Abstract

We propose a method for acquiring color images with a lensless in-line holographic microscope (LIHM) using sunlight illumination, which is suitable for weakly scattered amplitude objects. In the color LIHM, the sample is illuminated by sunlight, and the in-line hologram is recorded by a color CMOS imaging sensor located behind the sample. For weakly-scattered amplitude object, we show that the hologram can be described as the convolution of object transmission and a point spread function (PSF) that depends on the spectral distribution of the light. The captured color hologram is first separated into the red, green, and blue components, and then the sub-holograms of each color are used to reconstruct the corresponding color components of the sample by a deconvolution process. We proved that the deconvolution process was able to improve the imaging resolution, which was deteriorated because of insufficient temporal coherence of the light. The resolution enhancement capability of our color LIHM was demonstrated by numerical simulations and imaging experiments with the U. S. Air Force target as the sample. We also imaged a stained root of the herb Saposhnikovia divaricata to further demonstrate the capability of our method for color imaging applications. Our proposed color LIHM method provides a way to realize color holographic imaging with white light sources and thus reduces the cost and complexity of the lensless color microscope.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (1)

S. Feng and J. Wu, “Differential holographic reconstruction for lensless in-line holographic microscope with ultra-broadband light source illumination,” Opt. Commun. 430, 9–13 (2019).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

2016 (3)

2015 (2)

A. C. Sobieranski, F. Inci, H. C. Tekin, M. Yuksekkaya, E. Comunello, D. Cobra, A. von Wangenheim, and U. Demirci, “Portable lensless wide-field microscopy imaging platform based on digital inline holography and multi-frame pixel super-resolution,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(10), e346 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Sencan, A. F. Coskun, U. Sikora, and A. Ozcan, “Spectral demultiplexing in holographic and fluorescent on-chip microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3760 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

2012 (3)

T. Latychevskaia, J.-N. Longchamp, and H.-W. Fink, “When holography meets coherent diffraction imaging,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28871–28892 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, T. W. Su, Z. Göröcs, L. Xue, S. O. Isikman, A. F. Coskun, O. Mudanyali, and A. Ozcan, “Imaging without lenses: achievements and remaining challenges of wide-field on-chip microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(9), 889–895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Garcia-Sucerquia, “Color lensless digital holographic microscopy with micrometer resolution,” Opt. Lett. 37(10), 1724–1726 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T. W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Ryle, S. McDonnell, and J. T. Sheridan, “Lensless multispectral digital in-line holographic microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(12), 126004 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024019 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

R. M. Levenson and J. R. Mansfield, “Multispectral imaging in biology and medicine: slices of life,” Cytometry A 69(8), 748–758 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

1991 (1)

S. Nann and C. Riordan, “Solar Spectral Irradiance under Clear and Cloudy Skies: Measurements and a Semiempirical Model,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 30(4), 447–462 (1991).
[Crossref]

Bishara, W.

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T. W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cazier, A.

Chen, M.

Z. F. Phillips, M. Chen, and L. Waller, “Single-shot quantitative phase microscopy with color-multiplexed differential phase contrast (cDPC),” PLoS One 12(2), e0171228 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cobra, D.

A. C. Sobieranski, F. Inci, H. C. Tekin, M. Yuksekkaya, E. Comunello, D. Cobra, A. von Wangenheim, and U. Demirci, “Portable lensless wide-field microscopy imaging platform based on digital inline holography and multi-frame pixel super-resolution,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(10), e346 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Comunello, E.

A. C. Sobieranski, F. Inci, H. C. Tekin, M. Yuksekkaya, E. Comunello, D. Cobra, A. von Wangenheim, and U. Demirci, “Portable lensless wide-field microscopy imaging platform based on digital inline holography and multi-frame pixel super-resolution,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(10), e346 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coskun, A. F.

I. Sencan, A. F. Coskun, U. Sikora, and A. Ozcan, “Spectral demultiplexing in holographic and fluorescent on-chip microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3760 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, T. W. Su, Z. Göröcs, L. Xue, S. O. Isikman, A. F. Coskun, O. Mudanyali, and A. Ozcan, “Imaging without lenses: achievements and remaining challenges of wide-field on-chip microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(9), 889–895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Demirci, U.

A. C. Sobieranski, F. Inci, H. C. Tekin, M. Yuksekkaya, E. Comunello, D. Cobra, A. von Wangenheim, and U. Demirci, “Portable lensless wide-field microscopy imaging platform based on digital inline holography and multi-frame pixel super-resolution,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(10), e346 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Denis, L.

El-Naggar, A. K.

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024019 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, S.

Fink, H.-W.

Flasseur, O.

Fournier, C.

Garcia-Sucerquia, J.

Gillenwater, A. M.

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024019 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Göröcs, Z.

A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, T. W. Su, Z. Göröcs, L. Xue, S. O. Isikman, A. F. Coskun, O. Mudanyali, and A. Ozcan, “Imaging without lenses: achievements and remaining challenges of wide-field on-chip microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(9), 889–895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greenbaum, A.

A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, T. W. Su, Z. Göröcs, L. Xue, S. O. Isikman, A. F. Coskun, O. Mudanyali, and A. Ozcan, “Imaging without lenses: achievements and remaining challenges of wide-field on-chip microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(9), 889–895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Inci, F.

A. C. Sobieranski, F. Inci, H. C. Tekin, M. Yuksekkaya, E. Comunello, D. Cobra, A. von Wangenheim, and U. Demirci, “Portable lensless wide-field microscopy imaging platform based on digital inline holography and multi-frame pixel super-resolution,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(10), e346 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Isikman, S. O.

A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, T. W. Su, Z. Göröcs, L. Xue, S. O. Isikman, A. F. Coskun, O. Mudanyali, and A. Ozcan, “Imaging without lenses: achievements and remaining challenges of wide-field on-chip microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(9), 889–895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jolivet, F.

Joo, C.

Jung, D.

Kurachi, C.

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024019 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Latychevskaia, T.

Leclercq, M.

Lee, W.

Lépine, T.

Levenson, R. M.

R. M. Levenson and J. R. Mansfield, “Multispectral imaging in biology and medicine: slices of life,” Cytometry A 69(8), 748–758 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liewer, K.

Lindensmith, C.

Longchamp, J.-N.

Luckhart, S.

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T. W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, W.

A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, T. W. Su, Z. Göröcs, L. Xue, S. O. Isikman, A. F. Coskun, O. Mudanyali, and A. Ozcan, “Imaging without lenses: achievements and remaining challenges of wide-field on-chip microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(9), 889–895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mansfield, J. R.

R. M. Levenson and J. R. Mansfield, “Multispectral imaging in biology and medicine: slices of life,” Cytometry A 69(8), 748–758 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McDonnell, S.

J. P. Ryle, S. McDonnell, and J. T. Sheridan, “Lensless multispectral digital in-line holographic microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(12), 126004 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mudanyali, O.

A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, T. W. Su, Z. Göröcs, L. Xue, S. O. Isikman, A. F. Coskun, O. Mudanyali, and A. Ozcan, “Imaging without lenses: achievements and remaining challenges of wide-field on-chip microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(9), 889–895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T. W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nadeau, J.

Nann, S.

S. Nann and C. Riordan, “Solar Spectral Irradiance under Clear and Cloudy Skies: Measurements and a Semiempirical Model,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 30(4), 447–462 (1991).
[Crossref]

Ozcan, A.

I. Sencan, A. F. Coskun, U. Sikora, and A. Ozcan, “Spectral demultiplexing in holographic and fluorescent on-chip microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3760 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, T. W. Su, Z. Göröcs, L. Xue, S. O. Isikman, A. F. Coskun, O. Mudanyali, and A. Ozcan, “Imaging without lenses: achievements and remaining challenges of wide-field on-chip microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(9), 889–895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T. W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phillips, Z. F.

Z. F. Phillips, M. Chen, and L. Waller, “Single-shot quantitative phase microscopy with color-multiplexed differential phase contrast (cDPC),” PLoS One 12(2), e0171228 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piano, E.

Picart, P.

Pontiggia, C.

Repetto, L.

Richards-Kortum, R.

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024019 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Riordan, C.

S. Nann and C. Riordan, “Solar Spectral Irradiance under Clear and Cloudy Skies: Measurements and a Semiempirical Model,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 30(4), 447–462 (1991).
[Crossref]

Roblyer, D.

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024019 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ryle, J. P.

J. P. Ryle, S. McDonnell, and J. T. Sheridan, “Lensless multispectral digital in-line holographic microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(12), 126004 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ryu, S.

Sencan, I.

I. Sencan, A. F. Coskun, U. Sikora, and A. Ozcan, “Spectral demultiplexing in holographic and fluorescent on-chip microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3760 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Serabyn, E.

Sheridan, J. T.

J. P. Ryle, S. McDonnell, and J. T. Sheridan, “Lensless multispectral digital in-line holographic microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(12), 126004 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sikora, U.

I. Sencan, A. F. Coskun, U. Sikora, and A. Ozcan, “Spectral demultiplexing in holographic and fluorescent on-chip microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3760 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T. W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sobieranski, A. C.

A. C. Sobieranski, F. Inci, H. C. Tekin, M. Yuksekkaya, E. Comunello, D. Cobra, A. von Wangenheim, and U. Demirci, “Portable lensless wide-field microscopy imaging platform based on digital inline holography and multi-frame pixel super-resolution,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(10), e346 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sokolov, K.

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024019 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, T. W.

A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, T. W. Su, Z. Göröcs, L. Xue, S. O. Isikman, A. F. Coskun, O. Mudanyali, and A. Ozcan, “Imaging without lenses: achievements and remaining challenges of wide-field on-chip microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(9), 889–895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T. W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tekin, H. C.

A. C. Sobieranski, F. Inci, H. C. Tekin, M. Yuksekkaya, E. Comunello, D. Cobra, A. von Wangenheim, and U. Demirci, “Portable lensless wide-field microscopy imaging platform based on digital inline holography and multi-frame pixel super-resolution,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(10), e346 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Verrier, N.

von Wangenheim, A.

A. C. Sobieranski, F. Inci, H. C. Tekin, M. Yuksekkaya, E. Comunello, D. Cobra, A. von Wangenheim, and U. Demirci, “Portable lensless wide-field microscopy imaging platform based on digital inline holography and multi-frame pixel super-resolution,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(10), e346 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wallace, K.

Waller, L.

Z. F. Phillips, M. Chen, and L. Waller, “Single-shot quantitative phase microscopy with color-multiplexed differential phase contrast (cDPC),” PLoS One 12(2), e0171228 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, M.

Williams, M. D.

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024019 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

Xue, L.

A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, T. W. Su, Z. Göröcs, L. Xue, S. O. Isikman, A. F. Coskun, O. Mudanyali, and A. Ozcan, “Imaging without lenses: achievements and remaining challenges of wide-field on-chip microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(9), 889–895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yaglidere, O.

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T. W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuksekkaya, M.

A. C. Sobieranski, F. Inci, H. C. Tekin, M. Yuksekkaya, E. Comunello, D. Cobra, A. von Wangenheim, and U. Demirci, “Portable lensless wide-field microscopy imaging platform based on digital inline holography and multi-frame pixel super-resolution,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(10), e346 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Cytometry A (1)

R. M. Levenson and J. R. Mansfield, “Multispectral imaging in biology and medicine: slices of life,” Cytometry A 69(8), 748–758 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (1)

S. Nann and C. Riordan, “Solar Spectral Irradiance under Clear and Cloudy Skies: Measurements and a Semiempirical Model,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 30(4), 447–462 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

J. P. Ryle, S. McDonnell, and J. T. Sheridan, “Lensless multispectral digital in-line holographic microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(12), 126004 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024019 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lab Chip (1)

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T. W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

A. C. Sobieranski, F. Inci, H. C. Tekin, M. Yuksekkaya, E. Comunello, D. Cobra, A. von Wangenheim, and U. Demirci, “Portable lensless wide-field microscopy imaging platform based on digital inline holography and multi-frame pixel super-resolution,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(10), e346 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (1)

A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, T. W. Su, Z. Göröcs, L. Xue, S. O. Isikman, A. F. Coskun, O. Mudanyali, and A. Ozcan, “Imaging without lenses: achievements and remaining challenges of wide-field on-chip microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(9), 889–895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Feng and J. Wu, “Differential holographic reconstruction for lensless in-line holographic microscope with ultra-broadband light source illumination,” Opt. Commun. 430, 9–13 (2019).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (3)

PLoS One (1)

Z. F. Phillips, M. Chen, and L. Waller, “Single-shot quantitative phase microscopy with color-multiplexed differential phase contrast (cDPC),” PLoS One 12(2), e0171228 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

I. Sencan, A. F. Coskun, U. Sikora, and A. Ozcan, “Spectral demultiplexing in holographic and fluorescent on-chip microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3760 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (Roberts & Company Publishers, 2004), Chap. 3.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the color LIHM system setup with sunlight illumination; (b) The spectral response of the red (R), green (G), and blue (B) channels in our color CMOS imaging sensor, which includes the Bayer pattern of RGB filter array; (c) Schematic of decomposing the color RGB hologram into red, green and blue components.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Numerical simulation results of image reconstructions in color LIHM under the sunlight illumination.(a)(b)(c) The simulated sub-holograms and the corresponding spectral distributions of the colors red, blue, and green; (d)(e)(f) direct reconstruction results of (a)(b)(c) with center wavelengths of 604 nm, 537 nm, and 455 nm, respectively; (g)(h)(i)reconstruction results of (a)(b)(c) with our proposed deconvolution method; (j) the RGB color image after combining the RGB components in (d)(e)(f); (k) the RGB color image after combining the RGB components in (g)(h)(i). The size of images are 220 × 220 μm (100 × 100 pixels)
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Imaging results of the USAF target by our color LIHM system under sunlight illumination. (a)(b)(c) The sub-holograms and the corresponding spectral distributions of the color red, blue, and green. (d)(e)(f) direct reconstruction results of (a)(b)(c) with center wavelengths of 604 nm, 537 nm, and 455 nm, respectively; (g)(h)(i) reconstruction results of (a)(b)(c) with our proposed deconvolution method; (j) the RGB color image after combining the RGB components in (d)(e)(f); (k) the RGB color image after combining the RGB components in (g)(h)(i). The size of images are 330 × 330 μm (150 × 150 pixels)
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Imaging results of the stained root of Saposhnikovia divaricataby our color LIHM under sunlight illumination. (a)The captured color hologram using the color CMOS imaging sensor; (b) the hologram under laser illumination with wavelength of 473 nm; (c) the holographic reconstruction of (b); (d)conventional microscope image observed with a 4X objective; (e)(f)(g) direct reconstruction results of the red, green and blue components of the hologram shown in (a); (h) the RGB color image after combining the RGB components in (e)(f)(g); (i)(j)(k) reconstruction results of the red, green and blue components of the hologram shown in (a)using our proposed deconvolution method;(l) the RGB color image after combining the RGB components in (i)(j)(k). The size of images are 400 × 352 μm (200 × 160 pixels)

Equations (4)

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|U(x,y;λ) | 2 1+ e jkz oh+ e jkz o h =1+o( e jkz h+ e jkz h )
h(x,y;λ)= e jkz jλz exp[ jπ λz ( x 2 + y 2 ) ]
I X (x,y)= S X ( λ )[1+o( e jkz h+ e jkz h )]dλ = S X ( λ )dλ +o h X (x,y)
h X (x,y)= S X ( λ )( e jkz h+ e jkz h )dλ = S X ( λ ) 2 λz sin[ π λz ( x 2 + y 2 ) ]dλ

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