Abstract

The interaction of a focused beam with a metasurface supporting dark modes is investigated. We show computationally and experimentally that the excitation of dark modes is accompanied by characteristic changes in the reflected Fourier spectrum. This spatial frequency filtering capability indicates an avenue for the all-optical, on-chip detection of phase gradients for biological and other imaging techniques.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. Z.-L. Deng, T. Fu, Z. Ouyang, and G. P. Wang, “Trimeric metasurfaces for independent control of bright and dark modes of Fano resonances,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(8), 081109 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  2. D. E. Gómez, Z. Q. Teo, M. Altissimo, T. J. Davis, S. Earl, and A. Roberts, “The dark side of plasmonics,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3722–3728 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. B. Gallinet and O. J. Martin, “Refractive index sensing with subradiant modes: a framework to reduce losses in plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano 7(8), 6978–6987 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. Sancho-Parramon and S. Bosch, “Dark modes and Fano resonances in plasmonic clusters excited by cylindrical vector beams,” ACS Nano 6(9), 8415–8423 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. Y.-C. Chang, S.-M. Wang, H.-C. Chung, C.-B. Tseng, and S.-H. Chang, “Observation of absorption-dominated bonding dark plasmon mode from metal-insulator-metal nanodisk arrays fabricated by nanospherical-lens lithography,” ACS Nano 6(4), 3390–3396 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. M. Liu, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, P. Guyot-Sionnest, and M. Pelton, “Excitation of dark plasmons in metal nanoparticles by a localized emitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(10), 107401 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. F. Hao, E. M. Larsson, T. A. Ali, D. S. Sutherland, and P. Nordlander, “Shedding light on dark plasmons in gold nanorings,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 458(4-6), 262–266 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  9. M.-W. Chu, V. Myroshnychenko, C. H. Chen, J.-P. Deng, C.-Y. Mou, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Probing bright and dark surface-plasmon modes in individual and coupled noble metal nanoparticles using an electron beam,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 399–404 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. F. I. Baida, “Enhanced transmission through subwavelength metallic coaxial apertures by excitation of the TEM mode,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2-3), 145–149 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  11. A. Roberts and R. C. McPhedran, “Bandpass grids with annular apertures,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 36(5), 607–611 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. Mühlig, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Multipole analysis of meta-atoms,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 5(2-3), 64–73 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  13. A. Yanai, M. Grajower, G. M. Lerman, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and U. Levy, “Near- and far-field properties of plasmonic oligomers under radially and azimuthally polarized light excitation,” ACS Nano 8(5), 4969–4974 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, R. L. Eriksen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband focusing flat mirrors based on plasmonic gradient metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 829–834 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. L. Lin, X. M. Goh, L. P. McGuinness, and A. Roberts, “Plasmonic lenses formed by two-dimensional nanometric cross-shaped aperture arrays for Fresnel-region focusing,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1936–1940 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. X. M. Goh, L. Lin, and A. Roberts, “Planar focusing elements using spatially varying near-resonant aperture arrays,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11683–11688 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. P. Genevet and F. Capasso, “Holographic optical metasurfaces: a review of current progress,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 78(2), 024401 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. J. J. Cadusch, T. D. James, and A. Roberts, “Experimental demonstration of a wave plate utilizing localized plasmonic resonances in nanoapertures,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28450–28455 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. T. Ellenbogen, K. Seo, and K. B. Crozier, “Chromatic plasmonic polarizers for active visible color filtering and polarimetry,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 1026–1031 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. J. Yang and J. Zhang, “Subwavelength quarter-waveplate composed of L-shaped metal nanoparticles,” Plasmonics 6(2), 251–254 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  24. E. H. Khoo, E. P. Li, and K. B. Crozier, “Plasmonic wave plate based on subwavelength nanoslits,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2498–2500 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. F. Eftekhari, D. E. Gómez, and T. J. Davis, “Measuring subwavelength phase differences with a plasmonic circuit-an example of nanoscale optical signal processing,” Opt. Lett. 39(10), 2994–2997 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. T. Zhu, Y. Zhou, Y. Lou, H. Ye, M. Qiu, Z. Ruan, and S. Fan, “Plasmonic computing of spatial differentiation,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15391 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. A. Silva, F. Monticone, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, A. Alù, and N. Engheta, “Performing mathematical operations with metamaterials,” Science 343(6167), 160–163 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

T. Zhu, Y. Zhou, Y. Lou, H. Ye, M. Qiu, Z. Ruan, and S. Fan, “Plasmonic computing of spatial differentiation,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15391 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

Z.-L. Deng, T. Fu, Z. Ouyang, and G. P. Wang, “Trimeric metasurfaces for independent control of bright and dark modes of Fano resonances,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(8), 081109 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Genevet and F. Capasso, “Holographic optical metasurfaces: a review of current progress,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 78(2), 024401 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

A. Silva, F. Monticone, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, A. Alù, and N. Engheta, “Performing mathematical operations with metamaterials,” Science 343(6167), 160–163 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Eftekhari, D. E. Gómez, and T. J. Davis, “Measuring subwavelength phase differences with a plasmonic circuit-an example of nanoscale optical signal processing,” Opt. Lett. 39(10), 2994–2997 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Yanai, M. Grajower, G. M. Lerman, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and U. Levy, “Near- and far-field properties of plasmonic oligomers under radially and azimuthally polarized light excitation,” ACS Nano 8(5), 4969–4974 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, R. L. Eriksen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband focusing flat mirrors based on plasmonic gradient metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 829–834 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. E. Gómez, Z. Q. Teo, M. Altissimo, T. J. Davis, S. Earl, and A. Roberts, “The dark side of plasmonics,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3722–3728 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Gallinet and O. J. Martin, “Refractive index sensing with subradiant modes: a framework to reduce losses in plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano 7(8), 6978–6987 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Cadusch, T. D. James, and A. Roberts, “Experimental demonstration of a wave plate utilizing localized plasmonic resonances in nanoapertures,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28450–28455 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

J. Sancho-Parramon and S. Bosch, “Dark modes and Fano resonances in plasmonic clusters excited by cylindrical vector beams,” ACS Nano 6(9), 8415–8423 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-C. Chang, S.-M. Wang, H.-C. Chung, C.-B. Tseng, and S.-H. Chang, “Observation of absorption-dominated bonding dark plasmon mode from metal-insulator-metal nanodisk arrays fabricated by nanospherical-lens lithography,” ACS Nano 6(4), 3390–3396 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ellenbogen, K. Seo, and K. B. Crozier, “Chromatic plasmonic polarizers for active visible color filtering and polarimetry,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 1026–1031 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

J. Yang and J. Zhang, “Subwavelength quarter-waveplate composed of L-shaped metal nanoparticles,” Plasmonics 6(2), 251–254 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Mühlig, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Multipole analysis of meta-atoms,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 5(2-3), 64–73 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. H. Khoo, E. P. Li, and K. B. Crozier, “Plasmonic wave plate based on subwavelength nanoslits,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2498–2500 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

X. M. Goh, L. Lin, and A. Roberts, “Planar focusing elements using spatially varying near-resonant aperture arrays,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11683–11688 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Lin, X. M. Goh, L. P. McGuinness, and A. Roberts, “Plasmonic lenses formed by two-dimensional nanometric cross-shaped aperture arrays for Fresnel-region focusing,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1936–1940 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

M. Liu, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, P. Guyot-Sionnest, and M. Pelton, “Excitation of dark plasmons in metal nanoparticles by a localized emitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(10), 107401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.-W. Chu, V. Myroshnychenko, C. H. Chen, J.-P. Deng, C.-Y. Mou, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Probing bright and dark surface-plasmon modes in individual and coupled noble metal nanoparticles using an electron beam,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 399–404 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

F. Hao, E. M. Larsson, T. A. Ali, D. S. Sutherland, and P. Nordlander, “Shedding light on dark plasmons in gold nanorings,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 458(4-6), 262–266 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

F. I. Baida, “Enhanced transmission through subwavelength metallic coaxial apertures by excitation of the TEM mode,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2-3), 145–149 (2007).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

A. Roberts and R. C. McPhedran, “Bandpass grids with annular apertures,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 36(5), 607–611 (1988).
[Crossref]

Ali, T. A.

F. Hao, E. M. Larsson, T. A. Ali, D. S. Sutherland, and P. Nordlander, “Shedding light on dark plasmons in gold nanorings,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 458(4-6), 262–266 (2008).
[Crossref]

Altissimo, M.

D. E. Gómez, Z. Q. Teo, M. Altissimo, T. J. Davis, S. Earl, and A. Roberts, “The dark side of plasmonics,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3722–3728 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alù, A.

A. Silva, F. Monticone, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, A. Alù, and N. Engheta, “Performing mathematical operations with metamaterials,” Science 343(6167), 160–163 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baida, F. I.

F. I. Baida, “Enhanced transmission through subwavelength metallic coaxial apertures by excitation of the TEM mode,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2-3), 145–149 (2007).
[Crossref]

Boltasseva, A.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bosch, S.

J. Sancho-Parramon and S. Bosch, “Dark modes and Fano resonances in plasmonic clusters excited by cylindrical vector beams,” ACS Nano 6(9), 8415–8423 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, R. L. Eriksen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband focusing flat mirrors based on plasmonic gradient metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 829–834 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cadusch, J. J.

Capasso, F.

P. Genevet and F. Capasso, “Holographic optical metasurfaces: a review of current progress,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 78(2), 024401 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castaldi, G.

A. Silva, F. Monticone, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, A. Alù, and N. Engheta, “Performing mathematical operations with metamaterials,” Science 343(6167), 160–163 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, S.-H.

Y.-C. Chang, S.-M. Wang, H.-C. Chung, C.-B. Tseng, and S.-H. Chang, “Observation of absorption-dominated bonding dark plasmon mode from metal-insulator-metal nanodisk arrays fabricated by nanospherical-lens lithography,” ACS Nano 6(4), 3390–3396 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Chang, S.-M. Wang, H.-C. Chung, C.-B. Tseng, and S.-H. Chang, “Observation of absorption-dominated bonding dark plasmon mode from metal-insulator-metal nanodisk arrays fabricated by nanospherical-lens lithography,” ACS Nano 6(4), 3390–3396 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C. H.

M.-W. Chu, V. Myroshnychenko, C. H. Chen, J.-P. Deng, C.-Y. Mou, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Probing bright and dark surface-plasmon modes in individual and coupled noble metal nanoparticles using an electron beam,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 399–404 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chong, C. T.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, M.-W.

M.-W. Chu, V. Myroshnychenko, C. H. Chen, J.-P. Deng, C.-Y. Mou, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Probing bright and dark surface-plasmon modes in individual and coupled noble metal nanoparticles using an electron beam,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 399–404 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chung, H.-C.

Y.-C. Chang, S.-M. Wang, H.-C. Chung, C.-B. Tseng, and S.-H. Chang, “Observation of absorption-dominated bonding dark plasmon mode from metal-insulator-metal nanodisk arrays fabricated by nanospherical-lens lithography,” ACS Nano 6(4), 3390–3396 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crozier, K. B.

T. Ellenbogen, K. Seo, and K. B. Crozier, “Chromatic plasmonic polarizers for active visible color filtering and polarimetry,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 1026–1031 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. H. Khoo, E. P. Li, and K. B. Crozier, “Plasmonic wave plate based on subwavelength nanoslits,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2498–2500 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davis, T. J.

Deng, J.-P.

M.-W. Chu, V. Myroshnychenko, C. H. Chen, J.-P. Deng, C.-Y. Mou, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Probing bright and dark surface-plasmon modes in individual and coupled noble metal nanoparticles using an electron beam,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 399–404 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deng, Z.-L.

Z.-L. Deng, T. Fu, Z. Ouyang, and G. P. Wang, “Trimeric metasurfaces for independent control of bright and dark modes of Fano resonances,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(8), 081109 (2016).
[Crossref]

Earl, S.

D. E. Gómez, Z. Q. Teo, M. Altissimo, T. J. Davis, S. Earl, and A. Roberts, “The dark side of plasmonics,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3722–3728 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eftekhari, F.

Ellenbogen, T.

T. Ellenbogen, K. Seo, and K. B. Crozier, “Chromatic plasmonic polarizers for active visible color filtering and polarimetry,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 1026–1031 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Engheta, N.

A. Silva, F. Monticone, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, A. Alù, and N. Engheta, “Performing mathematical operations with metamaterials,” Science 343(6167), 160–163 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eriksen, R. L.

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, R. L. Eriksen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband focusing flat mirrors based on plasmonic gradient metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 829–834 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

T. Zhu, Y. Zhou, Y. Lou, H. Ye, M. Qiu, Z. Ruan, and S. Fan, “Plasmonic computing of spatial differentiation,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15391 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, T.

Z.-L. Deng, T. Fu, Z. Ouyang, and G. P. Wang, “Trimeric metasurfaces for independent control of bright and dark modes of Fano resonances,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(8), 081109 (2016).
[Crossref]

Galdi, V.

A. Silva, F. Monticone, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, A. Alù, and N. Engheta, “Performing mathematical operations with metamaterials,” Science 343(6167), 160–163 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gallinet, B.

B. Gallinet and O. J. Martin, “Refractive index sensing with subradiant modes: a framework to reduce losses in plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano 7(8), 6978–6987 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

García de Abajo, F. J.

M.-W. Chu, V. Myroshnychenko, C. H. Chen, J.-P. Deng, C.-Y. Mou, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Probing bright and dark surface-plasmon modes in individual and coupled noble metal nanoparticles using an electron beam,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 399–404 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Genevet, P.

P. Genevet and F. Capasso, “Holographic optical metasurfaces: a review of current progress,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 78(2), 024401 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

A. Yanai, M. Grajower, G. M. Lerman, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and U. Levy, “Near- and far-field properties of plasmonic oligomers under radially and azimuthally polarized light excitation,” ACS Nano 8(5), 4969–4974 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goh, X. M.

L. Lin, X. M. Goh, L. P. McGuinness, and A. Roberts, “Plasmonic lenses formed by two-dimensional nanometric cross-shaped aperture arrays for Fresnel-region focusing,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1936–1940 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. M. Goh, L. Lin, and A. Roberts, “Planar focusing elements using spatially varying near-resonant aperture arrays,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11683–11688 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gómez, D. E.

Grajower, M.

A. Yanai, M. Grajower, G. M. Lerman, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and U. Levy, “Near- and far-field properties of plasmonic oligomers under radially and azimuthally polarized light excitation,” ACS Nano 8(5), 4969–4974 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gray, S. K.

M. Liu, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, P. Guyot-Sionnest, and M. Pelton, “Excitation of dark plasmons in metal nanoparticles by a localized emitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(10), 107401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guyot-Sionnest, P.

M. Liu, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, P. Guyot-Sionnest, and M. Pelton, “Excitation of dark plasmons in metal nanoparticles by a localized emitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(10), 107401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halas, N. J.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hao, F.

F. Hao, E. M. Larsson, T. A. Ali, D. S. Sutherland, and P. Nordlander, “Shedding light on dark plasmons in gold nanorings,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 458(4-6), 262–266 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hentschel, M.

A. Yanai, M. Grajower, G. M. Lerman, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and U. Levy, “Near- and far-field properties of plasmonic oligomers under radially and azimuthally polarized light excitation,” ACS Nano 8(5), 4969–4974 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

James, T. D.

Kenney, M.

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khoo, E. H.

Kildishev, A. V.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Larsson, E. M.

F. Hao, E. M. Larsson, T. A. Ali, D. S. Sutherland, and P. Nordlander, “Shedding light on dark plasmons in gold nanorings,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 458(4-6), 262–266 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lederer, F.

S. Mühlig, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Multipole analysis of meta-atoms,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 5(2-3), 64–73 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, T.-W.

M. Liu, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, P. Guyot-Sionnest, and M. Pelton, “Excitation of dark plasmons in metal nanoparticles by a localized emitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(10), 107401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lerman, G. M.

A. Yanai, M. Grajower, G. M. Lerman, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and U. Levy, “Near- and far-field properties of plasmonic oligomers under radially and azimuthally polarized light excitation,” ACS Nano 8(5), 4969–4974 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levy, U.

A. Yanai, M. Grajower, G. M. Lerman, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and U. Levy, “Near- and far-field properties of plasmonic oligomers under radially and azimuthally polarized light excitation,” ACS Nano 8(5), 4969–4974 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, E. P.

Li, G.

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, L.

X. M. Goh, L. Lin, and A. Roberts, “Planar focusing elements using spatially varying near-resonant aperture arrays,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11683–11688 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Lin, X. M. Goh, L. P. McGuinness, and A. Roberts, “Plasmonic lenses formed by two-dimensional nanometric cross-shaped aperture arrays for Fresnel-region focusing,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1936–1940 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, M.

M. Liu, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, P. Guyot-Sionnest, and M. Pelton, “Excitation of dark plasmons in metal nanoparticles by a localized emitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(10), 107401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lou, Y.

T. Zhu, Y. Zhou, Y. Lou, H. Ye, M. Qiu, Z. Ruan, and S. Fan, “Plasmonic computing of spatial differentiation,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15391 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luk’yanchuk, B.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maier, S. A.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin, O. J.

B. Gallinet and O. J. Martin, “Refractive index sensing with subradiant modes: a framework to reduce losses in plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano 7(8), 6978–6987 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McGuinness, L. P.

L. Lin, X. M. Goh, L. P. McGuinness, and A. Roberts, “Plasmonic lenses formed by two-dimensional nanometric cross-shaped aperture arrays for Fresnel-region focusing,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1936–1940 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McPhedran, R. C.

A. Roberts and R. C. McPhedran, “Bandpass grids with annular apertures,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 36(5), 607–611 (1988).
[Crossref]

Menzel, C.

S. Mühlig, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Multipole analysis of meta-atoms,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 5(2-3), 64–73 (2011).
[Crossref]

Monticone, F.

A. Silva, F. Monticone, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, A. Alù, and N. Engheta, “Performing mathematical operations with metamaterials,” Science 343(6167), 160–163 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mou, C.-Y.

M.-W. Chu, V. Myroshnychenko, C. H. Chen, J.-P. Deng, C.-Y. Mou, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Probing bright and dark surface-plasmon modes in individual and coupled noble metal nanoparticles using an electron beam,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 399–404 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mühlenbernd, H.

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mühlig, S.

S. Mühlig, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Multipole analysis of meta-atoms,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 5(2-3), 64–73 (2011).
[Crossref]

Myroshnychenko, V.

M.-W. Chu, V. Myroshnychenko, C. H. Chen, J.-P. Deng, C.-Y. Mou, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Probing bright and dark surface-plasmon modes in individual and coupled noble metal nanoparticles using an electron beam,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 399–404 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nielsen, M. G.

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, R. L. Eriksen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband focusing flat mirrors based on plasmonic gradient metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 829–834 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nordlander, P.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Hao, E. M. Larsson, T. A. Ali, D. S. Sutherland, and P. Nordlander, “Shedding light on dark plasmons in gold nanorings,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 458(4-6), 262–266 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ouyang, Z.

Z.-L. Deng, T. Fu, Z. Ouyang, and G. P. Wang, “Trimeric metasurfaces for independent control of bright and dark modes of Fano resonances,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(8), 081109 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pelton, M.

M. Liu, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, P. Guyot-Sionnest, and M. Pelton, “Excitation of dark plasmons in metal nanoparticles by a localized emitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(10), 107401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pors, A.

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, R. L. Eriksen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband focusing flat mirrors based on plasmonic gradient metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 829–834 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiu, M.

T. Zhu, Y. Zhou, Y. Lou, H. Ye, M. Qiu, Z. Ruan, and S. Fan, “Plasmonic computing of spatial differentiation,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15391 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roberts, A.

J. J. Cadusch, T. D. James, and A. Roberts, “Experimental demonstration of a wave plate utilizing localized plasmonic resonances in nanoapertures,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28450–28455 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. E. Gómez, Z. Q. Teo, M. Altissimo, T. J. Davis, S. Earl, and A. Roberts, “The dark side of plasmonics,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3722–3728 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Lin, X. M. Goh, L. P. McGuinness, and A. Roberts, “Plasmonic lenses formed by two-dimensional nanometric cross-shaped aperture arrays for Fresnel-region focusing,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1936–1940 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. M. Goh, L. Lin, and A. Roberts, “Planar focusing elements using spatially varying near-resonant aperture arrays,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11683–11688 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Roberts and R. C. McPhedran, “Bandpass grids with annular apertures,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 36(5), 607–611 (1988).
[Crossref]

Rockstuhl, C.

S. Mühlig, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Multipole analysis of meta-atoms,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 5(2-3), 64–73 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ruan, Z.

T. Zhu, Y. Zhou, Y. Lou, H. Ye, M. Qiu, Z. Ruan, and S. Fan, “Plasmonic computing of spatial differentiation,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15391 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sancho-Parramon, J.

J. Sancho-Parramon and S. Bosch, “Dark modes and Fano resonances in plasmonic clusters excited by cylindrical vector beams,” ACS Nano 6(9), 8415–8423 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seo, K.

T. Ellenbogen, K. Seo, and K. B. Crozier, “Chromatic plasmonic polarizers for active visible color filtering and polarimetry,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 1026–1031 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Silva, A.

A. Silva, F. Monticone, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, A. Alù, and N. Engheta, “Performing mathematical operations with metamaterials,” Science 343(6167), 160–163 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sutherland, D. S.

F. Hao, E. M. Larsson, T. A. Ali, D. S. Sutherland, and P. Nordlander, “Shedding light on dark plasmons in gold nanorings,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 458(4-6), 262–266 (2008).
[Crossref]

Teo, Z. Q.

D. E. Gómez, Z. Q. Teo, M. Altissimo, T. J. Davis, S. Earl, and A. Roberts, “The dark side of plasmonics,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3722–3728 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tseng, C.-B.

Y.-C. Chang, S.-M. Wang, H.-C. Chung, C.-B. Tseng, and S.-H. Chang, “Observation of absorption-dominated bonding dark plasmon mode from metal-insulator-metal nanodisk arrays fabricated by nanospherical-lens lithography,” ACS Nano 6(4), 3390–3396 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, G. P.

Z.-L. Deng, T. Fu, Z. Ouyang, and G. P. Wang, “Trimeric metasurfaces for independent control of bright and dark modes of Fano resonances,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(8), 081109 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.-M.

Y.-C. Chang, S.-M. Wang, H.-C. Chung, C.-B. Tseng, and S.-H. Chang, “Observation of absorption-dominated bonding dark plasmon mode from metal-insulator-metal nanodisk arrays fabricated by nanospherical-lens lithography,” ACS Nano 6(4), 3390–3396 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yanai, A.

A. Yanai, M. Grajower, G. M. Lerman, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and U. Levy, “Near- and far-field properties of plasmonic oligomers under radially and azimuthally polarized light excitation,” ACS Nano 8(5), 4969–4974 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, J.

J. Yang and J. Zhang, “Subwavelength quarter-waveplate composed of L-shaped metal nanoparticles,” Plasmonics 6(2), 251–254 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ye, H.

T. Zhu, Y. Zhou, Y. Lou, H. Ye, M. Qiu, Z. Ruan, and S. Fan, “Plasmonic computing of spatial differentiation,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15391 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, N.

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zentgraf, T.

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

J. Yang and J. Zhang, “Subwavelength quarter-waveplate composed of L-shaped metal nanoparticles,” Plasmonics 6(2), 251–254 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheludev, N. I.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, G.

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Y.

T. Zhu, Y. Zhou, Y. Lou, H. Ye, M. Qiu, Z. Ruan, and S. Fan, “Plasmonic computing of spatial differentiation,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15391 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, T.

T. Zhu, Y. Zhou, Y. Lou, H. Ye, M. Qiu, Z. Ruan, and S. Fan, “Plasmonic computing of spatial differentiation,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15391 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (4)

B. Gallinet and O. J. Martin, “Refractive index sensing with subradiant modes: a framework to reduce losses in plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano 7(8), 6978–6987 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sancho-Parramon and S. Bosch, “Dark modes and Fano resonances in plasmonic clusters excited by cylindrical vector beams,” ACS Nano 6(9), 8415–8423 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-C. Chang, S.-M. Wang, H.-C. Chung, C.-B. Tseng, and S.-H. Chang, “Observation of absorption-dominated bonding dark plasmon mode from metal-insulator-metal nanodisk arrays fabricated by nanospherical-lens lithography,” ACS Nano 6(4), 3390–3396 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Yanai, M. Grajower, G. M. Lerman, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and U. Levy, “Near- and far-field properties of plasmonic oligomers under radially and azimuthally polarized light excitation,” ACS Nano 8(5), 4969–4974 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

F. I. Baida, “Enhanced transmission through subwavelength metallic coaxial apertures by excitation of the TEM mode,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2-3), 145–149 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Z.-L. Deng, T. Fu, Z. Ouyang, and G. P. Wang, “Trimeric metasurfaces for independent control of bright and dark modes of Fano resonances,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(8), 081109 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Hao, E. M. Larsson, T. A. Ali, D. S. Sutherland, and P. Nordlander, “Shedding light on dark plasmons in gold nanorings,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 458(4-6), 262–266 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (1)

A. Roberts and R. C. McPhedran, “Bandpass grids with annular apertures,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 36(5), 607–611 (1988).
[Crossref]

Metamaterials (Amst.) (1)

S. Mühlig, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Multipole analysis of meta-atoms,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 5(2-3), 64–73 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (5)

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, R. L. Eriksen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband focusing flat mirrors based on plasmonic gradient metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 829–834 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Lin, X. M. Goh, L. P. McGuinness, and A. Roberts, “Plasmonic lenses formed by two-dimensional nanometric cross-shaped aperture arrays for Fresnel-region focusing,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1936–1940 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.-W. Chu, V. Myroshnychenko, C. H. Chen, J.-P. Deng, C.-Y. Mou, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Probing bright and dark surface-plasmon modes in individual and coupled noble metal nanoparticles using an electron beam,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 399–404 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. E. Gómez, Z. Q. Teo, M. Altissimo, T. J. Davis, S. Earl, and A. Roberts, “The dark side of plasmonics,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3722–3728 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ellenbogen, K. Seo, and K. B. Crozier, “Chromatic plasmonic polarizers for active visible color filtering and polarimetry,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 1026–1031 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

T. Zhu, Y. Zhou, Y. Lou, H. Ye, M. Qiu, Z. Ruan, and S. Fan, “Plasmonic computing of spatial differentiation,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15391 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (2)

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Liu, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, P. Guyot-Sionnest, and M. Pelton, “Excitation of dark plasmons in metal nanoparticles by a localized emitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(10), 107401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Plasmonics (1)

J. Yang and J. Zhang, “Subwavelength quarter-waveplate composed of L-shaped metal nanoparticles,” Plasmonics 6(2), 251–254 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

P. Genevet and F. Capasso, “Holographic optical metasurfaces: a review of current progress,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 78(2), 024401 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Silva, F. Monticone, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, A. Alù, and N. Engheta, “Performing mathematical operations with metamaterials,” Science 343(6167), 160–163 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Array of radial trimers. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the device under investigation with the inset defining parameters used. Scale bar is 1 μm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Calculated normalized reflectance from the metasurface when illuminated with a linearly polarized plane wave. Normal incidence (a, b) for x- (a) and y- (b) polarized and for s- (c, d) and p- (e, f) polarization at 12.5° angle of incidence with the transverse component of the transverse component of the incident wavevector along the x- (c, e) and y- (d, f) directions.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Computed reflectivities of the metasurface for (a,c,e) s-, and (b,d,f) p-polarized incident illumination at wavelengths of 580 nm (a, b), 600 nm (c, d) and 740 nm (e, f).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Computed averaged reflectivities of the metasurface for x-polarized incident illumination at the (a) dark- and (b) bright mode wavelengths.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Experimental set-up for the measurement of reflectance spectra and Fourier plane images.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Experimentally obtained reflectance spectra from the device of Fig. 1 when illuminated through an objective with an NA 0.9.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Normalized Fourier plane images obtained using x-polarized light with central wavelengths 549 nm (a), 578 nm (b), 616 nm (c), 626 nm (d), 635 nm (e), 674 nm (f), 714 nm (g), 741 nm (h) and a bandwidth of approximately 10 nm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Line profiles along kx = 0 and ky = 0 of Fourier plane images [Fig. 7(d) and 7(g)] at (a) 626 nm and (b) 714 nm illustrating quantitative spatial frequency filtering.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I x ( k x , k y )= k x 2 R p ( k x , k y )+ k y 2 R s ( k x , k y ) k x 2 + k y 2