Abstract

We propose a novel ultrasonic wave sensing method employing an optical-frequency-comb (OFC) cavity, namely, an OFC sensing cavity-based ultrasonic wave sensor. We confirm the fundamental characteristics of the OFC sensing cavity-based ultrasonic wave sensor by using an ultrasonic wave transducer and realize the frequency response of up to 13 MHz with a linear response. We also confirm the potential applicability in photoacoustic imaging employing an 8-ns pulsed laser. Our demonstrations confirm the capability of the concept of the OFC sensing cavity in ultrasonic wave sensing and will also expand the potential of OFC technology.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (4)

2017 (5)

T. Minamikawa, Y.-D. Hsieh, K. Shibuya, E. Hase, Y. Kaneoka, S. Okubo, H. Inaba, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, and T. Yasui, “Dual-comb spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 610 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Shibuya, T. Minamikawa, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, K. Minoshima, T. Yasui, and T. Iwata, “Scan-less hyperspectral dual-comb single-pixel-imaging in both amplitude and phase,” Opt. Express 25(18), 21947–21957 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Asahara and K. Minoshima, “Development of ultrafast time-resolved dual-comb spectroscopy,” APL Photonics 2(4), 041301 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. A. Sumihara, S. Okubo, M. Okano, H. Inaba, and S. Watanabe, “Polarization-sensitive dual-comb spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34(1), 154–159 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Kato, M. Uchida, and K. Minoshima, “No-scanning 3D measurement method using ultrafast dimensional conversion with a chirped optical frequency comb,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3670 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

2015 (4)

C. K. Y. Leung, K. T. Wan, D. Inaudi, X. Y. Bao, W. Habel, Z. Zhou, J. P. Ou, M. Ghandehari, H. C. Wu, and M. Imai, “Review: optical fiber sensors for civil engineering applications,” Mater. Struct. 48(4), 871–906 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Okubo, K. Iwakuni, H. Inaba, K. Hosaka, A. Onae, H. Sasada, and F.-L. Hong, “Ultra-broadband dual-comb spectroscopy across 1.0-1.9 µm,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(8), 082402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Weng, E. Ip, Z. Pan, and T. Wang, “Single-end simultaneous temperature and strain sensing techniques based on Brillouin optical time domain reflectometry in few-mode fibers,” Opt. Express 23(7), 9024–9039 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Mizuno, N. Hayashi, H. Tanaka, Y. Wada, and K. Nakamura, “Brillouin scattering in multi-core optical fibers for sensing applications,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11388 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

2013 (2)

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502(7471), 355–358 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, P. Lu, H. Liao, L. Zhang, D. M. Liu, and J. S. Zhang, “Passively mode-locked fiber laser sensor for acoustic pressure sensing,” J. Mod. Opt. 60(21), 1892–1898 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 440–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, “Photoacoustic tomography: in vivo imaging from organelles to organs,” Science 335(6075), 1458–1462 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Kircher, A. de la Zerda, J. V. Jokerst, C. L. Zavaleta, P. J. Kempen, E. Mittra, K. Pitter, R. Huang, C. Campos, F. Habte, R. Sinclair, C. W. Brennan, I. K. Mellinghoff, E. C. Holland, and S. S. Gambhir, “A brain tumor molecular imaging strategy using a new triple-modality MRI-photoacoustic-Raman nanoparticle,” Nat. Med. 18(5), 829–834 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

2010 (3)

2006 (1)

T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, “Terahertz frequency comb by multifrequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241104 (2006).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Hotate and M. Tanaka, “Distributed fiber Brillouin strain sensing with 1-cm spatial resolution by correlation-based continuous-wave technique,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(2), 179–181 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[Crossref]

Araki, T.

T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, “Terahertz frequency comb by multifrequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Asahara, A.

Askins, C. G.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bao, X. Y.

C. K. Y. Leung, K. T. Wan, D. Inaudi, X. Y. Bao, W. Habel, Z. Zhou, J. P. Ou, M. Ghandehari, H. C. Wu, and M. Imai, “Review: optical fiber sensors for civil engineering applications,” Mater. Struct. 48(4), 871–906 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bernhardt, B.

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502(7471), 355–358 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brennan, C. W.

M. F. Kircher, A. de la Zerda, J. V. Jokerst, C. L. Zavaleta, P. J. Kempen, E. Mittra, K. Pitter, R. Huang, C. Campos, F. Habte, R. Sinclair, C. W. Brennan, I. K. Mellinghoff, E. C. Holland, and S. S. Gambhir, “A brain tumor molecular imaging strategy using a new triple-modality MRI-photoacoustic-Raman nanoparticle,” Nat. Med. 18(5), 829–834 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campos, C.

M. F. Kircher, A. de la Zerda, J. V. Jokerst, C. L. Zavaleta, P. J. Kempen, E. Mittra, K. Pitter, R. Huang, C. Campos, F. Habte, R. Sinclair, C. W. Brennan, I. K. Mellinghoff, E. C. Holland, and S. S. Gambhir, “A brain tumor molecular imaging strategy using a new triple-modality MRI-photoacoustic-Raman nanoparticle,” Nat. Med. 18(5), 829–834 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, C. F.

Chen, L.

Chen, X.

Cheng, J.

Cheng, Y. H.

Cundiff, S. T.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davis, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[Crossref]

de la Zerda, A.

M. F. Kircher, A. de la Zerda, J. V. Jokerst, C. L. Zavaleta, P. J. Kempen, E. Mittra, K. Pitter, R. Huang, C. Campos, F. Habte, R. Sinclair, C. W. Brennan, I. K. Mellinghoff, E. C. Holland, and S. S. Gambhir, “A brain tumor molecular imaging strategy using a new triple-modality MRI-photoacoustic-Raman nanoparticle,” Nat. Med. 18(5), 829–834 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deng, Y.

Diddams, S. A.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, B.

H. Li, B. Dong, Z. Zhang, H. F. Zhang, and C. Sun, “A transparent broadband ultrasonic detector based on an optical micro-ring resonator for photoacoustic microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4496 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, X.

Friebele, E. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fukano, H.

Galanzha, E. I.

Gambhir, S. S.

M. F. Kircher, A. de la Zerda, J. V. Jokerst, C. L. Zavaleta, P. J. Kempen, E. Mittra, K. Pitter, R. Huang, C. Campos, F. Habte, R. Sinclair, C. W. Brennan, I. K. Mellinghoff, E. C. Holland, and S. S. Gambhir, “A brain tumor molecular imaging strategy using a new triple-modality MRI-photoacoustic-Raman nanoparticle,” Nat. Med. 18(5), 829–834 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, L.

Ghandehari, M.

C. K. Y. Leung, K. T. Wan, D. Inaudi, X. Y. Bao, W. Habel, Z. Zhou, J. P. Ou, M. Ghandehari, H. C. Wu, and M. Imai, “Review: optical fiber sensors for civil engineering applications,” Mater. Struct. 48(4), 871–906 (2015).
[Crossref]

Guan, B. O.

Guelachvili, G.

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502(7471), 355–358 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Habel, W.

C. K. Y. Leung, K. T. Wan, D. Inaudi, X. Y. Bao, W. Habel, Z. Zhou, J. P. Ou, M. Ghandehari, H. C. Wu, and M. Imai, “Review: optical fiber sensors for civil engineering applications,” Mater. Struct. 48(4), 871–906 (2015).
[Crossref]

Habte, F.

M. F. Kircher, A. de la Zerda, J. V. Jokerst, C. L. Zavaleta, P. J. Kempen, E. Mittra, K. Pitter, R. Huang, C. Campos, F. Habte, R. Sinclair, C. W. Brennan, I. K. Mellinghoff, E. C. Holland, and S. S. Gambhir, “A brain tumor molecular imaging strategy using a new triple-modality MRI-photoacoustic-Raman nanoparticle,” Nat. Med. 18(5), 829–834 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hadeler, O.

Hall, J. L.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hamano, S.

Hansch, T. W.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502(7471), 355–358 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 440–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harada, Y.

Hase, E.

Hayashi, N.

Y. Mizuno, N. Hayashi, H. Tanaka, Y. Wada, and K. Nakamura, “Brillouin scattering in multi-core optical fibers for sensing applications,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11388 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holland, E. C.

M. F. Kircher, A. de la Zerda, J. V. Jokerst, C. L. Zavaleta, P. J. Kempen, E. Mittra, K. Pitter, R. Huang, C. Campos, F. Habte, R. Sinclair, C. W. Brennan, I. K. Mellinghoff, E. C. Holland, and S. S. Gambhir, “A brain tumor molecular imaging strategy using a new triple-modality MRI-photoacoustic-Raman nanoparticle,” Nat. Med. 18(5), 829–834 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holzner, S.

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502(7471), 355–358 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, F.-L.

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S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Second-generation optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy with improved sensitivity and speed,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1134–1136 (2011).
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S. Hu and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging and characterization of the microvasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 011101 (2010).
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C. K. Y. Leung, K. T. Wan, D. Inaudi, X. Y. Bao, W. Habel, Z. Zhou, J. P. Ou, M. Ghandehari, H. C. Wu, and M. Imai, “Review: optical fiber sensors for civil engineering applications,” Mater. Struct. 48(4), 871–906 (2015).
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K. Shibuya, T. Minamikawa, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, K. Minoshima, T. Yasui, and T. Iwata, “Scan-less hyperspectral dual-comb single-pixel-imaging in both amplitude and phase,” Opt. Express 25(18), 21947–21957 (2017).
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M. F. Kircher, A. de la Zerda, J. V. Jokerst, C. L. Zavaleta, P. J. Kempen, E. Mittra, K. Pitter, R. Huang, C. Campos, F. Habte, R. Sinclair, C. W. Brennan, I. K. Mellinghoff, E. C. Holland, and S. S. Gambhir, “A brain tumor molecular imaging strategy using a new triple-modality MRI-photoacoustic-Raman nanoparticle,” Nat. Med. 18(5), 829–834 (2012).
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Y. Mizuno, N. Hayashi, H. Tanaka, Y. Wada, and K. Nakamura, “Brillouin scattering in multi-core optical fibers for sensing applications,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11388 (2015).
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S. Okubo, K. Iwakuni, H. Inaba, K. Hosaka, A. Onae, H. Sasada, and F.-L. Hong, “Ultra-broadband dual-comb spectroscopy across 1.0-1.9 µm,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(8), 082402 (2015).
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C. K. Y. Leung, K. T. Wan, D. Inaudi, X. Y. Bao, W. Habel, Z. Zhou, J. P. Ou, M. Ghandehari, H. C. Wu, and M. Imai, “Review: optical fiber sensors for civil engineering applications,” Mater. Struct. 48(4), 871–906 (2015).
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Sakakura, M.

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K. Iwakuni, S. Okubo, O. Tadanaga, H. Inaba, A. Onae, F.-L. Hong, and H. Sasada, “Generation of a frequency comb spanning more than 3.6 octaves from ultraviolet to mid infrared,” Opt. Lett. 41(17), 3980–3983 (2016).
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Sun, C.

H. Li, B. Dong, Z. Zhang, H. F. Zhang, and C. Sun, “A transparent broadband ultrasonic detector based on an optical micro-ring resonator for photoacoustic microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4496 (2014).
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K. Hotate and M. Tanaka, “Distributed fiber Brillouin strain sensing with 1-cm spatial resolution by correlation-based continuous-wave technique,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(2), 179–181 (2002).
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T. Kato, M. Uchida, and K. Minoshima, “No-scanning 3D measurement method using ultrafast dimensional conversion with a chirped optical frequency comb,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3670 (2017).
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Y. Mizuno, N. Hayashi, H. Tanaka, Y. Wada, and K. Nakamura, “Brillouin scattering in multi-core optical fibers for sensing applications,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11388 (2015).
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C. K. Y. Leung, K. T. Wan, D. Inaudi, X. Y. Bao, W. Habel, Z. Zhou, J. P. Ou, M. Ghandehari, H. C. Wu, and M. Imai, “Review: optical fiber sensors for civil engineering applications,” Mater. Struct. 48(4), 871–906 (2015).
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L. V. Wang and S. Hu, “Photoacoustic tomography: in vivo imaging from organelles to organs,” Science 335(6075), 1458–1462 (2012).
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S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Second-generation optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy with improved sensitivity and speed,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1134–1136 (2011).
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S. Wang, P. Lu, H. Liao, L. Zhang, D. M. Liu, and J. S. Zhang, “Passively mode-locked fiber laser sensor for acoustic pressure sensing,” J. Mod. Opt. 60(21), 1892–1898 (2013).
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R. Oe, S. Taue, T. Minamikawa, K. Nagai, K. Shibuya, T. Mizuno, M. Yamagiwa, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, H. Fukano, Y. Nakajima, K. Minoshima, and T. Yasui, “Refractive-index-sensing optical comb based on photonic radio-frequency conversion with intracavity multi-mode interference fiber sensor,” Opt. Express 26(15), 19694–19706 (2018).
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K. Shibuya, T. Minamikawa, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, K. Minoshima, T. Yasui, and T. Iwata, “Scan-less hyperspectral dual-comb single-pixel-imaging in both amplitude and phase,” Opt. Express 25(18), 21947–21957 (2017).
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T. Minamikawa, Y.-D. Hsieh, K. Shibuya, E. Hase, Y. Kaneoka, S. Okubo, H. Inaba, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, and T. Yasui, “Dual-comb spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 610 (2017).
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T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, “Terahertz frequency comb by multifrequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241104 (2006).
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S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
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Yin, Z.

Yokoyama, S.

T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, “Terahertz frequency comb by multifrequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241104 (2006).
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H. Li, B. Dong, Z. Zhang, H. F. Zhang, and C. Sun, “A transparent broadband ultrasonic detector based on an optical micro-ring resonator for photoacoustic microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4496 (2014).
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Zhang, J. S.

S. Wang, P. Lu, H. Liao, L. Zhang, D. M. Liu, and J. S. Zhang, “Passively mode-locked fiber laser sensor for acoustic pressure sensing,” J. Mod. Opt. 60(21), 1892–1898 (2013).
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S. Liu, Z. Yin, L. Zhang, L. Gao, X. Chen, and J. Cheng, “Multilongitudinal mode fiber laser for strain measurement,” Opt. Lett. 35(6), 835–837 (2010).
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H. Li, B. Dong, Z. Zhang, H. F. Zhang, and C. Sun, “A transparent broadband ultrasonic detector based on an optical micro-ring resonator for photoacoustic microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4496 (2014).
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Zhou, X.

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APL Photonics (1)

A. Asahara and K. Minoshima, “Development of ultrafast time-resolved dual-comb spectroscopy,” APL Photonics 2(4), 041301 (2017).
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Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

S. Okubo, K. Iwakuni, H. Inaba, K. Hosaka, A. Onae, H. Sasada, and F.-L. Hong, “Ultra-broadband dual-comb spectroscopy across 1.0-1.9 µm,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(8), 082402 (2015).
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T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, “Terahertz frequency comb by multifrequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241104 (2006).
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IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

K. Hotate and M. Tanaka, “Distributed fiber Brillouin strain sensing with 1-cm spatial resolution by correlation-based continuous-wave technique,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(2), 179–181 (2002).
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S. Hu and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging and characterization of the microvasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 011101 (2010).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Mater. Struct. (1)

C. K. Y. Leung, K. T. Wan, D. Inaudi, X. Y. Bao, W. Habel, Z. Zhou, J. P. Ou, M. Ghandehari, H. C. Wu, and M. Imai, “Review: optical fiber sensors for civil engineering applications,” Mater. Struct. 48(4), 871–906 (2015).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

T. Minamikawa, Y.-D. Hsieh, K. Shibuya, E. Hase, Y. Kaneoka, S. Okubo, H. Inaba, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, and T. Yasui, “Dual-comb spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 610 (2017).
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Nat. Med. (1)

M. F. Kircher, A. de la Zerda, J. V. Jokerst, C. L. Zavaleta, P. J. Kempen, E. Mittra, K. Pitter, R. Huang, C. Campos, F. Habte, R. Sinclair, C. W. Brennan, I. K. Mellinghoff, E. C. Holland, and S. S. Gambhir, “A brain tumor molecular imaging strategy using a new triple-modality MRI-photoacoustic-Raman nanoparticle,” Nat. Med. 18(5), 829–834 (2012).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 440–449 (2012).
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T. Minamikawa, T. Ogura, Y. Nakajima, E. Hase, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, K. Minoshima, and T. Yasui, “Strain sensing based on strain to radio-frequency conversion of optical frequency comb,” Opt. Express 26(8), 9484–9491 (2018).
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R. Oe, S. Taue, T. Minamikawa, K. Nagai, K. Shibuya, T. Mizuno, M. Yamagiwa, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, H. Fukano, Y. Nakajima, K. Minoshima, and T. Yasui, “Refractive-index-sensing optical comb based on photonic radio-frequency conversion with intracavity multi-mode interference fiber sensor,” Opt. Express 26(15), 19694–19706 (2018).
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K. Shibuya, T. Minamikawa, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, K. Minoshima, T. Yasui, and T. Iwata, “Scan-less hyperspectral dual-comb single-pixel-imaging in both amplitude and phase,” Opt. Express 25(18), 21947–21957 (2017).
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Y. Yamaoka, Y. Harada, M. Sakakura, T. Minamikawa, S. Nishino, S. Maehara, S. Hamano, H. Tanaka, and T. Takamatsu, “Photoacoustic microscopy using ultrashort pulses with two different pulse durations,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17063–17072 (2014).
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Y. H. Lai, S. Y. Lee, C. F. Chang, Y. H. Cheng, and C. K. Sun, “Nonlinear photoacoustic microscopy via a loss modulation technique: from detection to imaging,” Opt. Express 22(1), 525–536 (2014).
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Opt. Lett. (5)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (3)

T. Kato, M. Uchida, and K. Minoshima, “No-scanning 3D measurement method using ultrafast dimensional conversion with a chirped optical frequency comb,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3670 (2017).
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H. Li, B. Dong, Z. Zhang, H. F. Zhang, and C. Sun, “A transparent broadband ultrasonic detector based on an optical micro-ring resonator for photoacoustic microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4496 (2014).
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Y. Mizuno, N. Hayashi, H. Tanaka, Y. Wada, and K. Nakamura, “Brillouin scattering in multi-core optical fibers for sensing applications,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11388 (2015).
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Science (1)

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, “Photoacoustic tomography: in vivo imaging from organelles to organs,” Science 335(6075), 1458–1462 (2012).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Principle of the OFC sensing cavity-based ultrasonic wave sensor. EDF, Er-doped fiber; LD, laser diode; WDM, wavelength division multiplexer; PZT, piezoelectric transducer; PD, photodetector; DBM, double-balanced mixer; LPF, low-frequency-pass filter; frep, repetition rate or comb spacing of OFC; fsyn, frequency of RF synthesizer; Irep, intensity of RF signal of OFC; Isyn, intensity of RF synthesizer.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Phase dependency of the output signal of the double balanced mixer mixing with the OFC signal and the synthesizer signal. (a) Phase dependency in strain application along the longitudinal direction of the cavity fiber with a piezoelectric transducer operating at low frequency (f = 1 kHz), which provides ideal phase/frequency modulation. (b) Phase dependency in ultrasonic wave sensing. Solid lines indicate the fitting curves with a sinusoidal function.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Frequency response and detection linearity of the OFC sensing cavity. (a) Frequency response of the OFC sensing cavity. Dashed line indicates a noise floor. (b) Representative RF spectra of ultrasonic waves operating at 7.5 to 8.5 MHz. (c) Detection linearity of the OFC sensing cavity observing at 9 MHz. Dashed line indicates a noise floor.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Photoacoustic wave detection by the developed OFC sensing cavity. Temporal behaviors and Fourier-transformed spectra of photoacoustic signals of (a, b) a black ink, (c, d) a pencil lead, and (e, f) a rubber film excited by the pulsed laser operating at 532 nm with the pulse duration of 8 ns.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Excitation power dependency of photoacoustic signal detected by the developed OFC-based strain sensor. The intensity was obtained by the averaging of the photoacoustic signal of a rubber film from 5 MHz to 11 MHz.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Photoacoustic imaging of a rubber film with the OFC sensing cavity. (a) Schematic of the rubber film, the sensing fiber, and the excitation laser. The sensing fiber was placed under the rubber film. (b) Photoacoustic imaging of the region 1 with an edge. (c) Photoacoustic imaging of the region 2 with a “T”-shaped region. (d, e) Photoacoustic signals of parts of the rubber film indicated by A in b and the background indicated by B in b. (f) Photoacoustic spectra of the parts indicated by A in b (solid line) and B in b (dashed line). (g, h) Photoacoustic signals of parts of the rubber film indicated by C in c and the background indicated by D in c. (i) Photoacoustic spectra of the parts indicated by C in c (solid line) and D in c (dashed line).

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I OFC = A OFC cos( ω OFC t+Δφ ),
I syn = A syn cos( ω syn t+θ ),
I mix = I OFC I syn = 1 2 A OFC A syn { cos( 2 ω OFC t+Δφ+θ )+cos(Δφθ }.
I mix,LPF = 1 2 A OFC A syn cos( Δφθ ).
( Δφ ) I mix,LPF = 1 2 A OFC A syn sin( Δφθ ).
I OFC = A OFC cos( ω OFC t ),
I syn = A syn cos( ω syn t+θ ),
I mix,LPF = 1 2 A OFC A syn cos( θ ).
A OFC I mix,LPF = 1 2 A syn cos( θ ).

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