Abstract

Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a method for exchanging keys between two parties (Alice and Bob) with an absolute level of security in the ideal scenario. QKD systems are vulnerable to hacking through secondary emissions of photons by SPAD detectors, known as backflash. In this work, we derive an information leakage probability model for the scenario of QKD in a free space communication (FSO) system, and suggest a method for its minimization.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (4)

2017 (6)

J. Yin, Y. Cao, Y.-H. Li, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, J.-G. Ren, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, B. Li, H. Dai, G.-B. Li, Q.-M. Lu, Y.-H. Gong, Y. Xu, S.-L. Li, F.-Z. Li, Y.-Y. Yin, Z. Q. Jiang, M. Li, J. J. Jia, G. Ren, D. He, Y. L. Zhou, X. X. Zhang, N. Wang, X. Chang, Z. C. Zhu, N. L. Liu, Y. A. Chen, C. Y. Lu, R. Shu, C. Z. Peng, J. Y. Wang, and J. W. Pan, “Satellite-based entanglement distribution over 1200 kilometers,” Science 356(6343), 1140–1144 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wei, H. Liu, H. Ma, X. Yang, Y. Zhang, Y. Sun, J. Xiao, and Y. Ji, “Feasible attack on detector-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 449 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L. H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549(7670), 43–47 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Meda, I. P. Degiovanni, A. Tosi, Z. Yuan, G. Brida, and M. Genovese, “Quantifying backflash radiation to prevent zero-error attacks in quantum key distribution,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(6), e16261 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shi, J. Z. J. Lim, H. S. Poh, P. K. Tan, P. A. Tan, A. Ling, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Breakdown flash at telecom wavelengths in InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Opt. Express 25(24), 30388–30394 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. G. Ren, P. Xu, H. L. Yong, L. Zhang, S. K. Liao, J. Yin, W. Y. Liu, W. Q. Cai, M. Yang, L. Li, K. X. Yang, X. Han, Y. Q. Yao, J. Li, H. Y. Wu, S. Wan, L. Liu, D. Q. Liu, Y. W. Kuang, Z. P. He, P. Shang, C. Guo, R. H. Zheng, K. Tian, Z. C. Zhu, N. L. Liu, C. Y. Lu, R. Shu, Y. A. Chen, C. Z. Peng, J. Y. Wang, and J. W. Pan, “Ground-to-satellite quantum teleportation,” Nature 549(7670), 70–73 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

G. Vallone, D. Bacco, D. Dequal, S. Gaiarin, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, and P. Villoresi, “Experimental satellite quantum communications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(4), 040502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

F. Yang, J. Cheng, and T. A. Tsiftsis, “Free-space optical communication with nonzero boresight pointing errors,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 62(2), 713–725 (2014).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 686–689 (2010).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

M. Gabay and S. Arnon, “Effect of turbulence on a quantum-key distribution scheme based on transformation from the polarization to the time domain: laboratory experiment,” Opt. Eng. 44(4), 045002 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, P. M. Gorman, and P. Knight, “Ground to satellite secure key exchange using quantum cryptography,” New J. Phys. 4(1), 82 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

P. W. Shor and J. Preskill, “Simple proof of security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(2), 441–444 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

S. Arnon and N. S. Kopeika, “Laser satellite communication network-vibration effect and possible solutions,” Proc. IEEE 85(10), 1646–1661 (1997).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

A. Lacaita, S. Cova, A. Spinelli, and F. Zappa, “Photon‐assisted avalanche spreading in reach‐through photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(6), 606–608 (1993).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

C.-C. Chen and C. S. Gardner, “Impact of random pointing and tracking errors on the design of coherent and incoherent optical intersatellite communication links,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 37(3), 252–260 (1989).
[Crossref]

Arnon, S.

M. Gabay and S. Arnon, “Quantum key distribution by a free-space MIMO system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(8), 3114–3120 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Gabay and S. Arnon, “Effect of turbulence on a quantum-key distribution scheme based on transformation from the polarization to the time domain: laboratory experiment,” Opt. Eng. 44(4), 045002 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Arnon, “Effects of atmospheric turbulence and building sway on optical wireless-communication systems,” Opt. Lett. 28(2), 129–131 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Arnon and N. S. Kopeika, “Laser satellite communication network-vibration effect and possible solutions,” Proc. IEEE 85(10), 1646–1661 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bacco, D.

G. Vallone, D. Bacco, D. Dequal, S. Gaiarin, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, and P. Villoresi, “Experimental satellite quantum communications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(4), 040502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bashkansky, M.

Bedington, R.

J. A. Grieve, R. Bedington, Z. Tang, R. C. M. R. B. Chandrasekara, A. Ling, C. M. R. B. Chandrasekara, and A. Ling, “SpooQySats: CubeSats to demonstrate quantum key distribution technologies,” Acta Astronaut. 151, 103–106 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bianco, G.

G. Vallone, D. Bacco, D. Dequal, S. Gaiarin, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, and P. Villoresi, “Experimental satellite quantum communications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(4), 040502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brida, G.

A. Meda, I. P. Degiovanni, A. Tosi, Z. Yuan, G. Brida, and M. Genovese, “Quantifying backflash radiation to prevent zero-error attacks in quantum key distribution,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(6), e16261 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, W. Q.

J. G. Ren, P. Xu, H. L. Yong, L. Zhang, S. K. Liao, J. Yin, W. Y. Liu, W. Q. Cai, M. Yang, L. Li, K. X. Yang, X. Han, Y. Q. Yao, J. Li, H. Y. Wu, S. Wan, L. Liu, D. Q. Liu, Y. W. Kuang, Z. P. He, P. Shang, C. Guo, R. H. Zheng, K. Tian, Z. C. Zhu, N. L. Liu, C. Y. Lu, R. Shu, Y. A. Chen, C. Z. Peng, J. Y. Wang, and J. W. Pan, “Ground-to-satellite quantum teleportation,” Nature 549(7670), 70–73 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, W.-Q.

X. Han, H.-L. Yong, P. Xu, W.-Y. Wang, K.-X. Yang, H.-J. Xue, W.-Q. Cai, J.-G. Ren, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Point-ahead demonstration of a transmitting antenna for satellite quantum communication,” Opt. Express 26(13), 17044–17055 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yin, Y. Cao, Y.-H. Li, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, J.-G. Ren, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, B. Li, H. Dai, G.-B. Li, Q.-M. Lu, Y.-H. Gong, Y. Xu, S.-L. Li, F.-Z. Li, Y.-Y. Yin, Z. Q. Jiang, M. Li, J. J. Jia, G. Ren, D. He, Y. L. Zhou, X. X. Zhang, N. Wang, X. Chang, Z. C. Zhu, N. L. Liu, Y. A. Chen, C. Y. Lu, R. Shu, C. Z. Peng, J. Y. Wang, and J. W. Pan, “Satellite-based entanglement distribution over 1200 kilometers,” Science 356(6343), 1140–1144 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L. H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549(7670), 43–47 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, Y.

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L. H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549(7670), 43–47 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yin, Y. Cao, Y.-H. Li, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, J.-G. Ren, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, B. Li, H. Dai, G.-B. Li, Q.-M. Lu, Y.-H. Gong, Y. Xu, S.-L. Li, F.-Z. Li, Y.-Y. Yin, Z. Q. Jiang, M. Li, J. J. Jia, G. Ren, D. He, Y. L. Zhou, X. X. Zhang, N. Wang, X. Chang, Z. C. Zhu, N. L. Liu, Y. A. Chen, C. Y. Lu, R. Shu, C. Z. Peng, J. Y. Wang, and J. W. Pan, “Satellite-based entanglement distribution over 1200 kilometers,” Science 356(6343), 1140–1144 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chandrasekara, C. M. R. B.

J. A. Grieve, R. Bedington, Z. Tang, R. C. M. R. B. Chandrasekara, A. Ling, C. M. R. B. Chandrasekara, and A. Ling, “SpooQySats: CubeSats to demonstrate quantum key distribution technologies,” Acta Astronaut. 151, 103–106 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chandrasekara, R. C. M. R. B.

J. A. Grieve, R. Bedington, Z. Tang, R. C. M. R. B. Chandrasekara, A. Ling, C. M. R. B. Chandrasekara, and A. Ling, “SpooQySats: CubeSats to demonstrate quantum key distribution technologies,” Acta Astronaut. 151, 103–106 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chang, X.

J. Yin, Y. Cao, Y.-H. Li, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, J.-G. Ren, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, B. Li, H. Dai, G.-B. Li, Q.-M. Lu, Y.-H. Gong, Y. Xu, S.-L. Li, F.-Z. Li, Y.-Y. Yin, Z. Q. Jiang, M. Li, J. J. Jia, G. Ren, D. He, Y. L. Zhou, X. X. Zhang, N. Wang, X. Chang, Z. C. Zhu, N. L. Liu, Y. A. Chen, C. Y. Lu, R. Shu, C. Z. Peng, J. Y. Wang, and J. W. Pan, “Satellite-based entanglement distribution over 1200 kilometers,” Science 356(6343), 1140–1144 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C.-C.

C.-C. Chen and C. S. Gardner, “Impact of random pointing and tracking errors on the design of coherent and incoherent optical intersatellite communication links,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 37(3), 252–260 (1989).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.-W.

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L. H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549(7670), 43–47 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. A.

J. Yin, Y. Cao, Y.-H. Li, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, J.-G. Ren, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, B. Li, H. Dai, G.-B. Li, Q.-M. Lu, Y.-H. Gong, Y. Xu, S.-L. Li, F.-Z. Li, Y.-Y. Yin, Z. Q. Jiang, M. Li, J. J. Jia, G. Ren, D. He, Y. L. Zhou, X. X. Zhang, N. Wang, X. Chang, Z. C. Zhu, N. L. Liu, Y. A. Chen, C. Y. Lu, R. Shu, C. Z. Peng, J. Y. Wang, and J. W. Pan, “Satellite-based entanglement distribution over 1200 kilometers,” Science 356(6343), 1140–1144 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. G. Ren, P. Xu, H. L. Yong, L. Zhang, S. K. Liao, J. Yin, W. Y. Liu, W. Q. Cai, M. Yang, L. Li, K. X. Yang, X. Han, Y. Q. Yao, J. Li, H. Y. Wu, S. Wan, L. Liu, D. Q. Liu, Y. W. Kuang, Z. P. He, P. Shang, C. Guo, R. H. Zheng, K. Tian, Z. C. Zhu, N. L. Liu, C. Y. Lu, R. Shu, Y. A. Chen, C. Z. Peng, J. Y. Wang, and J. W. Pan, “Ground-to-satellite quantum teleportation,” Nature 549(7670), 70–73 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.-A.

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L. H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549(7670), 43–47 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, J.

F. Yang, J. Cheng, and T. A. Tsiftsis, “Free-space optical communication with nonzero boresight pointing errors,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 62(2), 713–725 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cova, S.

A. Lacaita, S. Cova, A. Spinelli, and F. Zappa, “Photon‐assisted avalanche spreading in reach‐through photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(6), 606–608 (1993).
[Crossref]

Dai, H.

J. Yin, Y. Cao, Y.-H. Li, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, J.-G. Ren, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, B. Li, H. Dai, G.-B. Li, Q.-M. Lu, Y.-H. Gong, Y. Xu, S.-L. Li, F.-Z. Li, Y.-Y. Yin, Z. Q. Jiang, M. Li, J. J. Jia, G. Ren, D. He, Y. L. Zhou, X. X. Zhang, N. Wang, X. Chang, Z. C. Zhu, N. L. Liu, Y. A. Chen, C. Y. Lu, R. Shu, C. Z. Peng, J. Y. Wang, and J. W. Pan, “Satellite-based entanglement distribution over 1200 kilometers,” Science 356(6343), 1140–1144 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Degiovanni, I. P.

A. Meda, I. P. Degiovanni, A. Tosi, Z. Yuan, G. Brida, and M. Genovese, “Quantifying backflash radiation to prevent zero-error attacks in quantum key distribution,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(6), e16261 (2017).
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Deng, L.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 QKD scheme with eavesdropper. Alice sends a signal to Bob, and Bob’s detector releases backflash photons that are intercepted by Eve.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Bob's probability to detect a photon as a function of Bob's telescope gain.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Eve's probability to detect a photon as a function of Bob's telescope gain.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Probability ratio P Eve ¯ P Bob ¯ as a function of Bob's telescope gain.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Simulation Parameters

Equations (17)

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P Bob ( θ ) =K 1 L( θ ) G Bob ,
K 1 = η q P Alice G Alice η Alice η Bob L A ( Z 1 ) Z 1 2 ( λ 4 π ) 2
L ( θ )=exp( G Bob θ 2 ).
θ = θ V 2 + θ H 2 .
σ V = σ H = σ .
f θ ( θ )= θ σ 2 exp( θ 2 2 σ 2 ).
P Bob ¯ = 0 P Bob ( θ )f( θ ) dθ.
P Bob ¯ = G K Bob 1 1+2 G Bob σ 2 ,
P Eve ( α, θ V , θ H ,θ ) = K 2 P Bob ( θ )L( ( θ V +α ) 2 + θ H 2 ) G Bob
K 2 = η Backflash η q η Bob G Eve η Eve L A ( Z 2 ) Z 2 2 ( λ B 4 π ) 2
P Eve ¯ ( α )= P Eve ( α, θ V , θ H ) f θ V ( θ V ) f θ H ( θ H )d θ V d θ H .
P Eve ¯ = lim α0 K 3 G Bob 2 0 exp ( G Bob θ 2 ) 2 θ σ 2 exp( θ 2 2 σ 2 )dθ
K 3 = K 1 K 2 .
P Eve ¯ ( G Bob )= K 3 0 θ G Bob 2 exp( θ 2 a ) dθ
a=( 2 G Bob + 1 2 σ 2 ).
P Eve ¯ = G Bob 2 K 3 1+4 G Bob σ 2 .
P Eve ¯ P Bob ¯ = K 2 G Bob 1+2 G Bob σ 2 1+4 G Bob σ 2 .

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