Abstract

We present an apodized bilayer low-temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) SiNx grating coupler for foundry-based, dual SiNx layer, photonic applications. The grating coupler was designed for TE polarization in the C-band (1530–1565 nm). It has a simulated fiber-to-chip efficiency of −2.28 dB (59.1%) and a −1 dB bandwidth of 57.7 nm. Its measured fiber-to-chip efficiency and −1 dB bandwidth were −2.56 dB (55.4%) and 46.9 nm respectively. It was fabricated in a state-of-the-art 300 mm CMOS foundry with 193 nm deep UV argon-fluoride (DUV ArF) excimer-laser immersion lithography.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (1)

2017 (7)

Y. Zhu, J. Wang, W. Xie, B. Tian, Y. Li, E. Brainis, Y. Jiao, and D. van Thourhout, “Ultra-compact silicon nitride grating coupler for microscopy systems,” Opt. Express 25(26), 33297 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Xu, Y. Zhang, Z. Shao, L. Liu, L. Zhou, C. Yang, Y. Chen, and S. Yu, “High-efficiency wideband SiNx-on-SOI grating coupler with low fabrication complexity,” Opt. Lett. 42(17), 3391–3394 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Muñoz, G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Pérez, J. D. Doménech, J. Fernández, R. Baños, B. Gargallo, R. Alemany, A. M. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, R. Mas, and C. Domínguez, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared applications,” Sensors (Basel) 17(9), 2088 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, A. Z. Khokhar, T. D. Bucio, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, D. J. Richardson, and P. Petropoulos, “Si-rich silicon nitride for nonlinear signal processing applications,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 22 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, T. Domínguez Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Banakar, K. Grabska, F. Y. Gardes, R. Halir, Í. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, and J.-J. He, “Experimental demonstration of an apodized-imaging chip-fiber grating coupler for Si3N4 waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 42(18), 3566–3569 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. V. Poulton, M. J. Byrd, M. Raval, Z. Su, N. Li, E. Timurdogan, D. Coolbaugh, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale silicon nitride nanophotonic phased arrays at infrared and visible wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 42(1), 21–24 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Marchetti, C. Lacava, A. Khokhar, X. Chen, I. Cristiani, D. J. Richardson, G. T. Reed, P. Petropoulos, and P. Minzioni, “High-efficiency grating-couplers: demonstration of a new design strategy,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 16670 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (6)

2015 (4)

2014 (5)

2013 (7)

J. Sun, P. Purnawirman, E. S. Hosseini, J. D. B. Bradley, T. N. Adam, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, and M. R. Watts, “Uniformly spaced λ/4-shifted Bragg grating array with wafer-scale CMOS-compatible process,” Opt. Lett. 38(20), 4002–4004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Purnawirman, J. Sun, T. N. Adam, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, J. D. B. Bradley, E. Shah Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “C- and L-band erbium-doped waveguide lasers with wafer-scale silicon nitride cavities,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1760–1762 (2013).
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S. Romero-García, F. Merget, F. Zhong, H. Finkelstein, and J. Witzens, “Silicon nitride CMOS-compatible platform for integrated photonics applications at visible wavelengths,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14036–14046 (2013).
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S. Romero-García, F. Merget, F. Zhong, H. Finkelstein, and J. Witzens, “Visible wavelength silicon nitride focusing grating coupler with AlCu/TiN reflector,” Opt. Lett. 38(14), 2521–2523 (2013).
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A. Arbabi and L. L. Goddard, “Measurements of the refractive indices and thermo-optic coefficients of Si3N4 and SiO(x) using microring resonances,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3878–3881 (2013).
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A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-loss singlemode PECVD silicon nitride photonic wire waveguides for 532-900 nm wavelength window fabricated within a CMOS pilot line,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
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Y. Ding, H. Ou, and C. Peucheret, “Ultrahigh-efficiency apodized grating coupler using fully etched photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 38(15), 2732–2734 (2013).
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2012 (3)

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized focusing subwavelength grating couplers for suspended membrane waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 101104 (2012).
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A. Z. Subramanian, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, A. Dhakal, K. Komorowska, and R. Baets, “Near-infrared grating couplers for silicon nitride photonic wires,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1700–1703 (2012).
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J. Komma, C. Schwarz, G. Hofmann, D. Heinert, and R. Nawrodt, “Thermo-optic coefficient of silicon at 1550 nm and cryogenic temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 041905 (2012).
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2011 (2)

J. F. Bauters, M. J. Heck, D. D. John, J. S. Barton, C. M. Bruinink, A. Leinse, R. G. Heideman, D. J. Blumenthal, and J. E. Bowers, “Planar waveguides with less than 0.1 dB/m propagation loss fabricated with wafer bonding,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24090–24101 (2011).
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A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. de Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
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2010 (4)

L. Liu, M. Pu, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “High-efficiency, large-bandwidth silicon-on-insulator grating coupler based on a fully-etched photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051126 (2010).
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P. Dong, W. Qian, S. Liao, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, N.-N. Feng, R. Shafiiha, J. Fong, D. Feng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low loss shallow-ridge silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14474–14479 (2010).
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C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, “Wide bandwidth silicon nitride grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(19), 1461–1463 (2010).
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H.-Y. Chen and K.-C. Yang, “Design of a high-efficiency grating coupler based on a silicon nitride overlay for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 49(33), 6455–6462 (2010).
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2009 (2)

V. Verlaan, A. D. Verkerk, W. M. Arnoldbik, C. H. M. van der Werf, R. Bakker, Z. S. Houweling, I. G. Romijn, D. M. Borsa, A. W. Weeber, S. L. Luxembourg, M. Zeman, H. F. W. Dekkers, and R. E. I. Schropp, “The effect of composition on the bond structure and refractive index of silicon nitride deposited by HWCVD and PECVD,” Thin Solid Films 517(12), 3499–3502 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, D. Vermeulen, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, T. Claes, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, S. Selvaraja, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Interfacing optical fibers and high refractive index contrast waveguide circuits using diffractive grating couplers,” Proc. SPIE 7218, 721808 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

M. R. Watts, M. J. Shaw, and G. N. Nielson, “Microphotonic thermal imaging,” Nat. Photonics 1(11), 632–634 (2007).
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T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
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F. van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

D. Taillaert, F. van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, “Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1190–1192 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

G. Cocorullo, F. G. Della Corte, and I. Rendina, “Temperature dependence of the thermo-optic coefficient in crystalline silicon between room temperature and 550 K at the wavelength of 1523 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(22), 3338–3340 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

L. Cai, A. Rohatgi, D. Yang, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Effects of rapid thermal anneal on refractive index and hydrogen content of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited silicon nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(9), 5384–5388 (1996).
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1994 (1)

J. A. McCaulley, V. M. Donnelly, M. Vernon, and I. Taha, “Temperature dependence of the near-infrared refractive index of silicon, gallium arsenide, and indium phosphide,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 49(11), 7408–7417 (1994).
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1992 (1)

G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, “Thermo-optical modulation at 1.5 μm in silicon etalon,” Electron. Lett. 28(1), 83–85 (1992).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

Adam, T. N.

Alemany, R.

P. Muñoz, G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Pérez, J. D. Doménech, J. Fernández, R. Baños, B. Gargallo, R. Alemany, A. M. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, R. Mas, and C. Domínguez, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared applications,” Sensors (Basel) 17(9), 2088 (2017).
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Andreani, L. C.

Arbabi, A.

Arnoldbik, W. M.

V. Verlaan, A. D. Verkerk, W. M. Arnoldbik, C. H. M. van der Werf, R. Bakker, Z. S. Houweling, I. G. Romijn, D. M. Borsa, A. W. Weeber, S. L. Luxembourg, M. Zeman, H. F. W. Dekkers, and R. E. I. Schropp, “The effect of composition on the bond structure and refractive index of silicon nitride deposited by HWCVD and PECVD,” Thin Solid Films 517(12), 3499–3502 (2009).
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Asakura, T.

Asghari, M.

Avrahami, Y.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, “Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1190–1192 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ayre, M.

D. Taillaert, F. van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-loss singlemode PECVD silicon nitride photonic wire waveguides for 532-900 nm wavelength window fabricated within a CMOS pilot line,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Z. Subramanian, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, A. Dhakal, K. Komorowska, and R. Baets, “Near-infrared grating couplers for silicon nitride photonic wires,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1700–1703 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, D. Vermeulen, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, T. Claes, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, S. Selvaraja, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Interfacing optical fibers and high refractive index contrast waveguide circuits using diffractive grating couplers,” Proc. SPIE 7218, 721808 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Taillaert, F. van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Compact efficient broadband grating coupler for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29(23), 2749–2751 (2004).
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Bakker, R.

V. Verlaan, A. D. Verkerk, W. M. Arnoldbik, C. H. M. van der Werf, R. Bakker, Z. S. Houweling, I. G. Romijn, D. M. Borsa, A. W. Weeber, S. L. Luxembourg, M. Zeman, H. F. W. Dekkers, and R. E. I. Schropp, “The effect of composition on the bond structure and refractive index of silicon nitride deposited by HWCVD and PECVD,” Thin Solid Films 517(12), 3499–3502 (2009).
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Banakar, M.

Baños, R.

P. Muñoz, G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Pérez, J. D. Doménech, J. Fernández, R. Baños, B. Gargallo, R. Alemany, A. M. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, R. Mas, and C. Domínguez, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared applications,” Sensors (Basel) 17(9), 2088 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barbastathis, G.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, “Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1190–1192 (2005).
[Crossref]

Barton, J. S.

Barwicz, T.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Barwicz, M. Popović, P. Rakich, M. Watts, H. Haus, E. Ippen, and H. Smith, “Microring-resonator-based add-drop filters in SiN: fabrication and analysis,” Opt. Express 12(7), 1437–1442 (2004).
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M. R. Watts, M. Qi, T. Barwicz, L. Socci, P. T. Rakich, E. P. Ippen, H. I. Smith, and H. A. Haus, “Towards integrated polarization diversity: design, fabrication and characterization of integrated polarization splitters and rotators,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2005), paper PDP11.
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Bauters, J. F.

Benedikovic, D.

D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, S. Wang, J. Lapointe, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “Subwavelength index engineered surface grating coupler with sub-decibel efficiency for 220-nm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22628–22635 (2015).
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D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, J. Lapointe, S. Wang, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “High-efficiency single etch step apodized surface grating coupler using subwavelength structure,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8(6), L93–L97 (2014).
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Berroth, M.

Bienstman, P.

D. Taillaert, F. van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Compact efficient broadband grating coupler for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29(23), 2749–2751 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blumenthal, D. J.

Bogaerts, W.

G. Roelkens, D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, D. Vermeulen, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, T. Claes, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, S. Selvaraja, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Interfacing optical fibers and high refractive index contrast waveguide circuits using diffractive grating couplers,” Proc. SPIE 7218, 721808 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Taillaert, F. van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Borsa, D. M.

V. Verlaan, A. D. Verkerk, W. M. Arnoldbik, C. H. M. van der Werf, R. Bakker, Z. S. Houweling, I. G. Romijn, D. M. Borsa, A. W. Weeber, S. L. Luxembourg, M. Zeman, H. F. W. Dekkers, and R. E. I. Schropp, “The effect of composition on the bond structure and refractive index of silicon nitride deposited by HWCVD and PECVD,” Thin Solid Films 517(12), 3499–3502 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

Bozzola, A.

Bradley, J. D. B.

Brainis, E.

Bru, L. A.

P. Muñoz, G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Pérez, J. D. Doménech, J. Fernández, R. Baños, B. Gargallo, R. Alemany, A. M. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, R. Mas, and C. Domínguez, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared applications,” Sensors (Basel) 17(9), 2088 (2017).
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Bruinink, C. M.

Bucio, T. D.

C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, A. Z. Khokhar, T. D. Bucio, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, D. J. Richardson, and P. Petropoulos, “Si-rich silicon nitride for nonlinear signal processing applications,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 22 (2017).
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Buhl, L. L.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, “Wide bandwidth silicon nitride grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(19), 1461–1463 (2010).
[Crossref]

Burghartz, J.

Butschke, J.

Byrd, M.

Byrd, M. J.

C. V. Poulton, M. J. Byrd, M. Raval, Z. Su, N. Li, E. Timurdogan, D. Coolbaugh, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale silicon nitride nanophotonic phased arrays at infrared and visible wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 42(1), 21–24 (2017).
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J. D. B. Bradley, Z. Su, E. S. Magden, N. Li, M. J. Byrd, P. Purnawirman, T. N. Adam, G. Leake, D. D. Coolbaugh, and M. R. Watts, “1.8-μm thulium microlasers integrated on silicon,” Proc. SPIE 9744, 97440U (2016).
[Crossref]

Cai, L.

L. Cai, A. Rohatgi, D. Yang, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Effects of rapid thermal anneal on refractive index and hydrogen content of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited silicon nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(9), 5384–5388 (1996).
[Crossref]

Carroll, L.

Cassan, E.

Cheben, P.

Chen, H.-Y.

Chen, L.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, “Wide bandwidth silicon nitride grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(19), 1461–1463 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

R. Marchetti, C. Lacava, A. Khokhar, X. Chen, I. Cristiani, D. J. Richardson, G. T. Reed, P. Petropoulos, and P. Minzioni, “High-efficiency grating-couplers: demonstration of a new design strategy,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 16670 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized focusing subwavelength grating couplers for suspended membrane waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 101104 (2012).
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X. Chen, C. Li, S. M. G. Lo, K. Fung, and H. K. Tsang, “Silicon waveguide grating couplers with engineered coupling strength for optimized coupling,” in European Conference on Integrated Optics (2010).

Chen, Y.

Chen, Y.-K.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, “Wide bandwidth silicon nitride grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(19), 1461–1463 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Z.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized focusing subwavelength grating couplers for suspended membrane waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 101104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cirera, J. M.

P. Muñoz, G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Pérez, J. D. Doménech, J. Fernández, R. Baños, B. Gargallo, R. Alemany, A. M. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, R. Mas, and C. Domínguez, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared applications,” Sensors (Basel) 17(9), 2088 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Claes, T.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-loss singlemode PECVD silicon nitride photonic wire waveguides for 532-900 nm wavelength window fabricated within a CMOS pilot line,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, D. Vermeulen, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, T. Claes, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, S. Selvaraja, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Interfacing optical fibers and high refractive index contrast waveguide circuits using diffractive grating couplers,” Proc. SPIE 7218, 721808 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cocorullo, G.

G. Cocorullo, F. G. Della Corte, and I. Rendina, “Temperature dependence of the thermo-optic coefficient in crystalline silicon between room temperature and 550 K at the wavelength of 1523 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(22), 3338–3340 (1999).
[Crossref]

G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, “Thermo-optical modulation at 1.5 μm in silicon etalon,” Electron. Lett. 28(1), 83–85 (1992).
[Crossref]

Coolbaugh, D.

Coolbaugh, D. D.

J. D. B. Bradley, Z. Su, E. S. Magden, N. Li, M. J. Byrd, P. Purnawirman, T. N. Adam, G. Leake, D. D. Coolbaugh, and M. R. Watts, “1.8-μm thulium microlasers integrated on silicon,” Proc. SPIE 9744, 97440U (2016).
[Crossref]

E. S. Hosseini, P. Purnawirman, J. D. B. Bradley, J. Sun, G. Leake, T. N. Adam, D. D. Coolbaugh, and M. R. Watts, “CMOS-compatible 75 mW erbium-doped distributed feedback laser,” Opt. Lett. 39(11), 3106–3109 (2014).
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Cristiani, I.

R. Marchetti, C. Lacava, A. Khokhar, X. Chen, I. Cristiani, D. J. Richardson, G. T. Reed, P. Petropoulos, and P. Minzioni, “High-efficiency grating-couplers: demonstration of a new design strategy,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 16670 (2017).
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A. Bozzola, L. Carroll, D. Gerace, I. Cristiani, and L. C. Andreani, “Optimising apodized grating couplers in a pure SOI platform to -0.5 dB coupling efficiency,” Opt. Express 23(12), 16289–16304 (2015).
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Dado, M.

J. Litvik, I. Dolnak, and M. Dado, “Waveguide silicon nitride grating coupler,” Proc. SPIE 10142, 1014213 (2016).
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D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, S. Wang, J. Lapointe, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “Subwavelength index engineered surface grating coupler with sub-decibel efficiency for 220-nm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22628–22635 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, J. Lapointe, S. Wang, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “High-efficiency single etch step apodized surface grating coupler using subwavelength structure,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8(6), L93–L97 (2014).
[Crossref]

de Dobbelaere, P.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. de Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dekkers, H. F. W.

V. Verlaan, A. D. Verkerk, W. M. Arnoldbik, C. H. M. van der Werf, R. Bakker, Z. S. Houweling, I. G. Romijn, D. M. Borsa, A. W. Weeber, S. L. Luxembourg, M. Zeman, H. F. W. Dekkers, and R. E. I. Schropp, “The effect of composition on the bond structure and refractive index of silicon nitride deposited by HWCVD and PECVD,” Thin Solid Films 517(12), 3499–3502 (2009).
[Crossref]

Della Corte, F. G.

G. Cocorullo, F. G. Della Corte, and I. Rendina, “Temperature dependence of the thermo-optic coefficient in crystalline silicon between room temperature and 550 K at the wavelength of 1523 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(22), 3338–3340 (1999).
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Layer stack of the Multi-Project Wafer (MPW) service used for this work.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Optimized simulated fiber-to-chip coupling efficiencies of the (a) top-only, (b) top-and-bottom parallel and (c) displaced bilayer etch designs.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Details of the uniform SiNx bilayer etch design.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a). Directionality of uniform 2.32 µm BOX SiNx bilayer etch design. (b) 2D FDTD simulation of the output E-fields of Uniform and Apodized 6 µm BOX designs with a fitted Gaussian and exponential decay to show the modal overlap.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a)–(b). SEM micrograph of apodized rectangular grating couplers: (a) after first SiNx etch, (b) after second SiNx etch. (c)–(d) apodized circular: (c) after first SiNx etch, (d) after second SiNx etch. (e)–(f) apodized elliptical: (e) after first SiNx etch, (f) after second SiNx etch. Figure 5(d) shows the interlayer taper for curved designs which confines the temporary bilayer SiNx’s taper mode to just the bottom SiNx layer. It is linear, 27 µm long and terminates with a 100 nm tip.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Simulated and measured coupling efficiencies of SiNx bilayer grating coupler with 2.32 µm bottom oxide for (a) uniform and (b) apodized designs with different lateral layouts (circular, elliptical, and rectangular). Blue error bars indicate the 1 standard deviation of the elliptical layout’s average insertion loss.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Simulated and measured coupling efficiencies of SiNx bilayer grating coupler with 6.0 µm bottom oxide for (a) uniform and (b) apodized designs with different lateral layouts (circular, elliptical, and rectangular). Blue error bars indicate the 1 standard deviation of the elliptical layout’s average insertion loss. Variances in the 6 µm BOX designs are attributed to larger variation in deposited oxide thickness as compared to those on the 2.32 µm BOX platform.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Comparing SiNx Grating Couplers in the Literature

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Table 2 Uniform Bilayer Design’s Dimensions

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Table 3 Apodized Bilayer Design’s Dimensions