Abstract

An ultrafast, thulium-doped fiber laser system is developed for three-photon microscopy. The system generates 150 fs pulses at the center wavelength of 1.82 µm with a pulse energy of 1.1 µJ at the repetition rate of 1 MHz. The generated pulses are applied to a three-photon fluorescence microscope, with which biological samples expressing red fluorescent proteins are observed through three-photon excitation processes.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  16. B. M. Walsh and N. P. Barnes, “Comparison of Tm:ZBLAN and Tm:silica fiber lasers; spectroscopy and tunable pulsed laser operation around 1.9 µm,” Appl. Phys. B 78(3-4), 325–333 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  17. M. Eichhorn and S. D. Jackson, “Comparative study of continuous wave Tm3+-doped silica and fluoride fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 90(1), 35–41 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  18. Y. Nomura and T. Fuji, “Efficient chirped-pulse amplification based on thulium-doped ZBLAN fibers,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(1), 012703 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  19. Y. Nomura and T. Fuji, “Generation of watt-class, sub-50 fs pulses through nonlinear spectral broadening within a thulium-doped fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13691–13696 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  20. D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56(3), 219–221 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  21. T. A. Pologruto, B. L. Sabatini, and K. Svoboda, “ScanImage: Flexible software for operating laser scanning microscopes,” Biomed. Eng. Online 2(1), 13 (2003).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2018 (1)

2017 (4)

C. Li, X. Wei, C. Kong, S. Tan, N. Chen, J. Kang, and K. K. Y. Wong, “Fiber chirped pulse amplification of a short wavelength mode-locked thulium-doped fiber laser,” APL Photonics 2(12), 121302 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Nomura and T. Fuji, “Efficient chirped-pulse amplification based on thulium-doped ZBLAN fibers,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(1), 012703 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Nomura and T. Fuji, “Generation of watt-class, sub-50 fs pulses through nonlinear spectral broadening within a thulium-doped fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13691–13696 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Gebhardt, C. Gaida, F. Stutzki, S. Hädrich, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High average power nonlinear compression to 4 GW, sub-50 fs pulses at 2 µm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 42(4), 747–750 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

2015 (2)

2014 (2)

2013 (2)

P. Wan, L.-M. Yang, and J. Liu, “High pulse energy 2 µm femtosecond fiber laser,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1798–1803 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

P. F. Moulton, G. A. Rines, E. V. Slobodtchikov, K. F. Wall, G. Frith, B. Samson, and A. L. G. Carter, “Tm-doped fiber lasers: Fundamentals and power scaling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 85–92 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

M. Eichhorn and S. D. Jackson, “Comparative study of continuous wave Tm3+-doped silica and fluoride fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 90(1), 35–41 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Eidam, F. Röser, O. Schmidt, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “57 W, 27 fs pulses from a fiber laser system using nonlinear compression,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 9–12 (2008).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

B. M. Walsh and N. P. Barnes, “Comparison of Tm:ZBLAN and Tm:silica fiber lasers; spectroscopy and tunable pulsed laser operation around 1.9 µm,” Appl. Phys. B 78(3-4), 325–333 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. A. Pologruto, B. L. Sabatini, and K. Svoboda, “ScanImage: Flexible software for operating laser scanning microscopes,” Biomed. Eng. Online 2(1), 13 (2003).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

V. E. Centonze and J. G. White, “Multiphoton excitation provides optical sections from deeper within scattering specimens than confocal imaging,” Biophys. J. 75(4), 2015–2024 (1998).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56(3), 219–221 (1985).
[Crossref]

Alam, S. U.

Barnes, N. P.

B. M. Walsh and N. P. Barnes, “Comparison of Tm:ZBLAN and Tm:silica fiber lasers; spectroscopy and tunable pulsed laser operation around 1.9 µm,” Appl. Phys. B 78(3-4), 325–333 (2004).
[Crossref]

Carter, A. L. G.

P. F. Moulton, G. A. Rines, E. V. Slobodtchikov, K. F. Wall, G. Frith, B. Samson, and A. L. G. Carter, “Tm-doped fiber lasers: Fundamentals and power scaling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 85–92 (2009).
[Crossref]

Centonze, V. E.

V. E. Centonze and J. G. White, “Multiphoton excitation provides optical sections from deeper within scattering specimens than confocal imaging,” Biophys. J. 75(4), 2015–2024 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chen, N.

C. Li, X. Wei, C. Kong, S. Tan, N. Chen, J. Kang, and K. K. Y. Wong, “Fiber chirped pulse amplification of a short wavelength mode-locked thulium-doped fiber laser,” APL Photonics 2(12), 121302 (2017).
[Crossref]

Clark, C. G.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref]

Clarkson, W. A.

Daniel, J. M. O.

Denk, W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[Crossref]

Eberhardt, R.

Eichhorn, M.

M. Eichhorn and S. D. Jackson, “Comparative study of continuous wave Tm3+-doped silica and fluoride fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 90(1), 35–41 (2008).
[Crossref]

Eidam, T.

T. Eidam, F. Röser, O. Schmidt, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “57 W, 27 fs pulses from a fiber laser system using nonlinear compression,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 9–12 (2008).
[Crossref]

Frith, G.

P. F. Moulton, G. A. Rines, E. V. Slobodtchikov, K. F. Wall, G. Frith, B. Samson, and A. L. G. Carter, “Tm-doped fiber lasers: Fundamentals and power scaling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 85–92 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fuchs, F.

Fuji, T.

Gaida, C.

Gebhardt, M.

Hädrich, S.

Haxsen, F.

Heidt, A. M.

Heinzig, M.

Helaine, S.

J. M. Mouton, S. Helaine, D. W. Holden, and S. L. Sampson, “Elucidating population-wide mycobacterial replication dynamics at the single-cell level,” Microbiology 162(6), 966–978 (2016).
[Crossref]

Heuermann, T.

Holden, D. W.

J. M. Mouton, S. Helaine, D. W. Holden, and S. L. Sampson, “Elucidating population-wide mycobacterial replication dynamics at the single-cell level,” Microbiology 162(6), 966–978 (2016).
[Crossref]

Horton, N. G.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ibsen, M.

Jackson, S. D.

M. Eichhorn and S. D. Jackson, “Comparative study of continuous wave Tm3+-doped silica and fluoride fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 90(1), 35–41 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jain, D.

Jansen, F.

Jauregui, C.

Jung, Y.

Kang, J.

C. Li, X. Wei, C. Kong, S. Tan, N. Chen, J. Kang, and K. K. Y. Wong, “Fiber chirped pulse amplification of a short wavelength mode-locked thulium-doped fiber laser,” APL Photonics 2(12), 121302 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kobat, D.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kong, C.

C. Li, X. Wei, C. Kong, S. Tan, N. Chen, J. Kang, and K. K. Y. Wong, “Fiber chirped pulse amplification of a short wavelength mode-locked thulium-doped fiber laser,” APL Photonics 2(12), 121302 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kracht, D.

Li, C.

C. Li, X. Wei, C. Kong, S. Tan, N. Chen, J. Kang, and K. K. Y. Wong, “Fiber chirped pulse amplification of a short wavelength mode-locked thulium-doped fiber laser,” APL Photonics 2(12), 121302 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

Limpert, J.

Liu, J.

Morgner, U.

Moulton, P. F.

P. F. Moulton, G. A. Rines, E. V. Slobodtchikov, K. F. Wall, G. Frith, B. Samson, and A. L. G. Carter, “Tm-doped fiber lasers: Fundamentals and power scaling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 85–92 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mourou, G.

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56(3), 219–221 (1985).
[Crossref]

Mouton, J. M.

J. M. Mouton, S. Helaine, D. W. Holden, and S. L. Sampson, “Elucidating population-wide mycobacterial replication dynamics at the single-cell level,” Microbiology 162(6), 966–978 (2016).
[Crossref]

Neumann, J.

Nomura, Y.

Pologruto, T. A.

T. A. Pologruto, B. L. Sabatini, and K. Svoboda, “ScanImage: Flexible software for operating laser scanning microscopes,” Biomed. Eng. Online 2(1), 13 (2003).
[Crossref]

Richardson, D. J.

Rines, G. A.

P. F. Moulton, G. A. Rines, E. V. Slobodtchikov, K. F. Wall, G. Frith, B. Samson, and A. L. G. Carter, “Tm-doped fiber lasers: Fundamentals and power scaling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 85–92 (2009).
[Crossref]

Röser, F.

T. Eidam, F. Röser, O. Schmidt, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “57 W, 27 fs pulses from a fiber laser system using nonlinear compression,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 9–12 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sabatini, B. L.

T. A. Pologruto, B. L. Sabatini, and K. Svoboda, “ScanImage: Flexible software for operating laser scanning microscopes,” Biomed. Eng. Online 2(1), 13 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sahu, J. K.

Sampson, S. L.

J. M. Mouton, S. Helaine, D. W. Holden, and S. L. Sampson, “Elucidating population-wide mycobacterial replication dynamics at the single-cell level,” Microbiology 162(6), 966–978 (2016).
[Crossref]

Samson, B.

P. F. Moulton, G. A. Rines, E. V. Slobodtchikov, K. F. Wall, G. Frith, B. Samson, and A. L. G. Carter, “Tm-doped fiber lasers: Fundamentals and power scaling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 85–92 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schaffer, C. B.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, O.

T. Eidam, F. Röser, O. Schmidt, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “57 W, 27 fs pulses from a fiber laser system using nonlinear compression,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 9–12 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schreiber, T.

Shardlow, P. C.

Shi, H.

Simakov, N.

Slobodtchikov, E. V.

P. F. Moulton, G. A. Rines, E. V. Slobodtchikov, K. F. Wall, G. Frith, B. Samson, and A. L. G. Carter, “Tm-doped fiber lasers: Fundamentals and power scaling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 85–92 (2009).
[Crossref]

Strickland, D.

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56(3), 219–221 (1985).
[Crossref]

Strickler, J. H.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[Crossref]

Stutzki, F.

Sun, R.

Svoboda, K.

T. A. Pologruto, B. L. Sabatini, and K. Svoboda, “ScanImage: Flexible software for operating laser scanning microscopes,” Biomed. Eng. Online 2(1), 13 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tan, F.

Tan, S.

C. Li, X. Wei, C. Kong, S. Tan, N. Chen, J. Kang, and K. K. Y. Wong, “Fiber chirped pulse amplification of a short wavelength mode-locked thulium-doped fiber laser,” APL Photonics 2(12), 121302 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tokurakawa, M.

Tünnermann, A.

Walbaum, T.

Wall, K. F.

P. F. Moulton, G. A. Rines, E. V. Slobodtchikov, K. F. Wall, G. Frith, B. Samson, and A. L. G. Carter, “Tm-doped fiber lasers: Fundamentals and power scaling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 85–92 (2009).
[Crossref]

Walsh, B. M.

B. M. Walsh and N. P. Barnes, “Comparison of Tm:ZBLAN and Tm:silica fiber lasers; spectroscopy and tunable pulsed laser operation around 1.9 µm,” Appl. Phys. B 78(3-4), 325–333 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wan, P.

Wandt, D.

Wang, K.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, P.

Webb, W. W.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[Crossref]

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[Crossref]

Wei, X.

C. Li, X. Wei, C. Kong, S. Tan, N. Chen, J. Kang, and K. K. Y. Wong, “Fiber chirped pulse amplification of a short wavelength mode-locked thulium-doped fiber laser,” APL Photonics 2(12), 121302 (2017).
[Crossref]

White, J. G.

V. E. Centonze and J. G. White, “Multiphoton excitation provides optical sections from deeper within scattering specimens than confocal imaging,” Biophys. J. 75(4), 2015–2024 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wienke, A.

Williams, R. M.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wise, F. W.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wong, K. K. Y.

C. Li, X. Wei, C. Kong, S. Tan, N. Chen, J. Kang, and K. K. Y. Wong, “Fiber chirped pulse amplification of a short wavelength mode-locked thulium-doped fiber laser,” APL Photonics 2(12), 121302 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, C.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, L.-M.

Zeitner, U.

Zipfel, W. R.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[Crossref]

APL Photonics (1)

C. Li, X. Wei, C. Kong, S. Tan, N. Chen, J. Kang, and K. K. Y. Wong, “Fiber chirped pulse amplification of a short wavelength mode-locked thulium-doped fiber laser,” APL Photonics 2(12), 121302 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

B. M. Walsh and N. P. Barnes, “Comparison of Tm:ZBLAN and Tm:silica fiber lasers; spectroscopy and tunable pulsed laser operation around 1.9 µm,” Appl. Phys. B 78(3-4), 325–333 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Eichhorn and S. D. Jackson, “Comparative study of continuous wave Tm3+-doped silica and fluoride fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 90(1), 35–41 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Eidam, F. Röser, O. Schmidt, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “57 W, 27 fs pulses from a fiber laser system using nonlinear compression,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 9–12 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

Y. Nomura and T. Fuji, “Efficient chirped-pulse amplification based on thulium-doped ZBLAN fibers,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(1), 012703 (2017).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Eng. Online (1)

T. A. Pologruto, B. L. Sabatini, and K. Svoboda, “ScanImage: Flexible software for operating laser scanning microscopes,” Biomed. Eng. Online 2(1), 13 (2003).
[Crossref]

Biophys. J. (1)

V. E. Centonze and J. G. White, “Multiphoton excitation provides optical sections from deeper within scattering specimens than confocal imaging,” Biophys. J. 75(4), 2015–2024 (1998).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. F. Moulton, G. A. Rines, E. V. Slobodtchikov, K. F. Wall, G. Frith, B. Samson, and A. L. G. Carter, “Tm-doped fiber lasers: Fundamentals and power scaling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 85–92 (2009).
[Crossref]

Microbiology (1)

J. M. Mouton, S. Helaine, D. W. Holden, and S. L. Sampson, “Elucidating population-wide mycobacterial replication dynamics at the single-cell level,” Microbiology 162(6), 966–978 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56(3), 219–221 (1985).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Z. Li, Y. Jung, J. M. O. Daniel, N. Simakov, M. Tokurakawa, P. C. Shardlow, D. Jain, J. K. Sahu, A. M. Heidt, W. A. Clarkson, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Exploiting the short wavelength gain of silica-based thulium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 41(10), 2197–2200 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Gaida, M. Gebhardt, T. Heuermann, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, and J. Limpert, “Ultrafast thulium fiber laser system emitting more than 1 kW of average power,” Opt. Lett. 43(23), 5853–5856 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Stutzki, C. Gaida, M. Gebhardt, F. Jansen, A. Wienke, U. Zeitner, F. Fuchs, C. Jauregui, D. Wandt, D. Kracht, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “152 W average power Tm-doped fiber CPA system,” Opt. Lett. 39(16), 4671–4674 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Walbaum, M. Heinzig, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Monolithic thulium fiber laser with 567 W output power at 1970 nm,” Opt. Lett. 41(11), 2632–2635 (2016).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

M. Gebhardt, C. Gaida, S. Hädrich, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Nonlinear compression of an ultrashort-pulse thulium-based fiber laser to sub-70 fs in Kagome photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 40(12), 2770–2773 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Gebhardt, C. Gaida, F. Stutzki, S. Hädrich, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High average power nonlinear compression to 4 GW, sub-50 fs pulses at 2 µm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 42(4), 747–750 (2017).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

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[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the developed laser system.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Evolution of the optical spectrum throughout the setup. The spectra after the oscillator, the first amplifier, 4-$f$ setup, and the second amplifier are shown from top to bottom.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Characteristics of the output pulses. (a) SHG-FROG trace measured after compression. (b) Pulse shape (filled curve) and its phase (dashed curve) retrieved from the SHG-FROG trace shown in (a). (c) Spectral shape (filled curve) and its phase (dashed curve) retrieved from the SHG-FROG trace shown in (a).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Optical setup within the microscope.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Results of three-photon excitation measurements using the microscope. (a) Fluorescence signal strength measured from cresyl violet dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide. (b) A typical image obtained by observing red fluorescent beads dispersed in agarose gel.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Typical images of living cells expressing a red fluorescent protein, TurboFP635. (a) HeLa cells expressing TurboFP635. (b) Neurons expressing TurboFP635 in hippocampal slices of rat brain.

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