D.3.

N. G. Gonzalez, D. Zibar, and I. T. Monroy., “Cognitive digital receiver for burst mode phase modulated radio over fiber links,” in 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) 2010, Proc. ECOC’10, paper P6.11.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. The scheme for asynchronous sampling of a signal.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Graphical illustration of the SVM based MFR
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. The overall schematic of the proposed MFR method.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The optical schematic of the transmission link
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. The signal recognition results with 20 dB OSNR.

Tables (8)

Tables Icon

Table 1. 18 types of signals to be recognized.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Part of the recognition results for the 18 types of signals (NRZ signals).

Tables Icon

Table 3. Part of the recognition results for the 18 types of signals (OFDM signals).

Tables Icon

Table 4. Signal recognition accuracies under different residual dispersion values.

Tables Icon

Table 5. Signal recognition accuracies under different OSNRs.

Tables Icon

Table 6. Signal recognition accuracies with different MFR methods under different OSNRs.

Tables Icon

Table 7. Required training time for the different methods (the time unit is hour).

Tables Icon

Table 8. Required recognition time per symbol for the different methods (the time unit is second).

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

C = Y Y T Y = [ x 1 ψ , x 2 ψ , , x M ψ ] ψ  =  1 M i = 1 M x i
w i k = v k T x i k = 1 K
w i = ( w i 1 , w i 2 w i K )
ω T z + b = 0
1 2 ω T ω + C n = 1 N ξ n S . T . l i ( ω T z i + b ) 1 ξ i

Metrics