Abstract

Single-pixel imaging (SPI) uses a single-pixel detector to create an image of an object. SPI relies on a computer to construct an image, thus increasing both the size and cost of SPI and limiting its application. We developed instant single-pixel imaging (ISPI), an on-chip SPI system that implements real-time imaging at a rate of 25 fps. ISPI uses the instant ghost imaging algorithm we proposed, which leverages signal differences for image creation. It does not require a computer, which greatly reduces its both cost and size. The reconstruct time of ISPI for image creation is almost zero because little processing is required after signal detection. ISPI paves the way for the practical application of SPI.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2020 (3)

2019 (13)

C. Zhou, T. Tian, C. Gao, W. Gong, and L. Song, “Multi- resolution progressive computational ghost imaging,” J. Opt. 21(5), 055702 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. F. Li, L. Yan, R. Yang, and Y. X. Liu, “Fast single-pixel imaging based on optimized reordering Hadamard basis,” Acta Phys. Sin. 68(6), 064202 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Jiang, X. Li, Z. Zhang, W. Jiang, Y. Wang, G. He, Y. Wang, and B. Sun, “Scan efficiency of structured illumination in iterative single pixel imaging,” Opt. Express 27(16), 22499–22507 (2019).
[Crossref]

I. Hoshi, T. Shimobaba, T. Kakue, and T. Ito, “Computational ghost imaging using a field-programmable gate array,” OSA Continuum 2(4), 1097–1105 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. P. Edgar, G. M. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, “Principles and prospects for single-pixel imaging,” Nat. Photonics 13(1), 13–20 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. J. Sun and J. M. Zhang, “Single-pixel imaging and its application in three-dimensional reconstruction: a brief review,” Sensors 19(3), 732 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Bornman, M. Agnew, F. Zhu, A. Vallés, A. Forbes, and J. Leach, “Ghost imaging using entanglement-swapped photons,” npj Quantum Inf. 5(1), 63 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Endo, T. Tahara, and R. Okamoto, “Color single-pixel digital holography with a phase-encoded reference wave,” Appl. Opt. 58(34), G149–G154 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, E. Yiwen, K. Williams, X. C. Zhang, and R. Boyd, “Spatial sampling of terahertz fields with sub-wavelength accuracy via probe beam encoding,” Light: Sci. Appl. 8(1), 55 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Soltanlou and H. Latifi, “Three-dimensional imaging through scattering media using a single pixel detector,” Appl. Opt. 58(28), 7716–7726 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, Z. Lin, R. He, Y. Qian, Q. Chen, and W. Zhang, “Improving the noise immunity of 3D computational ghost imaging,” Opt. Express 27(3), 2344–2353 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Ma, Z. Liu, C. Wang, C. Hu, E. Li, W. Gong, Z. Tong, J. Wu, X. Shen, and S. Han, “Ghost imaging LiDAR via sparsity constraints using push-broom scanning,” Opt. Express 27(9), 13219–13228 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, F. Tuitje, and C. Spielmann, “Toward high contrast and high-resolution microscopic ghost imaging,” Opt. Express 27(23), 33652–33661 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (4)

2017 (9)

Y. Wang, Y. Liu, J. Suo, G. Situ, C. Qiao, and Q. Dai, “High speed computational ghost imaging via spatial sweeping,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 45325 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Le, G. Wang, H. Zheng, J. Liu, Y. Zhou, and Z. Xu, “Underwater computational ghost imaging,” Opt. Express 25(19), 22859–22868 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Deng, L. Pan, C. Wang, X. Gao, W. Gong, and S. Han, “Performance analysis of ghost imaging lidar in background light environment,” Photonics Res. 5(5), 431–435 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Chen, “Ghost identification based on single-pixel imaging in big data environment,” Opt. Express 25(14), 16509–16516 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, X. Wang, G. Zheng, and J. Zhong, “Hadamard single-pixel imaging versus Fourier single-pixel imaging,” Opt. Express 25(16), 19619–19639 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Jiang, S. Zhu, H. Zhao, B. Xu, and X. Li, “Adaptive regional single-pixel imaging based on the Fourier slice theorem,” Opt. Express 25(13), 15118–15130 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. J. Sun, L. T. Meng, M. P. Edgar, M. J. Padgett, and N. Radwell, “A Russian Dolls ordering of the Hadamard basis for compressive single-pixel imaging,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3464 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. C. Liu, B. Yang, Q. Guo, J. Shi, C. Guan, G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Single-pixel computational ghost imaging with helicity-dependent metasurface hologram,” Sci. Adv. 3(9), e1701477 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Yang, O. S. Magaña-Loaiza, M. Mirhosseini, Y. Zhou, B. Gao, L. Gao, S. M. H. Rafsanjani, G. L. Long, and R. W. Boyd, “Digital spiral object identification using random light,” Light: Sci. Appl. 6(7), e17013 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (8)

P. Ryczkowski, M. Barbier, and A. Friberg, “Ghost imaging in the time domain,” Nat. Photonics 10(3), 167–170 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, W. T. Liu, H. Z. Lin, E. F. Zhang, J. Y. Liu, Q. Li, and P. X. Chen, “Multi-scale adaptive computational ghost imaging,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37013 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Bian, J. Suo, X. Hu, F. Chen, and Q. Dai, “Efficient single pixel imaging in Fourier space,” J. Opt. 18(8), 085704 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Wang and S Zhao, “Fast reconstructed and high-quality ghost imaging with fast Walsh-Hadamard transform,” Photonics Res. 4(6), 240–244 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. J. Sun, M. P. Edgar, G. M. Gibson, B. Sun, N. Radwell, R. Lamb, and M. J. Padgett, “Single-pixelthree- dimensional imaging with time-based depth resolution,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12010 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Gong, C. Zhao, H. Yu, M. Chen, W. Xu, and S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraint,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 26133 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Devaux, P. A. Moreau, S. Denis, and E. Lantz, “Computational temporal ghost imaging,” Optica 3(7), 698–701 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Yang, L. Zhao, X. Zhao, W. Qin, and J. Li, “Lensless ghost imaging through the strongly scattering medium,” Chin. Phys. B 25(2), 024202 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

S. M. Khamoushi, Y. Nosrati, and S. H. Tavassoli, “Sinusoidal ghost imaging,” Opt. Lett. 40(15), 3452–3455 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, X. Ma, and J. Zhong, “Single-pixel imaging by means of Fourier spectrum acquisition,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6225 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

C. M. Watts, D. Shrekenhamer, J. Montoya, G. Lipworth, J. Hunt, T. Sleasman, S. Krishna, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Terahertz compressive imaging with metamaterial spatial light modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 605–609 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Radwell, K. J. Mitchell, G. M. Gibson, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “Single-pixel infrared and visible microscope,” Optica 1(5), 285–289 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

S. S. Welsh, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, P. Jonathan, B. Sun, and M. J. Padgett, “Fast full-color computational imaging with single-pixel detectors,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23068–23074 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Sun, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, L. E. Vittert, S. Welsh, A. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “3-D Computational imaging with single-pixel detectors,” Science 340(6134), 844–847 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

R. E. Meyers, K. S. Deacon, and Y. Shih, “Turbulence-free ghost imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 111115 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

Y. Bromberg, O. Katz, and Y. Silberberg, “Ghost imaging with a single detector,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 053840 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

M. F. Duarte, M. A. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, T. Sun, K. F. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, “Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 83–91 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. H. Shapiro, “Computational ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 78(6), 061802 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

L. Basano and P. Ottonello, “Experiment in lensless ghost imaging with thermal light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091109 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-resolution ghost image and ghost diffraction experiments with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(18), 183602 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, and K. G. Wang, “Geometrical optics in correlated imaging systems,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 013801 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, ““Two-photon” coincidence imaging with a classical source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(11), 113601 (2002).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, “Optical imaging by means of two-photon quantum entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 52(5), R3429–R3432 (1995).
[Crossref]

Agnew, M.

N. Bornman, M. Agnew, F. Zhu, A. Vallés, A. Forbes, and J. Leach, “Ghost imaging using entanglement-swapped photons,” npj Quantum Inf. 5(1), 63 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bache, M.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-resolution ghost image and ghost diffraction experiments with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(18), 183602 (2005).
[Crossref]

Baraniuk, R. G.

M. F. Duarte, M. A. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, T. Sun, K. F. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, “Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 83–91 (2008).
[Crossref]

Barbier, M.

P. Ryczkowski, M. Barbier, and A. Friberg, “Ghost imaging in the time domain,” Nat. Photonics 10(3), 167–170 (2016).
[Crossref]

Basano, L.

L. Basano and P. Ottonello, “Experiment in lensless ghost imaging with thermal light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bennink, R. S.

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, ““Two-photon” coincidence imaging with a classical source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(11), 113601 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bentley, S. J.

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, ““Two-photon” coincidence imaging with a classical source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(11), 113601 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bian, L.

L. Bian, J. Suo, X. Hu, F. Chen, and Q. Dai, “Efficient single pixel imaging in Fourier space,” J. Opt. 18(8), 085704 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bornman, N.

N. Bornman, M. Agnew, F. Zhu, A. Vallés, A. Forbes, and J. Leach, “Ghost imaging using entanglement-swapped photons,” npj Quantum Inf. 5(1), 63 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bowman, A.

B. Sun, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, L. E. Vittert, S. Welsh, A. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “3-D Computational imaging with single-pixel detectors,” Science 340(6134), 844–847 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bowman, R.

Boyd, R.

J. Zhao, E. Yiwen, K. Williams, X. C. Zhang, and R. Boyd, “Spatial sampling of terahertz fields with sub-wavelength accuracy via probe beam encoding,” Light: Sci. Appl. 8(1), 55 (2019).
[Crossref]

Boyd, R. W.

Z. Yang, O. S. Magaña-Loaiza, M. Mirhosseini, Y. Zhou, B. Gao, L. Gao, S. M. H. Rafsanjani, G. L. Long, and R. W. Boyd, “Digital spiral object identification using random light,” Light: Sci. Appl. 6(7), e17013 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, ““Two-photon” coincidence imaging with a classical source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(11), 113601 (2002).
[Crossref]

Brambilla, E.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-resolution ghost image and ghost diffraction experiments with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(18), 183602 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bromberg, Y.

Y. Bromberg, O. Katz, and Y. Silberberg, “Ghost imaging with a single detector,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 053840 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cao, D. Z.

D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, and K. G. Wang, “Geometrical optics in correlated imaging systems,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 013801 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, F.

L. Bian, J. Suo, X. Hu, F. Chen, and Q. Dai, “Efficient single pixel imaging in Fourier space,” J. Opt. 18(8), 085704 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, L. M.

Chen, M.

W. Gong, C. Zhao, H. Yu, M. Chen, W. Xu, and S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraint,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 26133 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, P. X.

S. Sun, W. T. Liu, H. Z. Lin, E. F. Zhang, J. Y. Liu, Q. Li, and P. X. Chen, “Multi-scale adaptive computational ghost imaging,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37013 (2016).
[Crossref]

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S. S. Welsh, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, P. Jonathan, B. Sun, and M. J. Padgett, “Fast full-color computational imaging with single-pixel detectors,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23068–23074 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Sun, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, L. E. Vittert, S. Welsh, A. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “3-D Computational imaging with single-pixel detectors,” Science 340(6134), 844–847 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sun, M. J.

M. J. Sun and J. M. Zhang, “Single-pixel imaging and its application in three-dimensional reconstruction: a brief review,” Sensors 19(3), 732 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. H. Xu, W. Chen, J. Penuelas, M. Padgett, and M. J. Sun, “1000 fps computational ghost imaging using LED-based structured illumination,” Opt. Express 26(3), 2427–2434 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. J. Sun, L. T. Meng, M. P. Edgar, M. J. Padgett, and N. Radwell, “A Russian Dolls ordering of the Hadamard basis for compressive single-pixel imaging,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3464 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. J. Sun, M. P. Edgar, G. M. Gibson, B. Sun, N. Radwell, R. Lamb, and M. J. Padgett, “Single-pixelthree- dimensional imaging with time-based depth resolution,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12010 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sun, S.

S. Sun, W. T. Liu, H. Z. Lin, E. F. Zhang, J. Y. Liu, Q. Li, and P. X. Chen, “Multi-scale adaptive computational ghost imaging,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37013 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sun, T.

M. F. Duarte, M. A. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, T. Sun, K. F. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, “Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 83–91 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sun, Z.

Suo, J.

Y. Wang, Y. Liu, J. Suo, G. Situ, C. Qiao, and Q. Dai, “High speed computational ghost imaging via spatial sweeping,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 45325 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Bian, J. Suo, X. Hu, F. Chen, and Q. Dai, “Efficient single pixel imaging in Fourier space,” J. Opt. 18(8), 085704 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tahara, T.

Tajahuerce, E.

Takhar, D.

M. F. Duarte, M. A. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, T. Sun, K. F. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, “Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 83–91 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tavassoli, S. H.

Tian, T.

C. Zhou, T. Tian, C. Gao, W. Gong, and L. Song, “Multi- resolution progressive computational ghost imaging,” J. Opt. 21(5), 055702 (2019).
[Crossref]

Tong, Z.

Torres-Company, V.

Tuitje, F.

Vallés, A.

N. Bornman, M. Agnew, F. Zhu, A. Vallés, A. Forbes, and J. Leach, “Ghost imaging using entanglement-swapped photons,” npj Quantum Inf. 5(1), 63 (2019).
[Crossref]

Vittert, L. E.

B. Sun, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, L. E. Vittert, S. Welsh, A. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “3-D Computational imaging with single-pixel detectors,” Science 340(6134), 844–847 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, B. B.

Wang, C.

S. Ma, Z. Liu, C. Wang, C. Hu, E. Li, W. Gong, Z. Tong, J. Wu, X. Shen, and S. Han, “Ghost imaging LiDAR via sparsity constraints using push-broom scanning,” Opt. Express 27(9), 13219–13228 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Deng, L. Pan, C. Wang, X. Gao, W. Gong, and S. Han, “Performance analysis of ghost imaging lidar in background light environment,” Photonics Res. 5(5), 431–435 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

Wang, K. G.

D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, and K. G. Wang, “Geometrical optics in correlated imaging systems,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 013801 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

L. Wang and S Zhao, “Fast reconstructed and high-quality ghost imaging with fast Walsh-Hadamard transform,” Photonics Res. 4(6), 240–244 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Wang, Y.

Watts, C. M.

C. M. Watts, D. Shrekenhamer, J. Montoya, G. Lipworth, J. Hunt, T. Sleasman, S. Krishna, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Terahertz compressive imaging with metamaterial spatial light modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 605–609 (2014).
[Crossref]

Welsh, S.

B. Sun, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, L. E. Vittert, S. Welsh, A. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “3-D Computational imaging with single-pixel detectors,” Science 340(6134), 844–847 (2013).
[Crossref]

Welsh, S. S.

Williams, K.

J. Zhao, E. Yiwen, K. Williams, X. C. Zhang, and R. Boyd, “Spatial sampling of terahertz fields with sub-wavelength accuracy via probe beam encoding,” Light: Sci. Appl. 8(1), 55 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

Wu, L. A.

Xiong, J.

D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, and K. G. Wang, “Geometrical optics in correlated imaging systems,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 013801 (2005).
[Crossref]

Xu, B.

Xu, W.

W. Gong, C. Zhao, H. Yu, M. Chen, W. Xu, and S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraint,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 26133 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

Xu, Z. H.

Yan, L.

M. F. Li, L. Yan, R. Yang, and Y. X. Liu, “Fast single-pixel imaging based on optimized reordering Hadamard basis,” Acta Phys. Sin. 68(6), 064202 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yang, B.

H. C. Liu, B. Yang, Q. Guo, J. Shi, C. Guan, G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Single-pixel computational ghost imaging with helicity-dependent metasurface hologram,” Sci. Adv. 3(9), e1701477 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yang, R.

M. F. Li, L. Yan, R. Yang, and Y. X. Liu, “Fast single-pixel imaging based on optimized reordering Hadamard basis,” Acta Phys. Sin. 68(6), 064202 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.

Z. Yang, W. X. Zhang, Y. P. Liu, D. Ruan, and J. L. Li, “Instant ghost imaging: algorithm and on-chip Implementation,” Opt. Express 28(3), 3607–3618 (2020).
[Crossref]

Z. Yang, W. X. Zhang, M. C. Zhang, D. Ruan, and J. L. Li, “Instant Ghost Imaging: improving robustness for ghost imaging on optical background noise,” OSA Continuum 3(2), 391–400 (2020).
[Crossref]

Z. Yang, O. S. Magaña-Loaiza, M. Mirhosseini, Y. Zhou, B. Gao, L. Gao, S. M. H. Rafsanjani, G. L. Long, and R. W. Boyd, “Digital spiral object identification using random light,” Light: Sci. Appl. 6(7), e17013 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Yang, L. Zhao, X. Zhao, W. Qin, and J. Li, “Lensless ghost imaging through the strongly scattering medium,” Chin. Phys. B 25(2), 024202 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. L. Li, Z. Yang, and L. L. Long, Patent CN201510151008.2 (2015) (In Chinese).

Z. Yang, J. L. Li, and W. X. Zhang, Patent CN201910795456.4 (2019) (In Chinese).

Yiwen, E.

J. Zhao, E. Yiwen, K. Williams, X. C. Zhang, and R. Boyd, “Spatial sampling of terahertz fields with sub-wavelength accuracy via probe beam encoding,” Light: Sci. Appl. 8(1), 55 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

W. Gong, C. Zhao, H. Yu, M. Chen, W. Xu, and S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraint,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 26133 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zentgraf, T.

H. C. Liu, B. Yang, Q. Guo, J. Shi, C. Guan, G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Single-pixel computational ghost imaging with helicity-dependent metasurface hologram,” Sci. Adv. 3(9), e1701477 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, A. X.

Zhang, E. F.

S. Sun, W. T. Liu, H. Z. Lin, E. F. Zhang, J. Y. Liu, Q. Li, and P. X. Chen, “Multi-scale adaptive computational ghost imaging,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37013 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. M.

M. J. Sun and J. M. Zhang, “Single-pixel imaging and its application in three-dimensional reconstruction: a brief review,” Sensors 19(3), 732 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

Zhang, M. C.

Zhang, S.

H. C. Liu, B. Yang, Q. Guo, J. Shi, C. Guan, G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Single-pixel computational ghost imaging with helicity-dependent metasurface hologram,” Sci. Adv. 3(9), e1701477 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

Zhang, W. X.

Zhang, X. C.

J. Zhao, E. Yiwen, K. Williams, X. C. Zhang, and R. Boyd, “Spatial sampling of terahertz fields with sub-wavelength accuracy via probe beam encoding,” Light: Sci. Appl. 8(1), 55 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

Zhao, C.

W. Gong, C. Zhao, H. Yu, M. Chen, W. Xu, and S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraint,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 26133 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhao, H.

Zhao, J.

J. Zhao, E. Yiwen, K. Williams, X. C. Zhang, and R. Boyd, “Spatial sampling of terahertz fields with sub-wavelength accuracy via probe beam encoding,” Light: Sci. Appl. 8(1), 55 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L.

Z. Yang, L. Zhao, X. Zhao, W. Qin, and J. Li, “Lensless ghost imaging through the strongly scattering medium,” Chin. Phys. B 25(2), 024202 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Q.

Z. Li, Q. Zhao, and W. Gong, “Experimental investigation of ghost imaging in background light environments,” J. Opt. 22(2), 025201 (2020).
[Crossref]

Zhao, S

L. Wang and S Zhao, “Fast reconstructed and high-quality ghost imaging with fast Walsh-Hadamard transform,” Photonics Res. 4(6), 240–244 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhao, X.

Z. Yang, L. Zhao, X. Zhao, W. Qin, and J. Li, “Lensless ghost imaging through the strongly scattering medium,” Chin. Phys. B 25(2), 024202 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zheng, G.

H. C. Liu, B. Yang, Q. Guo, J. Shi, C. Guan, G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Single-pixel computational ghost imaging with helicity-dependent metasurface hologram,” Sci. Adv. 3(9), e1701477 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, X. Wang, G. Zheng, and J. Zhong, “Hadamard single-pixel imaging versus Fourier single-pixel imaging,” Opt. Express 25(16), 19619–19639 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zheng, H.

Zhong, J.

Z. Zhang, X. Wang, G. Zheng, and J. Zhong, “Hadamard single-pixel imaging versus Fourier single-pixel imaging,” Opt. Express 25(16), 19619–19639 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, X. Ma, and J. Zhong, “Single-pixel imaging by means of Fourier spectrum acquisition,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6225 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, C.

C. Zhou, T. Tian, C. Gao, W. Gong, and L. Song, “Multi- resolution progressive computational ghost imaging,” J. Opt. 21(5), 055702 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y.

M. Le, G. Wang, H. Zheng, J. Liu, Y. Zhou, and Z. Xu, “Underwater computational ghost imaging,” Opt. Express 25(19), 22859–22868 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Yang, O. S. Magaña-Loaiza, M. Mirhosseini, Y. Zhou, B. Gao, L. Gao, S. M. H. Rafsanjani, G. L. Long, and R. W. Boyd, “Digital spiral object identification using random light,” Light: Sci. Appl. 6(7), e17013 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhu, F.

N. Bornman, M. Agnew, F. Zhu, A. Vallés, A. Forbes, and J. Leach, “Ghost imaging using entanglement-swapped photons,” npj Quantum Inf. 5(1), 63 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhu, S.

Acta Phys. Sin. (1)

M. F. Li, L. Yan, R. Yang, and Y. X. Liu, “Fast single-pixel imaging based on optimized reordering Hadamard basis,” Acta Phys. Sin. 68(6), 064202 (2019).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

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L. Basano and P. Ottonello, “Experiment in lensless ghost imaging with thermal light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091109 (2006).
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R. E. Meyers, K. S. Deacon, and Y. Shih, “Turbulence-free ghost imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 111115 (2011).
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Chin. Phys. B (1)

Z. Yang, L. Zhao, X. Zhao, W. Qin, and J. Li, “Lensless ghost imaging through the strongly scattering medium,” Chin. Phys. B 25(2), 024202 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Signal Process. Mag. (1)

M. F. Duarte, M. A. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, T. Sun, K. F. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, “Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 83–91 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (3)

C. Zhou, T. Tian, C. Gao, W. Gong, and L. Song, “Multi- resolution progressive computational ghost imaging,” J. Opt. 21(5), 055702 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, Q. Zhao, and W. Gong, “Experimental investigation of ghost imaging in background light environments,” J. Opt. 22(2), 025201 (2020).
[Crossref]

L. Bian, J. Suo, X. Hu, F. Chen, and Q. Dai, “Efficient single pixel imaging in Fourier space,” J. Opt. 18(8), 085704 (2016).
[Crossref]

Light: Sci. Appl. (2)

Z. Yang, O. S. Magaña-Loaiza, M. Mirhosseini, Y. Zhou, B. Gao, L. Gao, S. M. H. Rafsanjani, G. L. Long, and R. W. Boyd, “Digital spiral object identification using random light,” Light: Sci. Appl. 6(7), e17013 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, E. Yiwen, K. Williams, X. C. Zhang, and R. Boyd, “Spatial sampling of terahertz fields with sub-wavelength accuracy via probe beam encoding,” Light: Sci. Appl. 8(1), 55 (2019).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

M. J. Sun, M. P. Edgar, G. M. Gibson, B. Sun, N. Radwell, R. Lamb, and M. J. Padgett, “Single-pixelthree- dimensional imaging with time-based depth resolution,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12010 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, X. Ma, and J. Zhong, “Single-pixel imaging by means of Fourier spectrum acquisition,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6225 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (3)

C. M. Watts, D. Shrekenhamer, J. Montoya, G. Lipworth, J. Hunt, T. Sleasman, S. Krishna, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Terahertz compressive imaging with metamaterial spatial light modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 605–609 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Ryczkowski, M. Barbier, and A. Friberg, “Ghost imaging in the time domain,” Nat. Photonics 10(3), 167–170 (2016).
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M. P. Edgar, G. M. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, “Principles and prospects for single-pixel imaging,” Nat. Photonics 13(1), 13–20 (2019).
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npj Quantum Inf. (1)

N. Bornman, M. Agnew, F. Zhu, A. Vallés, A. Forbes, and J. Leach, “Ghost imaging using entanglement-swapped photons,” npj Quantum Inf. 5(1), 63 (2019).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (12)

S. S. Welsh, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, P. Jonathan, B. Sun, and M. J. Padgett, “Fast full-color computational imaging with single-pixel detectors,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23068–23074 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, Z. Lin, R. He, Y. Qian, Q. Chen, and W. Zhang, “Improving the noise immunity of 3D computational ghost imaging,” Opt. Express 27(3), 2344–2353 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Ma, Z. Liu, C. Wang, C. Hu, E. Li, W. Gong, Z. Tong, J. Wu, X. Shen, and S. Han, “Ghost imaging LiDAR via sparsity constraints using push-broom scanning,” Opt. Express 27(9), 13219–13228 (2019).
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Z. Sun, F. Tuitje, and C. Spielmann, “Toward high contrast and high-resolution microscopic ghost imaging,” Opt. Express 27(23), 33652–33661 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, X. Wang, G. Zheng, and J. Zhong, “Hadamard single-pixel imaging versus Fourier single-pixel imaging,” Opt. Express 25(16), 19619–19639 (2017).
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H. Jiang, S. Zhu, H. Zhao, B. Xu, and X. Li, “Adaptive regional single-pixel imaging based on the Fourier slice theorem,” Opt. Express 25(13), 15118–15130 (2017).
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W. Chen, “Ghost identification based on single-pixel imaging in big data environment,” Opt. Express 25(14), 16509–16516 (2017).
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S. Jiang, X. Li, Z. Zhang, W. Jiang, Y. Wang, G. He, Y. Wang, and B. Sun, “Scan efficiency of structured illumination in iterative single pixel imaging,” Opt. Express 27(16), 22499–22507 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. H. Xu, W. Chen, J. Penuelas, M. Padgett, and M. J. Sun, “1000 fps computational ghost imaging using LED-based structured illumination,” Opt. Express 26(3), 2427–2434 (2018).
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K. M. Czajkowski, A. Pastuszczak, and R. Kotyński, “Real-time single-pixel video imaging with Fourier domain regularization,” Opt. Express 26(16), 20009–20022 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Le, G. Wang, H. Zheng, J. Liu, Y. Zhou, and Z. Xu, “Underwater computational ghost imaging,” Opt. Express 25(19), 22859–22868 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Yang, W. X. Zhang, Y. P. Liu, D. Ruan, and J. L. Li, “Instant ghost imaging: algorithm and on-chip Implementation,” Opt. Express 28(3), 3607–3618 (2020).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optica (3)

OSA Continuum (2)

Photonics Res. (2)

C. Deng, L. Pan, C. Wang, X. Gao, W. Gong, and S. Han, “Performance analysis of ghost imaging lidar in background light environment,” Photonics Res. 5(5), 431–435 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Wang and S Zhao, “Fast reconstructed and high-quality ghost imaging with fast Walsh-Hadamard transform,” Photonics Res. 4(6), 240–244 (2016).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (4)

D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, and K. G. Wang, “Geometrical optics in correlated imaging systems,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 013801 (2005).
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J. H. Shapiro, “Computational ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 78(6), 061802 (2008).
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Sci. Adv. (1)

H. C. Liu, B. Yang, Q. Guo, J. Shi, C. Guan, G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Single-pixel computational ghost imaging with helicity-dependent metasurface hologram,” Sci. Adv. 3(9), e1701477 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (5)

W. Gong, C. Zhao, H. Yu, M. Chen, W. Xu, and S. Han, “Three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraint,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 26133 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. J. Sun, L. T. Meng, M. P. Edgar, M. J. Padgett, and N. Radwell, “A Russian Dolls ordering of the Hadamard basis for compressive single-pixel imaging,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3464 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. M. Czajkowski, A. Pastuszczak, and R. Kotyński, “Single-pixel imaging with Morlet wavelet correlated random patterns,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 466 (2018).
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S. Sun, W. T. Liu, H. Z. Lin, E. F. Zhang, J. Y. Liu, Q. Li, and P. X. Chen, “Multi-scale adaptive computational ghost imaging,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37013 (2016).
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Y. Wang, Y. Liu, J. Suo, G. Situ, C. Qiao, and Q. Dai, “High speed computational ghost imaging via spatial sweeping,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 45325 (2017).
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Science (1)

B. Sun, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, L. E. Vittert, S. Welsh, A. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “3-D Computational imaging with single-pixel detectors,” Science 340(6134), 844–847 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sensors (1)

M. J. Sun and J. M. Zhang, “Single-pixel imaging and its application in three-dimensional reconstruction: a brief review,” Sensors 19(3), 732 (2019).
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Other (3)

J. L. Li, Z. Yang, and L. L. Long, Patent CN201510151008.2 (2015) (In Chinese).

J. L. Li, “Study on second-order correlated imaging with pseudo-thermal light,” Ph.D. thesis, Tsinghua University, (2016) (In Chinese).

Z. Yang, J. L. Li, and W. X. Zhang, Patent CN201910795456.4 (2019) (In Chinese).

Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Real-time video produced by the ISPI for a moving object.
» Visualization 2       Real-time video produced by the ISPI for a moving object.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. The experimental setup of ISPI.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Experimental results of ISPI.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Images of the moving object.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The resistance of ISPI to optical background noise.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

G I G I ( x ) = 1 2 N i = 1 N [ S n + 1 S n ] [ I n + 1 ( x ) I n ( x ) ]
G ( x ) = [ S S ] [ I ( x ) I ( x ) ]
( Q n + 1 Q n ) ( S n + 1 S n )

Metrics