Abstract

The advantages and uniqueness of blue-phase-based electro-optical devices are predicted. In this paper, we present relevant electro-optics behaviors of the transmitted and reflected lights of BPII and try to explain those phenomena through studying the polarization states of the lights. There are two stages of electro-optical behaviors seen in an in-plan-switching BPII cell. Because of the Kerr effect, the birefringence of the linear polarized light is induced and saturated 0.021 at 150 V, and the Kerr constant is $\approx 3 \times 10^{-10}\; {\textrm{mV}}^{-2}$. As the applied voltage is stronger (>200 V), the influence of the deformation of the lattice structure dominates the transmitted/reflected intensity at different wavelengths, which causes a discontinuous change in the transmitted light intensity and a huge variation in the azimuth angle ($80^{\circ }$) of the polarization state of the transmitted light. As a result the deformation of the lattice structure of the BPII not only induces a linear birefringence but also induces a change in optical rotatory power and then affects the polarization state of the light. These experimental results show that the electro-optical nature of the BPII cell is more complicated than the well-known BPI phase. They also show that BPII can be used not only in transflective devices, but also in field-tunable optical devices.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. J.-I. Fukuda and S. Žumer, “Field-induced dynamics and structures in a cholesteric-blue-phase cell,” Phys. Rev. E 87(4), 042506 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  2. H.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Lai, C.-C. Chan, and C.-H. Tseng, “Fast tunable reflection in amorphous blue phase III liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(12), 123103 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. Yan, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S.-T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. Choi, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Fast electro-optic switching in liquid crystal blue phase II,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131905 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  5. H.-Y. Chen, J.-Y. Chiou, and K.-X. Yang, “Reversible and fast shift in reflection band of a cubic blue phase in a vertical electric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181119 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  6. W. Cao, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  7. C. W. Chen, H. C. Jau, C. T. Wang, C. H. Lee, I. C. Khoo, and T. H. Lin, “Random lasing in blue phase liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23978–23984 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  8. F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater. 11(7), 599–603 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  9. V. Sridurai, M. Mathews, C. V. Yelamaggad, and G. G. Nair, “Electrically Tunable Soft Photonic Gel Formed by Blue Phase Liquid Crystal for Switchable Color-Reflecting Mirror,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(45), 39569–39575 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  10. I. C. Khoo, K. L. Hong, S. Zhao, D. Ma, and T. H. Lin, “Blue-phase liquid crystal cored optical fiber array with photonic bandgaps and nonlinear transmission properties,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4319–4327 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. D. A. Rahman, S. Mohd Said, and S. Balamurugan, “Blue phase liquid crystal: strategies for phase stabilization and device development,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 16(3), 033501 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  12. Y. Kawata, H. Yoshida, S. Tanaka, A. Konkanok, M. Ozaki, and H. Kikuchi, “Anisotropy of the electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E 91(2), 022503 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  13. C. D. Tu, C. L. Lin, J. Yan, Y. Chen, P. C. Lai, and S. T. Wu, “Driving Scheme Using Bootstrapping Method for Blue-Phase LCDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(1), 3–6 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  14. H. Yoshida, S. Yabu, H. Tone, Y. Kawata, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, “Secondary electro-optic effect in liquid crystalline cholesteric blue phases,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(5), 960 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  15. H. S. Kitzerow, “Blue Phases: Prior Art, Potential Polar Effects, Challenges,” Ferroelectrics 395(1), 66–85 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  16. P. R. Gerber, “Electro-Optical Effects of a Small-Pitch Blue-Phase System,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 116(3–4), 197–206 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  17. K. W. Park, M. J. Gim, S. Kim, S. T. Hur, and S. W. Choi, “Liquid-Crystalline Blue Phase II System Comprising a Bent-Core Molecule with a Wide Stable Temperature Range,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(16), 8025–8029 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  18. K. Orzechowski, M. W. Sierakowski, M. Sala-Tefelska, P. Joshi, T. R. Woliński, and H. De Smet, “Polarization properties of cubic blue phases of a cholesteric liquid crystal,” Opt. Mater. 69, 259–264 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  19. P. Crooker, “Polarization of multiply scattered Bragg reflections from chiral cubic structures,” Phys. Rev. A 31(2), 1010–1013 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  20. H.-Y. Chen, S.-F. Lu, P.-H. Wu, and C.-S. Wang, “Transflective BPIII mode with no internal reflector,” Liq. Cryst. 44(3), 473–478 (2017).
    [Crossref]

2017 (3)

V. Sridurai, M. Mathews, C. V. Yelamaggad, and G. G. Nair, “Electrically Tunable Soft Photonic Gel Formed by Blue Phase Liquid Crystal for Switchable Color-Reflecting Mirror,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(45), 39569–39575 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Orzechowski, M. W. Sierakowski, M. Sala-Tefelska, P. Joshi, T. R. Woliński, and H. De Smet, “Polarization properties of cubic blue phases of a cholesteric liquid crystal,” Opt. Mater. 69, 259–264 (2017).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Chen, S.-F. Lu, P.-H. Wu, and C.-S. Wang, “Transflective BPIII mode with no internal reflector,” Liq. Cryst. 44(3), 473–478 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

M. D. A. Rahman, S. Mohd Said, and S. Balamurugan, “Blue phase liquid crystal: strategies for phase stabilization and device development,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 16(3), 033501 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Kawata, H. Yoshida, S. Tanaka, A. Konkanok, M. Ozaki, and H. Kikuchi, “Anisotropy of the electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E 91(2), 022503 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (5)

C. D. Tu, C. L. Lin, J. Yan, Y. Chen, P. C. Lai, and S. T. Wu, “Driving Scheme Using Bootstrapping Method for Blue-Phase LCDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(1), 3–6 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. W. Park, M. J. Gim, S. Kim, S. T. Hur, and S. W. Choi, “Liquid-Crystalline Blue Phase II System Comprising a Bent-Core Molecule with a Wide Stable Temperature Range,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(16), 8025–8029 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. C. Khoo, K. L. Hong, S. Zhao, D. Ma, and T. H. Lin, “Blue-phase liquid crystal cored optical fiber array with photonic bandgaps and nonlinear transmission properties,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4319–4327 (2013).
[Crossref]

J.-I. Fukuda and S. Žumer, “Field-induced dynamics and structures in a cholesteric-blue-phase cell,” Phys. Rev. E 87(4), 042506 (2013).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Lai, C.-C. Chan, and C.-H. Tseng, “Fast tunable reflection in amorphous blue phase III liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(12), 123103 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

C. W. Chen, H. C. Jau, C. T. Wang, C. H. Lee, I. C. Khoo, and T. H. Lin, “Random lasing in blue phase liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23978–23984 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater. 11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

H. Choi, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Fast electro-optic switching in liquid crystal blue phase II,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131905 (2011).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Chen, J.-Y. Chiou, and K.-X. Yang, “Reversible and fast shift in reflection band of a cubic blue phase in a vertical electric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181119 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

J. Yan, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S.-T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. S. Kitzerow, “Blue Phases: Prior Art, Potential Polar Effects, Challenges,” Ferroelectrics 395(1), 66–85 (2010).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

W. Cao, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[Crossref]

1985 (2)

P. R. Gerber, “Electro-Optical Effects of a Small-Pitch Blue-Phase System,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 116(3–4), 197–206 (1985).
[Crossref]

P. Crooker, “Polarization of multiply scattered Bragg reflections from chiral cubic structures,” Phys. Rev. A 31(2), 1010–1013 (1985).
[Crossref]

Balamurugan, S.

M. D. A. Rahman, S. Mohd Said, and S. Balamurugan, “Blue phase liquid crystal: strategies for phase stabilization and device development,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 16(3), 033501 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cao, W.

W. Cao, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[Crossref]

Castles, F.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater. 11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chan, C.-C.

H.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Lai, C.-C. Chan, and C.-H. Tseng, “Fast tunable reflection in amorphous blue phase III liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(12), 123103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. W.

Chen, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Chen, S.-F. Lu, P.-H. Wu, and C.-S. Wang, “Transflective BPIII mode with no internal reflector,” Liq. Cryst. 44(3), 473–478 (2017).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Lai, C.-C. Chan, and C.-H. Tseng, “Fast tunable reflection in amorphous blue phase III liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(12), 123103 (2013).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Chen, J.-Y. Chiou, and K.-X. Yang, “Reversible and fast shift in reflection band of a cubic blue phase in a vertical electric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181119 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

C. D. Tu, C. L. Lin, J. Yan, Y. Chen, P. C. Lai, and S. T. Wu, “Driving Scheme Using Bootstrapping Method for Blue-Phase LCDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(1), 3–6 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cheng, H.-C.

J. Yan, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S.-T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chiou, J.-Y.

H.-Y. Chen, J.-Y. Chiou, and K.-X. Yang, “Reversible and fast shift in reflection band of a cubic blue phase in a vertical electric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181119 (2011).
[Crossref]

Choi, H.

H. Choi, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Fast electro-optic switching in liquid crystal blue phase II,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131905 (2011).
[Crossref]

Choi, S. S.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater. 11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[Crossref]

Choi, S. W.

K. W. Park, M. J. Gim, S. Kim, S. T. Hur, and S. W. Choi, “Liquid-Crystalline Blue Phase II System Comprising a Bent-Core Molecule with a Wide Stable Temperature Range,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(16), 8025–8029 (2013).
[Crossref]

Coles, H. J.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater. 11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[Crossref]

Crooker, P.

P. Crooker, “Polarization of multiply scattered Bragg reflections from chiral cubic structures,” Phys. Rev. A 31(2), 1010–1013 (1985).
[Crossref]

Day, F. V.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater. 11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[Crossref]

De Smet, H.

K. Orzechowski, M. W. Sierakowski, M. Sala-Tefelska, P. Joshi, T. R. Woliński, and H. De Smet, “Polarization properties of cubic blue phases of a cholesteric liquid crystal,” Opt. Mater. 69, 259–264 (2017).
[Crossref]

Friend, R. H.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater. 11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fukuda, J.-I.

J.-I. Fukuda and S. Žumer, “Field-induced dynamics and structures in a cholesteric-blue-phase cell,” Phys. Rev. E 87(4), 042506 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gardiner, D. J.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater. 11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gauza, S.

J. Yan, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S.-T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gerber, P. R.

P. R. Gerber, “Electro-Optical Effects of a Small-Pitch Blue-Phase System,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 116(3–4), 197–206 (1985).
[Crossref]

Gim, M. J.

K. W. Park, M. J. Gim, S. Kim, S. T. Hur, and S. W. Choi, “Liquid-Crystalline Blue Phase II System Comprising a Bent-Core Molecule with a Wide Stable Temperature Range,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(16), 8025–8029 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hands, P. J. W.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater. 11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[Crossref]

Higuchi, H.

H. Choi, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Fast electro-optic switching in liquid crystal blue phase II,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131905 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hong, K. L.

Hur, S. T.

K. W. Park, M. J. Gim, S. Kim, S. T. Hur, and S. W. Choi, “Liquid-Crystalline Blue Phase II System Comprising a Bent-Core Molecule with a Wide Stable Temperature Range,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(16), 8025–8029 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jau, H. C.

Jiao, M.

J. Yan, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S.-T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Joshi, P.

K. Orzechowski, M. W. Sierakowski, M. Sala-Tefelska, P. Joshi, T. R. Woliński, and H. De Smet, “Polarization properties of cubic blue phases of a cholesteric liquid crystal,” Opt. Mater. 69, 259–264 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kawata, Y.

Y. Kawata, H. Yoshida, S. Tanaka, A. Konkanok, M. Ozaki, and H. Kikuchi, “Anisotropy of the electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E 91(2), 022503 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Yoshida, S. Yabu, H. Tone, Y. Kawata, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, “Secondary electro-optic effect in liquid crystalline cholesteric blue phases,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(5), 960 (2014).
[Crossref]

Khoo, I. C.

Kikuchi, H.

Y. Kawata, H. Yoshida, S. Tanaka, A. Konkanok, M. Ozaki, and H. Kikuchi, “Anisotropy of the electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E 91(2), 022503 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Yoshida, S. Yabu, H. Tone, Y. Kawata, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, “Secondary electro-optic effect in liquid crystalline cholesteric blue phases,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(5), 960 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Choi, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Fast electro-optic switching in liquid crystal blue phase II,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131905 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

K. W. Park, M. J. Gim, S. Kim, S. T. Hur, and S. W. Choi, “Liquid-Crystalline Blue Phase II System Comprising a Bent-Core Molecule with a Wide Stable Temperature Range,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(16), 8025–8029 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kitzerow, H. S.

H. S. Kitzerow, “Blue Phases: Prior Art, Potential Polar Effects, Challenges,” Ferroelectrics 395(1), 66–85 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ko, D. H.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater. 11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[Crossref]

Konkanok, A.

Y. Kawata, H. Yoshida, S. Tanaka, A. Konkanok, M. Ozaki, and H. Kikuchi, “Anisotropy of the electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E 91(2), 022503 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lai, J.-L.

H.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Lai, C.-C. Chan, and C.-H. Tseng, “Fast tunable reflection in amorphous blue phase III liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(12), 123103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lai, P. C.

C. D. Tu, C. L. Lin, J. Yan, Y. Chen, P. C. Lai, and S. T. Wu, “Driving Scheme Using Bootstrapping Method for Blue-Phase LCDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(1), 3–6 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. H.

Li, Y.

J. Yan, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S.-T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. L.

C. D. Tu, C. L. Lin, J. Yan, Y. Chen, P. C. Lai, and S. T. Wu, “Driving Scheme Using Bootstrapping Method for Blue-Phase LCDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(1), 3–6 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, T. H.

Lu, S.-F.

H.-Y. Chen, S.-F. Lu, P.-H. Wu, and C.-S. Wang, “Transflective BPIII mode with no internal reflector,” Liq. Cryst. 44(3), 473–478 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ma, D.

Mathews, M.

V. Sridurai, M. Mathews, C. V. Yelamaggad, and G. G. Nair, “Electrically Tunable Soft Photonic Gel Formed by Blue Phase Liquid Crystal for Switchable Color-Reflecting Mirror,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(45), 39569–39575 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mohd Said, S.

M. D. A. Rahman, S. Mohd Said, and S. Balamurugan, “Blue phase liquid crystal: strategies for phase stabilization and device development,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 16(3), 033501 (2015).
[Crossref]

Morris, S. M.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater. 11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[Crossref]

Munoz, A.

W. Cao, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nair, G. G.

V. Sridurai, M. Mathews, C. V. Yelamaggad, and G. G. Nair, “Electrically Tunable Soft Photonic Gel Formed by Blue Phase Liquid Crystal for Switchable Color-Reflecting Mirror,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(45), 39569–39575 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nosheen, S.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater. 11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[Crossref]

Orzechowski, K.

K. Orzechowski, M. W. Sierakowski, M. Sala-Tefelska, P. Joshi, T. R. Woliński, and H. De Smet, “Polarization properties of cubic blue phases of a cholesteric liquid crystal,” Opt. Mater. 69, 259–264 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ozaki, M.

Y. Kawata, H. Yoshida, S. Tanaka, A. Konkanok, M. Ozaki, and H. Kikuchi, “Anisotropy of the electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E 91(2), 022503 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Yoshida, S. Yabu, H. Tone, Y. Kawata, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, “Secondary electro-optic effect in liquid crystalline cholesteric blue phases,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(5), 960 (2014).
[Crossref]

Palffy-Muhoray, P.

W. Cao, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[Crossref]

Park, K. W.

K. W. Park, M. J. Gim, S. Kim, S. T. Hur, and S. W. Choi, “Liquid-Crystalline Blue Phase II System Comprising a Bent-Core Molecule with a Wide Stable Temperature Range,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(16), 8025–8029 (2013).
[Crossref]

Qasim, M. M.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater. 11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rahman, M. D. A.

M. D. A. Rahman, S. Mohd Said, and S. Balamurugan, “Blue phase liquid crystal: strategies for phase stabilization and device development,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 16(3), 033501 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rao, L.

J. Yan, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S.-T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sala-Tefelska, M.

K. Orzechowski, M. W. Sierakowski, M. Sala-Tefelska, P. Joshi, T. R. Woliński, and H. De Smet, “Polarization properties of cubic blue phases of a cholesteric liquid crystal,” Opt. Mater. 69, 259–264 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sierakowski, M. W.

K. Orzechowski, M. W. Sierakowski, M. Sala-Tefelska, P. Joshi, T. R. Woliński, and H. De Smet, “Polarization properties of cubic blue phases of a cholesteric liquid crystal,” Opt. Mater. 69, 259–264 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sridurai, V.

V. Sridurai, M. Mathews, C. V. Yelamaggad, and G. G. Nair, “Electrically Tunable Soft Photonic Gel Formed by Blue Phase Liquid Crystal for Switchable Color-Reflecting Mirror,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(45), 39569–39575 (2017).
[Crossref]

Taheri, B.

W. Cao, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, S.

Y. Kawata, H. Yoshida, S. Tanaka, A. Konkanok, M. Ozaki, and H. Kikuchi, “Anisotropy of the electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E 91(2), 022503 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tone, H.

Tseng, C.-H.

H.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Lai, C.-C. Chan, and C.-H. Tseng, “Fast tunable reflection in amorphous blue phase III liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(12), 123103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tu, C. D.

C. D. Tu, C. L. Lin, J. Yan, Y. Chen, P. C. Lai, and S. T. Wu, “Driving Scheme Using Bootstrapping Method for Blue-Phase LCDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(1), 3–6 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. T.

Wang, C.-S.

H.-Y. Chen, S.-F. Lu, P.-H. Wu, and C.-S. Wang, “Transflective BPIII mode with no internal reflector,” Liq. Cryst. 44(3), 473–478 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wolinski, T. R.

K. Orzechowski, M. W. Sierakowski, M. Sala-Tefelska, P. Joshi, T. R. Woliński, and H. De Smet, “Polarization properties of cubic blue phases of a cholesteric liquid crystal,” Opt. Mater. 69, 259–264 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wu, P.-H.

H.-Y. Chen, S.-F. Lu, P.-H. Wu, and C.-S. Wang, “Transflective BPIII mode with no internal reflector,” Liq. Cryst. 44(3), 473–478 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. T.

C. D. Tu, C. L. Lin, J. Yan, Y. Chen, P. C. Lai, and S. T. Wu, “Driving Scheme Using Bootstrapping Method for Blue-Phase LCDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(1), 3–6 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, S.-T.

J. Yan, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S.-T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yabu, S.

Yan, J.

C. D. Tu, C. L. Lin, J. Yan, Y. Chen, P. C. Lai, and S. T. Wu, “Driving Scheme Using Bootstrapping Method for Blue-Phase LCDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(1), 3–6 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S.-T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, K.-X.

H.-Y. Chen, J.-Y. Chiou, and K.-X. Yang, “Reversible and fast shift in reflection band of a cubic blue phase in a vertical electric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181119 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yelamaggad, C. V.

V. Sridurai, M. Mathews, C. V. Yelamaggad, and G. G. Nair, “Electrically Tunable Soft Photonic Gel Formed by Blue Phase Liquid Crystal for Switchable Color-Reflecting Mirror,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(45), 39569–39575 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, H.

Y. Kawata, H. Yoshida, S. Tanaka, A. Konkanok, M. Ozaki, and H. Kikuchi, “Anisotropy of the electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E 91(2), 022503 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Yoshida, S. Yabu, H. Tone, Y. Kawata, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, “Secondary electro-optic effect in liquid crystalline cholesteric blue phases,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(5), 960 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, S.

Žumer, S.

J.-I. Fukuda and S. Žumer, “Field-induced dynamics and structures in a cholesteric-blue-phase cell,” Phys. Rev. E 87(4), 042506 (2013).
[Crossref]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (2)

V. Sridurai, M. Mathews, C. V. Yelamaggad, and G. G. Nair, “Electrically Tunable Soft Photonic Gel Formed by Blue Phase Liquid Crystal for Switchable Color-Reflecting Mirror,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(45), 39569–39575 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. W. Park, M. J. Gim, S. Kim, S. T. Hur, and S. W. Choi, “Liquid-Crystalline Blue Phase II System Comprising a Bent-Core Molecule with a Wide Stable Temperature Range,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(16), 8025–8029 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

J. Yan, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S.-T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Choi, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Fast electro-optic switching in liquid crystal blue phase II,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131905 (2011).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Chen, J.-Y. Chiou, and K.-X. Yang, “Reversible and fast shift in reflection band of a cubic blue phase in a vertical electric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181119 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ferroelectrics (1)

H. S. Kitzerow, “Blue Phases: Prior Art, Potential Polar Effects, Challenges,” Ferroelectrics 395(1), 66–85 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Lai, C.-C. Chan, and C.-H. Tseng, “Fast tunable reflection in amorphous blue phase III liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(12), 123103 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

C. D. Tu, C. L. Lin, J. Yan, Y. Chen, P. C. Lai, and S. T. Wu, “Driving Scheme Using Bootstrapping Method for Blue-Phase LCDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(1), 3–6 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

H.-Y. Chen, S.-F. Lu, P.-H. Wu, and C.-S. Wang, “Transflective BPIII mode with no internal reflector,” Liq. Cryst. 44(3), 473–478 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

P. R. Gerber, “Electro-Optical Effects of a Small-Pitch Blue-Phase System,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 116(3–4), 197–206 (1985).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (2)

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater. 11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Cao, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Mater. (1)

K. Orzechowski, M. W. Sierakowski, M. Sala-Tefelska, P. Joshi, T. R. Woliński, and H. De Smet, “Polarization properties of cubic blue phases of a cholesteric liquid crystal,” Opt. Mater. 69, 259–264 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

P. Crooker, “Polarization of multiply scattered Bragg reflections from chiral cubic structures,” Phys. Rev. A 31(2), 1010–1013 (1985).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

Y. Kawata, H. Yoshida, S. Tanaka, A. Konkanok, M. Ozaki, and H. Kikuchi, “Anisotropy of the electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E 91(2), 022503 (2015).
[Crossref]

J.-I. Fukuda and S. Žumer, “Field-induced dynamics and structures in a cholesteric-blue-phase cell,” Phys. Rev. E 87(4), 042506 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. (1)

M. D. A. Rahman, S. Mohd Said, and S. Balamurugan, “Blue phase liquid crystal: strategies for phase stabilization and device development,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 16(3), 033501 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (Left)Temperature-dependence reflected wavelengths during the cooling/heating processes. (Right) The Kossel diagrams at BPI and BPII. The wavelength of the probe beam is 405 nm.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Shift in the reflected wavelength in the BPII cell under an application of a vertical electric field.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. The experimental setup of the measurement on the polarization state.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Transmission and reflection light intensities in the IPS-BPII cell.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Voltage-dependence polarization states in the 7.3-$\mu {\textrm{m}}$ IPS-BPII cell. The incident wavelength is 455 nm.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Azimuth and elliptic angles at different applied voltages in the 7.3-$\mu {\textrm{m}}$ IPS-BPII cell. The incident wavelength is 455 nm.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I I 0 = 1 2 s i n 2 ( 2 φ ) s i n 2 { π Δ n i n d d λ }
Δ n i n d = λ K E 2
t a n 2 Ψ = t a n ( 2 E 0 y E 0 x ) c o s ( π Δ n d λ )
t a n 2 χ = t a n ( 2 E 0 y E 0 x ) s i n ( π Δ n d λ )

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