Abstract

With demonstrated applications ranging from metrology to telecommunications, soliton microresonator frequency combs have emerged over the past decade as a remarkable new technology. However, standard implementations allow only for the generation of combs whose repetition rate is tied closely to the fundamental resonator free-spectral range (FSR), offering little or no dynamic control over the comb line spacing. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate harmonic and rational harmonic driving as novel techniques that allow for the robust generation of soliton frequency combs with discretely adjustable frequency spacing. By driving an integrated Kerr microresonator with a periodic train of picosecond pulses whose repetition rate is set close to an integer harmonic of the 3.23 GHz cavity FSR, we deterministically generate soliton frequency combs with frequency spacings discretely adjustable between 3.23 GHz and 19.38 GHz. More remarkably, we also demonstrate that driving the resonator at rational fractions of the FSR allows for the generation of combs whose frequency spacing corresponds to an integer harmonic of the pump repetition rate. By measuring the combs’ radio-frequency spectrum, we confirm operation in the low-noise soliton regime with no supermode noise. The novel techniques demonstrated in our work provide new degrees of freedom for the design of synchronously pumped soliton frequency combs.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Corrections

Yiqing Xu, Yi Lin, Alexander Nielsen, Ian Hendry, Stéphane Coen, Miro Erkintalo, Huilian Ma, and Stuart G. Murdoch, "Harmonic and rational harmonic driving of microresonator soliton frequency combs: publisher’s note," Optica 7, 1324-1324 (2020)
http://proxy.osapublishing.org/optica/abstract.cfm?uri=optica-7-10-1324

30 September 2020: A typographical correction was made to the author listing.

1. INTRODUCTION

Ever since their first demonstration [1], microresonator optical frequency combs (“microcombs”) [25] have attracted significant interest due to their wide range of potential applications in fields as diverse as metrology [68], optical frequency synthesis [9], imaging [10], distance measurements [11,12], and telecommunications [13]. Key to unleashing their potential has been the discovery that microresonators can support stable localized dissipative structures referred to as temporal cavity solitons (CSs), or alternatively dissipative Kerr solitons [14]. These structures—first observed in macroscopic fibre ring resonators [15]—correspond to pulses of light that can circulate around the resonator without changes in their shape or energy [16,17]; in the spectral domain, they manifest themselves as coherent optical frequency combs [1822].

Soliton microcombs are conventionally generated by driving a high-$Q$ Kerr microresonator with a continuous-wave (CW) laser [14,1922]. While appealing in its simplicity, this scheme suffers from several shortcomings. First, unless complicated control procedures are employed [23,24], the number and relative positions of the excited solitons is essentially random. Second, the pump-to-comb power conversion efficiency is typically low, as only a small fraction of the pump field overlaps with the soliton (and hence transfers energy to the comb) [25]. Third, excepting the formation of “soliton crystals” that hinge on difficult-to-control mode interactions [26,27], the comb repetition rate is restricted to a narrow range about the cavity free-spectral range (FSR), and can be challenging to lock to an external radio-frequency (RF) signal.

In a pioneering recent work, Obrzud et al. demonstrated that some of the limitations of CW-driven systems can be overcome by driving the resonator with a train of pulses synchronized to the round trip time of the cavity [28]. In this configuration, the soliton can be robustly “trapped” at a specific position within the intracavity pump pulse [29], thus locking the comb repetition rate to that of the driving pulse train while concomitantly suppressing its timing jitter [30]. Although the initial experiments [28] used a pulse train whose repetition rate was matched to the fundamental cavity FSR, more recent studies have extended the concept into the regime of sub-harmonic pumping, where the pump repetition rate is set close to one-half of the cavity FSR [31,32]. Yet, both of these schemes (synchronous and sub-harmonic) still share one of the limitations of CW-driven systems: they can deliver only microcombs whose repetition rate is close to the fundamental cavity FSR.

In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate novel pulsed driving techniques that allow for the deterministic generation of soliton frequency combs with discretely controllable repetition rate. In particular, leveraging knowledge from the field of actively mode-locked lasers [3336], and the recent demonstration of phase-locked microcombs with rational harmonic repetition rates [37], we show that driving a microresonator close to integer multiples or rational fractions of the cavity FSR enables microcombs whose repetition rate is close to an integer harmonic of the FSR. Our experiments are performed in a novel integrated silica waveguide resonator platform with an FSR of 3.23 GHz, and we generate low-noise soliton microcombs whose repetition rates range from the fundamental FSR (3.23 GHz) to its sixth harmonic (19.38 GHz). Significantly, by leveraging rational harmonic driving, we are also able to generate a microcomb at the second harmonic of the cavity FSR (6.46 GHz) despite using a driving pulse train at $2.15 {\rm GHz} \approx 2/3 {\rm FSR}$. The new pump configurations demonstrated in our work expand the number of degrees of freedom available to microresonator designers, and could find useful application in areas that would benefit from adjustable comb spacings, such as reconfigurable optical communications networks.

2. CONCEPT

We consider a Kerr nonlinear microresonator driven with a train of pulses whose temporal duration is much shorter than the cavity round trip time (but much larger than the temporal width of the solitons). The repetition rate ${f_{{\rm in}}}$ of the input driving pulse train is set close to a rational fraction of the cavity FSR, i.e.,

$${f_{{\rm in}}} \approx \frac{m}{n}{\rm FSR},$$
where $m$ and $n$ are integers with no common factors. In steady-state, the intracavity field comprises $m$ equally spaced pulses, each of which is repumped by the driving pulse train once every $n$ round trips [see Fig. 1]. Each of the intracavity pulses can independently support a single soliton that is temporally locked at a set position along the pulse envelope [28,29]; if the pump pulses are identical and the repetition rate ${f_{{\rm in}}}$ appropriately chosen (as elaborated below), each of the soliton trapping positions will be the same relative to its background pulse. In this case, the intracavity field will be composed of $m$ equally spaced solitons, yielding an output frequency comb with a repetition rate ${f_{{\rm out}}}$ that is exactly equal to the ${n^{{\rm th}}}$ harmonic of the input pulse train, i.e., ${f_{{\rm out}}} = \textit{n}{\textit{f}_{{\rm in}}}$, and approximately equal to the ${m^{{\rm th}}}$ harmonic of the cavity FSR. We must emphasize that an exact match between the repetition rate ${f_{{\rm in}}}$ and an integer fraction of the cavity FSR is not required [28,29]: robust trapping of CSs to the pump pulses can be achieved over a non-zero range of desynchronizations ${f_{{\rm in}}} - (m/n){\rm FSR}$. This trapping underpins the fact that the comb repetition rate will be exactly an integer harmonic of the pump repetition rate, and only approximately equal to an integer harmonic of the FSR.
 

Fig. 1. Visualization of harmonic and rational harmonic driving for different pump repetition rates: (a) ${f_{{\rm in}}} \approx {\rm FSR}$, (b) ${f_{{\rm in}}} \approx 3 {\rm FSR}$, (c) ${f_{{\rm in}}} \approx 3/2 {\rm FSR}$, and (d) ${f_{{\rm in}}} \approx 2/3 {\rm FSR}$. The red arrows represent the input pump pulses, while the blue, green, and orange arrows represent the solitons.

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Figure 1 provides a visual illustration of harmonic and rational harmonic driving for selected ratios of $m$ and $n$. The red arrows indicate the input pump pulses, while the blue, green, and orange arrows correspond to excited solitons. Figure 1(a) shows the conventional synchronous pumping scenario [28], in which the periodicity of the pump pulse train is set close to the cavity round trip time (such that ${f_{{\rm in}}} \approx {\rm FSR}$). Here one CS circulates inside the resonator and is repumped by an external pulse every round trip, yielding an output comb with a frequency spacing of approximately one FSR. Figure 1(b) shows an example of harmonic driving with ${f_{{\rm in}}} \approx 3 {\rm FSR}$; the cavity contains three equally spaced solitons that are each repumped every round trip, yielding an output comb with a repetition rate approximately three times the FSR. Figures 1(c) and 1(d) show examples of rational harmonic driving. In Fig. 1(c), we have ${f_{{\rm in}}} \approx (3/2){\rm FSR}$, yielding three equally spaced solitons that are repumped only every second round trip; in Fig. 1(d), we have ${f_{{\rm in}}} \approx (2/3){\rm FSR}$, yielding two equally spaced solitons that are repumped every third round trip. In these last two cases [Figs. 1(c) and 1(d)], the repetition rate of the input pulse train is three-halves and two-thirds of an FSR, yet yield output combs with a repetition rate close to three and two times the FSR, respectively. This illustrates the ability of rational harmonic driving to generate combs with multiple FSR frequency spacings, while driving at sub-FSR pump frequencies.

 

Fig. 2. (a) Photograph of the waveguide ring resonator (WRR) used in our experiments. (b) Schematic illustration of the experimental setup. EO, electro-optic; DCF, dispersion compensating fiber; SMF, single-mode fiber; NALM, nonlinear amplifying loop mirror; EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier; circ., circulator; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer; BPF, band-pass filter; PD, photodetector; ESA, electrical spectral analyzer; osc., oscilloscope.

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Before proceeding to our experimental demonstrations, we comment on two salient technical details. First, when $n \gt 1$, the solitons circulating in the cavity are not repumped every round trip, which leads to a reduction in the system’s effective driving power [17]:

$$X = \frac{{\gamma\! \textit{PL}{\theta}}}{{{\alpha ^3}}},$$
where $P$, $\gamma$, and $\theta$ correspond to the peak power of the input pump pulse, the Kerr nonlinearity coefficient, and the input coupling coefficient, respectively. (Solitons can exist only for $X \gtrsim 2$ [38], and their attainable spectral width scales as $\sqrt X$ [17].) Under conditions of rational harmonic driving, the parameters $L$ and $\alpha$ correspond, respectively, to the total length propagated and half of the total losses experienced by the intracavity field over one full cycle of repumping, i.e., $n$ round trips. It should be clear that $L = \textit{n}{\textit{L}_0}$ and $\alpha = n{\alpha _0}$, where ${L_0}$ and ${\alpha _0}$ are the corresponding (circumference) length and losses over one round trip, respectively, thus implying that the effective driving power $X \propto {n^{- 2}}$. Accordingly, for a given resonator system (with fixed $\gamma$, ${L_0}$, ${\alpha _0}$, and $\theta$), the use of rational harmonic driving requires the pump peak power to be increased as $P \propto {n^2}$ so as to maintain constant effective driving power $X$ (and hence potential comb bandwidth). We note that for parameters found in high-finesse microresonators, this power constraint will set the limit of the maximum practical value of $n$ that can be used, rather than being imposed by the decay of the soliton before repumping. Second, key to the harmonic and rational harmonic schemes is that all of the intracavity solitons are trapped at the same position with respect to their background pulse. Theories predict [29], however, that under conditions of perfect synchronization [with respect to $(m/n) {\rm FSR}$], each pump pulse actually possesses two stable trapping points (located on the pulse’s leading and trailing edges, respectively). Fortunately, this degeneracy can be lifted via appropriate desynchronization of the pump pulse train, forcing the system to favor only one of these two trapping points [39].

3. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

For experimental demonstration, we use an integrated waveguide ring resonator (WRR) formed from a buried Ge-doped low-loss silica-on-silicon waveguide [see Fig. 2(a)]. While such WRRs have been used in the past for gyroscope applications [40], they have not (to the best of our knowledge) been applied for microcomb generation. The resonator is designed to support a single spatial mode around 1550 nm, and it has a diameter of 2 cm, which corresponds to an FSR of 3.23 GHz. Simulations of the mode profile of the resonator’s waveguide at 1550 nm allow us to estimate the dispersion and nonlinear interaction coefficient of this device as approximately ${\beta _2} = - 30\;{{\rm ps}^2}\!/{\rm km}$ and $\gamma = 2.4 \; {{\rm W}^{- 1}}{{\rm km}^{- 1}}$, respectively. The $Q$-factor of the resonator is measured via the cavity ring-down method using a narrow-linewidth distributed-feedback fiber laser (linewidth ${\lt}{1}\;{\rm kHz}$), and found to be $2 \times {10^7}$ at 1550 nm. Light is coupled to and from the resonator via an on-chip bus waveguide, which is itself coupled to standard single-mode optical fibers at each end of the bus. This provides for a very robust alignment-free resonator platform. More details on the fabrication of this device can be found in [41,42].

Figure 2(b) shows our full experimental setup. We use an electro-optic (EO) frequency comb generator to create a picosecond pulsed laser source suitable for driving the WRR [28,32]. Specifically, laser light from a narrow-linewidth distributed-feedback fiber laser at 1550 nm is passed through one amplitude and two phase modulators driven by an RF signal generator. The total RF power used to drive the EO comb is ${\sim}1\;{\rm W}$. The resulting EO comb is then passed through a length of dispersion compensating fiber to provide a stage of linear compression. For drive frequencies above 5 GHz, this fiber length was set to 600 m, while for drive frequencies below 5 GHz, it was set to 2.7 km. This linear stage is followed by a nonlinear soliton compression stage consisting of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) and 1 km of single-mode fiber. The nonlinearly compressed pulse train is passed through a nonlinear amplified loop mirror to remove any unwanted pedestal from the pulse train [43], then reamplified by a second EDFA to further increase the peak power. For each drive frequency, fine adjustment of the output pulse width is made by adjusting the gain of the EDFA in front of the soliton compression stage. Frequency resolved optical gating is used to characterize the resulting pulses (at a drive frequency of 3.23 GHz), which are found to have a full-width at half-maximum of 1.8 ps and a maximum peak power of 30 W. Because of the thermal properties of the resonator system, we find that it is necessary to use an auxiliary CW laser at 1530 nm to obtain reliable access to the soliton state. [44]. This auxiliary beam is launched into the WRR in the opposite direction to the pump, and it circulates in an orthogonally polarized resonator mode.

4. RESULTS

In order to first verify that our system can deterministically generate single soliton frequency combs, we set the pump’s average power to 26 mW (corresponding to a peak power of about 4 W) and repetition rate close to the fundamental cavity FSR (3.23 GHz). Figure 3(a) depicts a typical photodetector trace measured at the cavity output (and after a band-pass filter that excludes the pump) when the pump carrier frequency is scanned over a single resonance. We observe the usual signatures of stable CS formation: a region of modulation instability (MI) is followed by the formation of unstable (breathing) CSs and then a low-noise step indicating the presence of stable CSs [14]. Note that throughout our experiments, the precise pump repetition rate is chosen so as to maximize the length of the soliton step, which also ensures that one of the intensity trapping positions is highly favored due to the presence of stimulated Raman scattering [39]. Experimentally, we find the range of desynchronizations between the pump repetition rate and the cavity FSR that support soliton generation is ${\sim}10\;{\rm kHz}$, whereas the amount of desynchronization required to break the degeneracy between the two trapping positions and guarantee single soliton operation is approximately 10 times smaller than this at ${\sim}1\;{\rm kHz}$. This enables us to reliably set the desynchronization of the cavity to ensure deterministic single soliton generation.

 

Fig. 3. (a) Average comb power measured through an offset filter as the pump carrier frequency is scanned across a resonance. MI, modulation instability; UCS, unstable CS. (b) Measured comb spectrum when operating in the single soliton regime (blue curve) and ${{\rm sech}^2}$ fit corresponding to a 300 fs CS (red curve). (c) RF beat note for a comb in the MI state (magenta) and CS state (blue curve).

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Due to the auxiliary CW laser, the soliton step can be accessed in steady-state simply by manually advancing the cavity detuning. The output comb spectrum in this regime displays the ${{\rm sech}^2}$ shape expected for a single soliton [see Fig. 3(b)]. The small bump evident around 1550 nm is the remnant of the pump spectrum, while the sharp peak at 1530 nm comes from the backscattered component of the counterpropagating auxillary beam. We note that the strictly single-mode character of this device results in a very clean soliton spectrum with no evidence of any spectral imperfections associated with mode crossings. The total number of comb lines in the spectrum shown in Fig. 3(b) is in excess of 2300. To further confirm operation in the soliton regime, we used an electrical spectrum analyzer (ESA) to measure the fundamental RF beat note of the comb, observing a clear reduction in the RF noise upon entering the step region [see Fig. 3(c)]. We must highlight that the resonator’s FSR is sufficiently small such that fundamental RF beat signal can be readily resolved on a fast photodetector, allowing us to verify that the spacing of the soliton comb matches exactly with that of the electronic driving signal (to within the ${\pm}10{\rm Hz} $ accuracy of the ESA) [28,30,32].

To demonstrate harmonic driving, we set the pump repetition rate close to an integer multiple of the cavity FSR, and increase the average power so as to maintain peak power suitable for comb generation. For each of the repetition rates tested (up to six times the cavity FSR), we have identified and been able to manually tune into the low-noise soliton regime exactly as described above for the case of synchronous driving. Figures 4(a)–4(c) show illustrative examples of soliton comb spectra when the driving repetition rate was set to two, four, and six times the cavity FSR, respectively. Also shown are zoomed-in sections over a 0.5 nm spectral range to illustrate how the comb spacings adopt the pump repetition rates of 6.46 GHz, 12.92 GHz, and 19.38 GHz. We note that our demonstration is limited to the sixth harmonic only by the 20 GHz maximum drive frequency of the EO comb used. With higher repetition rate drive signals, even larger comb spacings could be expected. For each case, we have also measured the RF spectrum of the output soliton comb [see Figs. 4(d)–4(f)], and observe only signals at integer multiples of the driving repetition rate. These RF spectra (resolution bandwidth 10 MHz) are measured through a band-pass filter that excludes the pump (passband 1538 nm to 1542 nm), ensuring that we record the true repetition rate of the soliton comb. We also note that the poor SNR observed for the 19.38 GHz signal in Fig. 4(f) is not due to low comb power at this repetition rate, but rather the limited bandwidth of the photodetector used (corner frequency ${\sim}12.5\;{\rm GHz} $). These measurements confirm that, due to the passive nature of the system, harmonic driving of soliton microresonator frequency combs is not associated with supermode noise that is often present in harmonically mode-locked lasers [45].

 

Fig. 4. (a)–(c) Optical spectra of the soliton comb when the resonator is pumped at two, four, and six times the cavity FSR, respectively. The insets show a zoom over a 0.5 nm spectral range centered around 1560 nm. (d)–(f) RF spectra corresponding to the optical spectra shown in (a)–(c), respectively.

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To demonstrate rational harmonic driving, we set the pump repetition rate close to a rational fraction of the cavity FSR. As for the synchronous and harmonic driving discussed above, we have observed the characteristic soliton step signature that can be manually accessed for all the rational fractions that we have tested. Figures 5(a)–5(c) show illustrative examples of soliton comb spectra when the pump repetition rate was set to 3/2, 5/2, and 2/3 of the cavity FSR, while Figs. 5(d)–5(f) show the corresponding RF spectra of the input pump (orange curve) as well as the output comb (blue curve). As can be seen, the results shown in Figs. 5(a), 5d and 5(b), 5(e) demonstrate output combs with frequency spacings of 9.69 GHz and 16.15 GHz obtained with a pump pulse train at 4.85 GHz (3/2 FSR) and 8.08 GHz (5/2 FSR), respectively. Note that the RF spectrum of the output comb (resolution bandwidth 10 MHz) is measured through the same band-pass filter used for the measurements of Figs. 4(d)–4(f), explaining why harmonics of the pump repetition rate that are not multiples of the cavity FSR do not appear in that spectrum. The results shown in Figs. 5(c) and 5(f) remarkably demonstrate that driving the resonator with a repetition rate below the cavity FSR (here at $2.15 \;{\rm GHz} \approx 2/3 \;{\rm FSR}$) can allow for the generation of a soliton comb with a frequency spacing that is larger than the cavity FSR (here at $6.46 \;{\rm GHz} \approx 2 \;{\rm FSR}$), underlining the flexibility offered by rational harmonic driving. We also wish to emphasize that both of the driving schemes demonstrated in our work are fully deterministic and highly repeatable. In particular, our experiments show that the target comb state is reached every time when manually tuning into the soliton state. This observation highlights the reliability of harmonic and rational harmonic driving in providing combs with desired line spacing.

 

Fig. 5. (a)–(c) Optical spectra of the soliton comb (blue curve) and the pump pulse train (orange curve) when the resonator is pumped at 3/2, 5/2, and 2/3 of the cavity FSR, respectively. The corresponding electronic RF spectra are shown in (d)–(f). Note that the pump and soliton spectra are offset for clarity.

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Finally, before closing, we verify the validity of the power scaling predicted by Eq. (2) by driving the cavity at different rational fractions of the cavity FSR and observing the threshold at which soliton formation occurs. These results are summarized in Table 1 where we report the measured pump threshold peak power ${P_{m/n}}$ in Watts at a range of different drive frequencies, ${f_{{\rm in}}} = (m/n){\rm FSR}$. In addition, we report the ratio between these peak powers and the threshold peak power for equivalent integer harmonic measurement (i.e., when $n = 1$): ${R_{m\!/\!n}} = {P_{m\!/\!n}}/{P_{m\!/\!1}}$. Our analysis of Eq. (2) predicts this ratio should vary as ${n^2}$. While we observe some scatter in our measurements, due primarily to the difficulty in obtaining exactly the same output pulse profile from the EO comb over a wide range of drive frequencies, Table 1 corroborates this prediction with the ratio ${R_{m\!/\!n}}$ close to four when driving at rational harmonics with $n = 2$, and close to nine when $n = 3$. We also note that, as would be expected, we observe that the range of drive frequencies over which single solitons can be deterministically generated is found to increase with increasing $m$, and decrease with increasing $n$ [37,46].

Tables Icon

Table 1. Pump Peak Power Threshold ${P_{m/n}}$ for the Onset of Soliton Formation Measured at a Range of Different Rational Fractions of the Drive Frequency: ${f_{{\rm in}}} = (m/n){\rm FSR}$

5. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

We have proposed and experimentally demonstrated harmonic and rational harmonic driving as flexible schemes to generate low-noise soliton microcombs with comb spacings that are close to integer multiples of the cavity FSR (and exactly locked to an external RF signal). Experimentally, using a single integrated silica WRR, we have demonstrated output combs with discretely adjustable frequency spacings between 3.23 GHz and 19.38 GHz. Moreover, we have shown that rational harmonic driving allows for the generation of output combs with multi-FSR frequency spacings while driving at sub-FSR frequencies. Measurements of the combs’ RF spectrum confirm operation in the low-noise soliton regime with no supermode noise.

We believe that the new driving schemes demonstrated in our work could find useful application in areas such as reconfigurable optical communication networks, where the ability to dynamically adjust the comb spacing of a transmitter or a receiver could prove beneficial. The rational harmonic scheme could also enable flexible driving of large-FSR resonators, enabling, for example, microcombs with very large comb spacing directly referenced to an electronic signal. In addition, our results further underscore the fact that pulsed driving can enable soliton microcombs in resonator platforms that have not previously been considered suitable for that purpose, but that may nevertheless offer benefits in terms of ease of fabrication, absolute linewidth, or operational flexibility. As a forward-looking example, combining the novel driving schemes demonstrated in our work with high-finesse macroscopic optical fiber ring resonators could allow for the realization of novel sources of ultrashort pulses with GHz repetition rates discretely tunable in MHz steps. For example, we envision a 100 m fiber loop cavity with a FSR of 2 MHz, harmonically driven by a 10 GHz EO comb set close to an exact harmonic of the FSR. This would result in a 10 GHz low-noise soliton comb, locked directly to an external clock, with a comb spacing adjustable in steps of 2 MHz. To ensure stable operation, such a system would most likely require an active stabilization of the cavity length, and work towards this goal is currently underway.

Funding

National Natural Science Foundation of China (61675181); Royal Society of New Zealand.

Disclosures

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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23. H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, A. Kordts, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, V. Brasch, G. Lihachev, V. E. Lobanov, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal dynamics and deterministic switching of dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Phys. 13, 94–102 (2017). [CrossRef]  

24. D. C. Cole, J. R. Stone, M. Erkintalo, K. Y. Yang, X. Yi, K. J. Vahala, and S. B. Papp, “Kerr-microresonator solitons from a chirped background,” Optica 5, 1304–1310 (2018). [CrossRef]  

25. X. Xue, P.-H. Wang, Y. Xuan, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Microresonator Kerr frequency combs with high conversion efficiency,” Laser Photon. Rev. 11, 1600276 (2017). [CrossRef]  

26. D. C. Cole, E. S. Lamb, P. Del’Haye, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Soliton crystals in Kerr resonators,” Nat. Photonics 11, 671–676 (2017). [CrossRef]  

27. M. Karpov, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, H. Guo, W. Weng, J. Liu, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Dynamics of soliton crystals in optical microresonators,” Nat. Phys. 15, 1071–1077 (2019). [CrossRef]  

28. E. Obrzud, S. Lecomte, and T. Herr, “Temporal solitons in microresonators driven by optical pulses,” Nat. Photonics 11, 600 (2017). [CrossRef]  

29. I. Hendry, W. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Garbin, J. Javaloyes, G.-L. Oppo, S. Coen, S. G. Murdoch, and M. Erkintalo, “Spontaneous symmetry breaking and trapping of temporal Kerr cavity solitons by pulsed or amplitude-modulated driving fields,” Phys. Rev. A 97, 053834 (2018). [CrossRef]  

30. V. Brasch, E. Obrzud, E. Obrzud, S. Lecomte, and T. Herr, “Nonlinear filtering of an optical pulse train using dissipative Kerr solitons,” Optica 6, 1386–1393 (2019). [CrossRef]  

31. E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wildi, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13, 31–35 (2019). [CrossRef]  

32. M. H. Anderson, R. Bouchand, J. Liu, W. Weng, E. Obrzud, T. Herr, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based resonant supercontinuum,” arxiv:1909.00022 (2019).

33. N. Onodera, A. J. Lowery, L. Zhai, Z. Ahmed, and R. S. Tucker, “Frequency multiplication in actively mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1329–1331 (1993). [CrossRef]  

34. W. Jun Shan, J. Goldhar, and G. L. Burdge, “Active harmonic modelocking of an erbium fiber laser with intracavity Fabry-Perot filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1171–1180 (1997). [CrossRef]  

35. W. Chiming and N. K. Dutta, “High-repetition-rate optical pulse generation using a rational harmonic mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 145–150 (2000). [CrossRef]  

36. E. Yoshida and M. Nakazawa, “80–200  GHZ erbium doped fibre laser using a rational harmonic mode-locking technique,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1370–1372 (1996). [CrossRef]  

37. J. Jang, X. Ji, C. Joshi, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Observation of Arnold tongues in coupled soliton Kerr frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 153901 (2019). [CrossRef]  

38. F. Leo, L. Gelens, P. Emplit, M. Haelterman, and S. Coen, “Dynamics of one-dimensional Kerr cavity solitons,” Opt. Express 21, 9180–9191 (2013). [CrossRef]  

39. I. Hendry, B. Garbin, S. G. Murdoch, S. Coen, and M. Erkintalo, “Impact of desynchronization and drift on soliton-based Kerr frequency combs in the presence of pulsed driving fields,” Phys. Rev. A 100, 023829 (2019). [CrossRef]  

40. H. Ma, J. Zhang, L. Wang, and Z. Jin, “Development and evaluation of optical passive resonant gyroscopes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35,3546–3554 (2017). [CrossRef]  

41. J. Zhang, H. Ma, H. Li, and Z. Jin, “Single-polarization fiber-pigtailed high-finesse silica waveguide ring resonator for a resonant micro-optic gyroscope,” Opt. Lett. 42, 3658–3661 (2017). [CrossRef]  

42. Y. Lin, J. Zhang, H. Ma, and Z. Jin, “Evaluation of polarization characteristics of the fiber-pigtailed waveguide-type ring resonator and implications for resonant micro-optic gyroscopes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 37, 2425–2434 (2019). [CrossRef]  

43. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber optics, Optics and Photonics, 3rd ed. (Academic, 2001).

44. S. Zhang, J. M. Silver, L. Del Bino, F. Copie, M. T. M. Woodley, G. N. Ghalanos, A. Svela, N. Moroney, and P. Del’Haye, “Sub-milliwatt-level microresonator solitons with extended access range using an auxiliary laser,” Optica 6, 206–212 (2019). [CrossRef]  

45. O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, M. Haelterman, P. Emplit, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Supermode noise of harmonically mode-locked erbium fiber lasers with composite cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 252–259 (2002). [CrossRef]  

46. W. Weng, E. Lucas, G. Lihachev, V. E. Lobanov, H. Guo, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Spectral purification of microwave signals with disciplined dissipative Kerr solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 013902 (2019). [CrossRef]  

References

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  7. A. Dutt, C. Joshi, X. Ji, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, K. Luke, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “On-chip dual-comb source for spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 4, e1701858 (2018).
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  9. D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
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  14. T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2013).
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  16. S. Coen and M. Erkintalo, “Universal scaling laws of Kerr frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1790–1792 (2013).
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  17. S. Coen, H. G. Randle, T. Sylvestre, and M. Erkintalo, “Modeling of octave-spanning Kerr frequency combs using a generalized mean-field Lugiato-Lefever model,” Opt. Lett. 38, 37–39 (2013).
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  19. X. Yi, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, M.-G. Suh, and K. Vahala, “Soliton frequency comb at microwave rates in a high-Q silica microresonator,” Optica 2, 1078–1085 (2015).
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  20. V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip–based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351, 357–360 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  21. K. E. Webb, M. Erkintalo, S. Coen, and S. G. Murdoch, “Experimental observation of coherent cavity soliton frequency combs in silica microspheres,” Opt. Lett. 41, 4613–4616 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  22. J. K. Jang, A. Klenner, X. Ji, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Synchronization of coupled optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 12, 688–693 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  23. H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, A. Kordts, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, V. Brasch, G. Lihachev, V. E. Lobanov, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal dynamics and deterministic switching of dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Phys. 13, 94–102 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  24. D. C. Cole, J. R. Stone, M. Erkintalo, K. Y. Yang, X. Yi, K. J. Vahala, and S. B. Papp, “Kerr-microresonator solitons from a chirped background,” Optica 5, 1304–1310 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  25. X. Xue, P.-H. Wang, Y. Xuan, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Microresonator Kerr frequency combs with high conversion efficiency,” Laser Photon. Rev. 11, 1600276 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  26. D. C. Cole, E. S. Lamb, P. Del’Haye, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Soliton crystals in Kerr resonators,” Nat. Photonics 11, 671–676 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  27. M. Karpov, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, H. Guo, W. Weng, J. Liu, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Dynamics of soliton crystals in optical microresonators,” Nat. Phys. 15, 1071–1077 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  28. E. Obrzud, S. Lecomte, and T. Herr, “Temporal solitons in microresonators driven by optical pulses,” Nat. Photonics 11, 600 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  29. I. Hendry, W. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Garbin, J. Javaloyes, G.-L. Oppo, S. Coen, S. G. Murdoch, and M. Erkintalo, “Spontaneous symmetry breaking and trapping of temporal Kerr cavity solitons by pulsed or amplitude-modulated driving fields,” Phys. Rev. A 97, 053834 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  30. V. Brasch, E. Obrzud, E. Obrzud, S. Lecomte, and T. Herr, “Nonlinear filtering of an optical pulse train using dissipative Kerr solitons,” Optica 6, 1386–1393 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  31. E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wildi, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13, 31–35 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  32. M. H. Anderson, R. Bouchand, J. Liu, W. Weng, E. Obrzud, T. Herr, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based resonant supercontinuum,” arxiv:1909.00022 (2019).
  33. N. Onodera, A. J. Lowery, L. Zhai, Z. Ahmed, and R. S. Tucker, “Frequency multiplication in actively mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1329–1331 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  34. W. Jun Shan, J. Goldhar, and G. L. Burdge, “Active harmonic modelocking of an erbium fiber laser with intracavity Fabry-Perot filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1171–1180 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  35. W. Chiming and N. K. Dutta, “High-repetition-rate optical pulse generation using a rational harmonic mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 145–150 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  36. E. Yoshida and M. Nakazawa, “80–200  GHZ erbium doped fibre laser using a rational harmonic mode-locking technique,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1370–1372 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  37. J. Jang, X. Ji, C. Joshi, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Observation of Arnold tongues in coupled soliton Kerr frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 153901 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  38. F. Leo, L. Gelens, P. Emplit, M. Haelterman, and S. Coen, “Dynamics of one-dimensional Kerr cavity solitons,” Opt. Express 21, 9180–9191 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  39. I. Hendry, B. Garbin, S. G. Murdoch, S. Coen, and M. Erkintalo, “Impact of desynchronization and drift on soliton-based Kerr frequency combs in the presence of pulsed driving fields,” Phys. Rev. A 100, 023829 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  40. H. Ma, J. Zhang, L. Wang, and Z. Jin, “Development and evaluation of optical passive resonant gyroscopes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35,3546–3554 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  41. J. Zhang, H. Ma, H. Li, and Z. Jin, “Single-polarization fiber-pigtailed high-finesse silica waveguide ring resonator for a resonant micro-optic gyroscope,” Opt. Lett. 42, 3658–3661 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  42. Y. Lin, J. Zhang, H. Ma, and Z. Jin, “Evaluation of polarization characteristics of the fiber-pigtailed waveguide-type ring resonator and implications for resonant micro-optic gyroscopes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 37, 2425–2434 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  43. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber optics, Optics and Photonics, 3rd ed. (Academic, 2001).
  44. S. Zhang, J. M. Silver, L. Del Bino, F. Copie, M. T. M. Woodley, G. N. Ghalanos, A. Svela, N. Moroney, and P. Del’Haye, “Sub-milliwatt-level microresonator solitons with extended access range using an auxiliary laser,” Optica 6, 206–212 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  45. O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, M. Haelterman, P. Emplit, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Supermode noise of harmonically mode-locked erbium fiber lasers with composite cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 252–259 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  46. W. Weng, E. Lucas, G. Lihachev, V. E. Lobanov, H. Guo, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Spectral purification of microwave signals with disciplined dissipative Kerr solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 013902 (2019).
    [Crossref]

2019 (10)

A. L. Gaeta, M. Lipson, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic-chip-based frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 13, 158–169 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Bao, M.-G. Suh, and K. Vahala, “Microresonator soliton dual-comb imaging,” Optica 6, 1110–1116 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Karpov, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, H. Guo, W. Weng, J. Liu, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Dynamics of soliton crystals in optical microresonators,” Nat. Phys. 15, 1071–1077 (2019).
[Crossref]

V. Brasch, E. Obrzud, E. Obrzud, S. Lecomte, and T. Herr, “Nonlinear filtering of an optical pulse train using dissipative Kerr solitons,” Optica 6, 1386–1393 (2019).
[Crossref]

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wildi, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13, 31–35 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Jang, X. Ji, C. Joshi, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Observation of Arnold tongues in coupled soliton Kerr frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 153901 (2019).
[Crossref]

I. Hendry, B. Garbin, S. G. Murdoch, S. Coen, and M. Erkintalo, “Impact of desynchronization and drift on soliton-based Kerr frequency combs in the presence of pulsed driving fields,” Phys. Rev. A 100, 023829 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Lin, J. Zhang, H. Ma, and Z. Jin, “Evaluation of polarization characteristics of the fiber-pigtailed waveguide-type ring resonator and implications for resonant micro-optic gyroscopes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 37, 2425–2434 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, J. M. Silver, L. Del Bino, F. Copie, M. T. M. Woodley, G. N. Ghalanos, A. Svela, N. Moroney, and P. Del’Haye, “Sub-milliwatt-level microresonator solitons with extended access range using an auxiliary laser,” Optica 6, 206–212 (2019).
[Crossref]

W. Weng, E. Lucas, G. Lihachev, V. E. Lobanov, H. Guo, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Spectral purification of microwave signals with disciplined dissipative Kerr solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 013902 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (10)

I. Hendry, W. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Garbin, J. Javaloyes, G.-L. Oppo, S. Coen, S. G. Murdoch, and M. Erkintalo, “Spontaneous symmetry breaking and trapping of temporal Kerr cavity solitons by pulsed or amplitude-modulated driving fields,” Phys. Rev. A 97, 053834 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. C. Cole, J. R. Stone, M. Erkintalo, K. Y. Yang, X. Yi, K. J. Vahala, and S. B. Papp, “Kerr-microresonator solitons from a chirped background,” Optica 5, 1304–1310 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. K. Jang, A. Klenner, X. Ji, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Synchronization of coupled optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 12, 688–693 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Trocha, M. Karpov, D. Ganin, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, S. Wolf, J. Krockenberger, P. Marin-Palomo, C. Weimann, S. Randel, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs,” Science 359, 887 (2018).
[Crossref]

M.-G. Suh and K. J. Vahala, “Soliton microcomb range measurement,” Science 359, 884–887 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Dutt, C. Joshi, X. Ji, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, K. Luke, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “On-chip dual-comb source for spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 4, e1701858 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. S. Lamb, D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, J. R. Stone, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Optical-frequency measurements with a Kerr microcomb and photonic-chip supercontinuum,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9, 024030 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, L. Razzari, D. J. Moss, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo, Y. K. Chembo, T. Hansson, S. Wabnitz, P. Del’Haye, X. Xue, A. M. Weiner, and R. Morandotti, “Micro-combs: a novel generation of optical sources,” Phys. Rep. 729, 1–81 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Gaeta, M. Lipson, and M. L. Gorodetsky, “Dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Science 361, eaan8083 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (7)

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546, 274–279 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, A. Kordts, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, V. Brasch, G. Lihachev, V. E. Lobanov, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal dynamics and deterministic switching of dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Phys. 13, 94–102 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Xue, P.-H. Wang, Y. Xuan, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Microresonator Kerr frequency combs with high conversion efficiency,” Laser Photon. Rev. 11, 1600276 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. C. Cole, E. S. Lamb, P. Del’Haye, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Soliton crystals in Kerr resonators,” Nat. Photonics 11, 671–676 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Obrzud, S. Lecomte, and T. Herr, “Temporal solitons in microresonators driven by optical pulses,” Nat. Photonics 11, 600 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Ma, J. Zhang, L. Wang, and Z. Jin, “Development and evaluation of optical passive resonant gyroscopes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35,3546–3554 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, H. Ma, H. Li, and Z. Jin, “Single-polarization fiber-pigtailed high-finesse silica waveguide ring resonator for a resonant micro-optic gyroscope,” Opt. Lett. 42, 3658–3661 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip–based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351, 357–360 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. E. Webb, M. Erkintalo, S. Coen, and S. G. Murdoch, “Experimental observation of coherent cavity soliton frequency combs in silica microspheres,” Opt. Lett. 41, 4613–4616 (2016).
[Crossref]

M.-G. Suh, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, X. Yi, and K. J. Vahala, “Microresonator soliton dual-comb spectroscopy,” Science 354, 600–603 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

2013 (4)

2011 (1)

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

F. Leo, S. Coen, P. Kockaert, S.-P. Gorza, P. Emplit, and M. Haelterman, “Temporal cavity solitons in one-dimensional Kerr media as bits in an all-optical buffer,” Nat. Photonics 4, 471–476 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, M. Haelterman, P. Emplit, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Supermode noise of harmonically mode-locked erbium fiber lasers with composite cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 252–259 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

W. Chiming and N. K. Dutta, “High-repetition-rate optical pulse generation using a rational harmonic mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 145–150 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

W. Jun Shan, J. Goldhar, and G. L. Burdge, “Active harmonic modelocking of an erbium fiber laser with intracavity Fabry-Perot filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1171–1180 (1997).
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1996 (1)

E. Yoshida and M. Nakazawa, “80–200  GHZ erbium doped fibre laser using a rational harmonic mode-locking technique,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1370–1372 (1996).
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1993 (1)

N. Onodera, A. J. Lowery, L. Zhai, Z. Ahmed, and R. S. Tucker, “Frequency multiplication in actively mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1329–1331 (1993).
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Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber optics, Optics and Photonics, 3rd ed. (Academic, 2001).

Ahmed, Z.

N. Onodera, A. J. Lowery, L. Zhai, Z. Ahmed, and R. S. Tucker, “Frequency multiplication in actively mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1329–1331 (1993).
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Anderson, M. H.

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wildi, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13, 31–35 (2019).
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P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546, 274–279 (2017).
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M. H. Anderson, R. Bouchand, J. Liu, W. Weng, E. Obrzud, T. Herr, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based resonant supercontinuum,” arxiv:1909.00022 (2019).

Arcizet, O.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bao, C.

Blondel, M.

O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, M. Haelterman, P. Emplit, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Supermode noise of harmonically mode-locked erbium fiber lasers with composite cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 252–259 (2002).
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Bluestone, A.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
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Bouchand, R.

M. H. Anderson, R. Bouchand, J. Liu, W. Weng, E. Obrzud, T. Herr, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based resonant supercontinuum,” arxiv:1909.00022 (2019).

Bouchy, F.

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wildi, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13, 31–35 (2019).
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Bowers, J. E.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
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Brasch, V.

V. Brasch, E. Obrzud, E. Obrzud, S. Lecomte, and T. Herr, “Nonlinear filtering of an optical pulse train using dissipative Kerr solitons,” Optica 6, 1386–1393 (2019).
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H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, A. Kordts, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, V. Brasch, G. Lihachev, V. E. Lobanov, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal dynamics and deterministic switching of dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Phys. 13, 94–102 (2017).
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P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546, 274–279 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip–based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351, 357–360 (2016).
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T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2013).
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Briles, T. C.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

Burdge, G. L.

W. Jun Shan, J. Goldhar, and G. L. Burdge, “Active harmonic modelocking of an erbium fiber laser with intracavity Fabry-Perot filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1171–1180 (1997).
[Crossref]

Cardenas, J.

A. Dutt, C. Joshi, X. Ji, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, K. Luke, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “On-chip dual-comb source for spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 4, e1701858 (2018).
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Carlson, D. R.

E. S. Lamb, D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, J. R. Stone, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Optical-frequency measurements with a Kerr microcomb and photonic-chip supercontinuum,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9, 024030 (2018).
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Cecconi, M.

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wildi, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13, 31–35 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chang, L.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
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Chazelas, B.

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wildi, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13, 31–35 (2019).
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Chembo, Y. K.

A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, L. Razzari, D. J. Moss, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo, Y. K. Chembo, T. Hansson, S. Wabnitz, P. Del’Haye, X. Xue, A. M. Weiner, and R. Morandotti, “Micro-combs: a novel generation of optical sources,” Phys. Rep. 729, 1–81 (2018).
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Chen, W.

I. Hendry, W. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Garbin, J. Javaloyes, G.-L. Oppo, S. Coen, S. G. Murdoch, and M. Erkintalo, “Spontaneous symmetry breaking and trapping of temporal Kerr cavity solitons by pulsed or amplitude-modulated driving fields,” Phys. Rev. A 97, 053834 (2018).
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Chiming, W.

W. Chiming and N. K. Dutta, “High-repetition-rate optical pulse generation using a rational harmonic mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 145–150 (2000).
[Crossref]

Coen, S.

I. Hendry, B. Garbin, S. G. Murdoch, S. Coen, and M. Erkintalo, “Impact of desynchronization and drift on soliton-based Kerr frequency combs in the presence of pulsed driving fields,” Phys. Rev. A 100, 023829 (2019).
[Crossref]

I. Hendry, W. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Garbin, J. Javaloyes, G.-L. Oppo, S. Coen, S. G. Murdoch, and M. Erkintalo, “Spontaneous symmetry breaking and trapping of temporal Kerr cavity solitons by pulsed or amplitude-modulated driving fields,” Phys. Rev. A 97, 053834 (2018).
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A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, L. Razzari, D. J. Moss, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo, Y. K. Chembo, T. Hansson, S. Wabnitz, P. Del’Haye, X. Xue, A. M. Weiner, and R. Morandotti, “Micro-combs: a novel generation of optical sources,” Phys. Rep. 729, 1–81 (2018).
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K. E. Webb, M. Erkintalo, S. Coen, and S. G. Murdoch, “Experimental observation of coherent cavity soliton frequency combs in silica microspheres,” Opt. Lett. 41, 4613–4616 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Erkintalo and S. Coen, “Coherence properties of Kerr frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 39, 283–286 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Coen and M. Erkintalo, “Universal scaling laws of Kerr frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1790–1792 (2013).
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S. Coen, H. G. Randle, T. Sylvestre, and M. Erkintalo, “Modeling of octave-spanning Kerr frequency combs using a generalized mean-field Lugiato-Lefever model,” Opt. Lett. 38, 37–39 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Leo, L. Gelens, P. Emplit, M. Haelterman, and S. Coen, “Dynamics of one-dimensional Kerr cavity solitons,” Opt. Express 21, 9180–9191 (2013).
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F. Leo, S. Coen, P. Kockaert, S.-P. Gorza, P. Emplit, and M. Haelterman, “Temporal cavity solitons in one-dimensional Kerr media as bits in an all-optical buffer,” Nat. Photonics 4, 471–476 (2010).
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Cole, D. C.

D. C. Cole, J. R. Stone, M. Erkintalo, K. Y. Yang, X. Yi, K. J. Vahala, and S. B. Papp, “Kerr-microresonator solitons from a chirped background,” Optica 5, 1304–1310 (2018).
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D. C. Cole, E. S. Lamb, P. Del’Haye, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Soliton crystals in Kerr resonators,” Nat. Photonics 11, 671–676 (2017).
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Copie, F.

Del Bino, L.

Del’Haye, P.

S. Zhang, J. M. Silver, L. Del Bino, F. Copie, M. T. M. Woodley, G. N. Ghalanos, A. Svela, N. Moroney, and P. Del’Haye, “Sub-milliwatt-level microresonator solitons with extended access range using an auxiliary laser,” Optica 6, 206–212 (2019).
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A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, L. Razzari, D. J. Moss, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo, Y. K. Chembo, T. Hansson, S. Wabnitz, P. Del’Haye, X. Xue, A. M. Weiner, and R. Morandotti, “Micro-combs: a novel generation of optical sources,” Phys. Rep. 729, 1–81 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. C. Cole, E. S. Lamb, P. Del’Haye, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Soliton crystals in Kerr resonators,” Nat. Photonics 11, 671–676 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

Deparis, O.

O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, M. Haelterman, P. Emplit, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Supermode noise of harmonically mode-locked erbium fiber lasers with composite cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 252–259 (2002).
[Crossref]

Diddams, S. A.

E. S. Lamb, D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, J. R. Stone, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Optical-frequency measurements with a Kerr microcomb and photonic-chip supercontinuum,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9, 024030 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. C. Cole, E. S. Lamb, P. Del’Haye, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Soliton crystals in Kerr resonators,” Nat. Photonics 11, 671–676 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref]

Drake, T.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dutt, A.

A. Dutt, C. Joshi, X. Ji, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, K. Luke, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “On-chip dual-comb source for spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 4, e1701858 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dutta, N. K.

W. Chiming and N. K. Dutta, “High-repetition-rate optical pulse generation using a rational harmonic mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 145–150 (2000).
[Crossref]

Emplit, P.

F. Leo, L. Gelens, P. Emplit, M. Haelterman, and S. Coen, “Dynamics of one-dimensional Kerr cavity solitons,” Opt. Express 21, 9180–9191 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Leo, S. Coen, P. Kockaert, S.-P. Gorza, P. Emplit, and M. Haelterman, “Temporal cavity solitons in one-dimensional Kerr media as bits in an all-optical buffer,” Nat. Photonics 4, 471–476 (2010).
[Crossref]

O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, M. Haelterman, P. Emplit, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Supermode noise of harmonically mode-locked erbium fiber lasers with composite cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 252–259 (2002).
[Crossref]

Erkintalo, M.

I. Hendry, B. Garbin, S. G. Murdoch, S. Coen, and M. Erkintalo, “Impact of desynchronization and drift on soliton-based Kerr frequency combs in the presence of pulsed driving fields,” Phys. Rev. A 100, 023829 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. C. Cole, J. R. Stone, M. Erkintalo, K. Y. Yang, X. Yi, K. J. Vahala, and S. B. Papp, “Kerr-microresonator solitons from a chirped background,” Optica 5, 1304–1310 (2018).
[Crossref]

I. Hendry, W. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Garbin, J. Javaloyes, G.-L. Oppo, S. Coen, S. G. Murdoch, and M. Erkintalo, “Spontaneous symmetry breaking and trapping of temporal Kerr cavity solitons by pulsed or amplitude-modulated driving fields,” Phys. Rev. A 97, 053834 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, L. Razzari, D. J. Moss, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo, Y. K. Chembo, T. Hansson, S. Wabnitz, P. Del’Haye, X. Xue, A. M. Weiner, and R. Morandotti, “Micro-combs: a novel generation of optical sources,” Phys. Rep. 729, 1–81 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. E. Webb, M. Erkintalo, S. Coen, and S. G. Murdoch, “Experimental observation of coherent cavity soliton frequency combs in silica microspheres,” Opt. Lett. 41, 4613–4616 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Erkintalo and S. Coen, “Coherence properties of Kerr frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 39, 283–286 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Coen and M. Erkintalo, “Universal scaling laws of Kerr frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1790–1792 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Coen, H. G. Randle, T. Sylvestre, and M. Erkintalo, “Modeling of octave-spanning Kerr frequency combs using a generalized mean-field Lugiato-Lefever model,” Opt. Lett. 38, 37–39 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fredrick, C.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

Freude, W.

P. Trocha, M. Karpov, D. Ganin, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, S. Wolf, J. Krockenberger, P. Marin-Palomo, C. Weimann, S. Randel, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs,” Science 359, 887 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546, 274–279 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gaeta, A. L.

A. L. Gaeta, M. Lipson, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic-chip-based frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 13, 158–169 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Jang, X. Ji, C. Joshi, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Observation of Arnold tongues in coupled soliton Kerr frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 153901 (2019).
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J. K. Jang, A. Klenner, X. Ji, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Synchronization of coupled optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 12, 688–693 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Gaeta, M. Lipson, and M. L. Gorodetsky, “Dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Science 361, eaan8083 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Dutt, C. Joshi, X. Ji, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, K. Luke, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “On-chip dual-comb source for spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 4, e1701858 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ganin, D.

P. Trocha, M. Karpov, D. Ganin, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, S. Wolf, J. Krockenberger, P. Marin-Palomo, C. Weimann, S. Randel, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs,” Science 359, 887 (2018).
[Crossref]

Garbin, B.

I. Hendry, B. Garbin, S. G. Murdoch, S. Coen, and M. Erkintalo, “Impact of desynchronization and drift on soliton-based Kerr frequency combs in the presence of pulsed driving fields,” Phys. Rev. A 100, 023829 (2019).
[Crossref]

I. Hendry, W. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Garbin, J. Javaloyes, G.-L. Oppo, S. Coen, S. G. Murdoch, and M. Erkintalo, “Spontaneous symmetry breaking and trapping of temporal Kerr cavity solitons by pulsed or amplitude-modulated driving fields,” Phys. Rev. A 97, 053834 (2018).
[Crossref]

Geiselmann, M.

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wildi, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13, 31–35 (2019).
[Crossref]

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip–based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351, 357–360 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gelens, L.

Ghalanos, G. N.

Ghedina, A.

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wildi, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13, 31–35 (2019).
[Crossref]

Goldhar, J.

W. Jun Shan, J. Goldhar, and G. L. Burdge, “Active harmonic modelocking of an erbium fiber laser with intracavity Fabry-Perot filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1171–1180 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gorodetsky, M. L.

W. Weng, E. Lucas, G. Lihachev, V. E. Lobanov, H. Guo, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Spectral purification of microwave signals with disciplined dissipative Kerr solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 013902 (2019).
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T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Gaeta, M. Lipson, and M. L. Gorodetsky, “Dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Science 361, eaan8083 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, A. Kordts, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, V. Brasch, G. Lihachev, V. E. Lobanov, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal dynamics and deterministic switching of dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Phys. 13, 94–102 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip–based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351, 357–360 (2016).
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T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2013).
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H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, A. Kordts, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, V. Brasch, G. Lihachev, V. E. Lobanov, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal dynamics and deterministic switching of dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Phys. 13, 94–102 (2017).
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F. Leo, L. Gelens, P. Emplit, M. Haelterman, and S. Coen, “Dynamics of one-dimensional Kerr cavity solitons,” Opt. Express 21, 9180–9191 (2013).
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F. Leo, S. Coen, P. Kockaert, S.-P. Gorza, P. Emplit, and M. Haelterman, “Temporal cavity solitons in one-dimensional Kerr media as bits in an all-optical buffer,” Nat. Photonics 4, 471–476 (2010).
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O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, M. Haelterman, P. Emplit, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Supermode noise of harmonically mode-locked erbium fiber lasers with composite cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 252–259 (2002).
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V. Brasch, E. Obrzud, E. Obrzud, S. Lecomte, and T. Herr, “Nonlinear filtering of an optical pulse train using dissipative Kerr solitons,” Optica 6, 1386–1393 (2019).
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E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wildi, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13, 31–35 (2019).
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E. Obrzud, S. Lecomte, and T. Herr, “Temporal solitons in microresonators driven by optical pulses,” Nat. Photonics 11, 600 (2017).
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V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip–based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351, 357–360 (2016).
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T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2013).
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M. H. Anderson, R. Bouchand, J. Liu, W. Weng, E. Obrzud, T. Herr, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based resonant supercontinuum,” arxiv:1909.00022 (2019).

Hickstein, D. D.

E. S. Lamb, D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, J. R. Stone, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Optical-frequency measurements with a Kerr microcomb and photonic-chip supercontinuum,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9, 024030 (2018).
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T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 555–559 (2011).
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P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
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D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
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J. Jang, X. Ji, C. Joshi, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Observation of Arnold tongues in coupled soliton Kerr frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 153901 (2019).
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Jang, J. K.

J. K. Jang, A. Klenner, X. Ji, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Synchronization of coupled optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 12, 688–693 (2018).
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I. Hendry, W. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Garbin, J. Javaloyes, G.-L. Oppo, S. Coen, S. G. Murdoch, and M. Erkintalo, “Spontaneous symmetry breaking and trapping of temporal Kerr cavity solitons by pulsed or amplitude-modulated driving fields,” Phys. Rev. A 97, 053834 (2018).
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J. Jang, X. Ji, C. Joshi, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Observation of Arnold tongues in coupled soliton Kerr frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 153901 (2019).
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J. K. Jang, A. Klenner, X. Ji, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Synchronization of coupled optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 12, 688–693 (2018).
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A. Dutt, C. Joshi, X. Ji, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, K. Luke, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “On-chip dual-comb source for spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 4, e1701858 (2018).
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Joshi, C.

J. Jang, X. Ji, C. Joshi, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Observation of Arnold tongues in coupled soliton Kerr frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 153901 (2019).
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A. Dutt, C. Joshi, X. Ji, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, K. Luke, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “On-chip dual-comb source for spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 4, e1701858 (2018).
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T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2013).
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W. Jun Shan, J. Goldhar, and G. L. Burdge, “Active harmonic modelocking of an erbium fiber laser with intracavity Fabry-Perot filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1171–1180 (1997).
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M. Karpov, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, H. Guo, W. Weng, J. Liu, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Dynamics of soliton crystals in optical microresonators,” Nat. Phys. 15, 1071–1077 (2019).
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P. Trocha, M. Karpov, D. Ganin, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, S. Wolf, J. Krockenberger, P. Marin-Palomo, C. Weimann, S. Randel, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs,” Science 359, 887 (2018).
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P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546, 274–279 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, A. Kordts, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, V. Brasch, G. Lihachev, V. E. Lobanov, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal dynamics and deterministic switching of dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Phys. 13, 94–102 (2017).
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Kemal, J. N.

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546, 274–279 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kippenberg, T. J.

A. L. Gaeta, M. Lipson, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic-chip-based frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 13, 158–169 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Karpov, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, H. Guo, W. Weng, J. Liu, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Dynamics of soliton crystals in optical microresonators,” Nat. Phys. 15, 1071–1077 (2019).
[Crossref]

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wildi, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13, 31–35 (2019).
[Crossref]

W. Weng, E. Lucas, G. Lihachev, V. E. Lobanov, H. Guo, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Spectral purification of microwave signals with disciplined dissipative Kerr solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 013902 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Gaeta, M. Lipson, and M. L. Gorodetsky, “Dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Science 361, eaan8083 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Trocha, M. Karpov, D. Ganin, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, S. Wolf, J. Krockenberger, P. Marin-Palomo, C. Weimann, S. Randel, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs,” Science 359, 887 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546, 274–279 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, A. Kordts, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, V. Brasch, G. Lihachev, V. E. Lobanov, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal dynamics and deterministic switching of dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Phys. 13, 94–102 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip–based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351, 357–360 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. H. Anderson, R. Bouchand, J. Liu, W. Weng, E. Obrzud, T. Herr, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based resonant supercontinuum,” arxiv:1909.00022 (2019).

Kiyan, R.

O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, M. Haelterman, P. Emplit, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Supermode noise of harmonically mode-locked erbium fiber lasers with composite cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 252–259 (2002).
[Crossref]

Klenner, A.

J. K. Jang, A. Klenner, X. Ji, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Synchronization of coupled optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 12, 688–693 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kockaert, P.

F. Leo, S. Coen, P. Kockaert, S.-P. Gorza, P. Emplit, and M. Haelterman, “Temporal cavity solitons in one-dimensional Kerr media as bits in an all-optical buffer,” Nat. Photonics 4, 471–476 (2010).
[Crossref]

Komljenovic, T.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kondratiev, N. M.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2013).
[Crossref]

Koos, C.

P. Trocha, M. Karpov, D. Ganin, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, S. Wolf, J. Krockenberger, P. Marin-Palomo, C. Weimann, S. Randel, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs,” Science 359, 887 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546, 274–279 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kordts, A.

P. Trocha, M. Karpov, D. Ganin, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, S. Wolf, J. Krockenberger, P. Marin-Palomo, C. Weimann, S. Randel, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs,” Science 359, 887 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546, 274–279 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, A. Kordts, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, V. Brasch, G. Lihachev, V. E. Lobanov, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal dynamics and deterministic switching of dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Phys. 13, 94–102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Krockenberger, J.

P. Trocha, M. Karpov, D. Ganin, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, S. Wolf, J. Krockenberger, P. Marin-Palomo, C. Weimann, S. Randel, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs,” Science 359, 887 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kundermann, S.

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wildi, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13, 31–35 (2019).
[Crossref]

Lamb, E. S.

E. S. Lamb, D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, J. R. Stone, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Optical-frequency measurements with a Kerr microcomb and photonic-chip supercontinuum,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9, 024030 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. C. Cole, E. S. Lamb, P. Del’Haye, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Soliton crystals in Kerr resonators,” Nat. Photonics 11, 671–676 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lecomte, S.

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wildi, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13, 31–35 (2019).
[Crossref]

V. Brasch, E. Obrzud, E. Obrzud, S. Lecomte, and T. Herr, “Nonlinear filtering of an optical pulse train using dissipative Kerr solitons,” Optica 6, 1386–1393 (2019).
[Crossref]

E. Obrzud, S. Lecomte, and T. Herr, “Temporal solitons in microresonators driven by optical pulses,” Nat. Photonics 11, 600 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. H.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

Leo, F.

F. Leo, L. Gelens, P. Emplit, M. Haelterman, and S. Coen, “Dynamics of one-dimensional Kerr cavity solitons,” Opt. Express 21, 9180–9191 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Leo, S. Coen, P. Kockaert, S.-P. Gorza, P. Emplit, and M. Haelterman, “Temporal cavity solitons in one-dimensional Kerr media as bits in an all-optical buffer,” Nat. Photonics 4, 471–476 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

Li, Q.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lihachev, G.

W. Weng, E. Lucas, G. Lihachev, V. E. Lobanov, H. Guo, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Spectral purification of microwave signals with disciplined dissipative Kerr solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 013902 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, A. Kordts, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, V. Brasch, G. Lihachev, V. E. Lobanov, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal dynamics and deterministic switching of dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Phys. 13, 94–102 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip–based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351, 357–360 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.

Lipson, M.

J. Jang, X. Ji, C. Joshi, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Observation of Arnold tongues in coupled soliton Kerr frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 153901 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. L. Gaeta, M. Lipson, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic-chip-based frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 13, 158–169 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Gaeta, M. Lipson, and M. L. Gorodetsky, “Dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Science 361, eaan8083 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Dutt, C. Joshi, X. Ji, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, K. Luke, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “On-chip dual-comb source for spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 4, e1701858 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. K. Jang, A. Klenner, X. Ji, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Synchronization of coupled optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 12, 688–693 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

M. Karpov, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, H. Guo, W. Weng, J. Liu, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Dynamics of soliton crystals in optical microresonators,” Nat. Phys. 15, 1071–1077 (2019).
[Crossref]

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wildi, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13, 31–35 (2019).
[Crossref]

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Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Optica (5)

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, L. Razzari, D. J. Moss, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo, Y. K. Chembo, T. Hansson, S. Wabnitz, P. Del’Haye, X. Xue, A. M. Weiner, and R. Morandotti, “Micro-combs: a novel generation of optical sources,” Phys. Rep. 729, 1–81 (2018).
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Phys. Rev. A (2)

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M.-G. Suh, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, X. Yi, and K. J. Vahala, “Microresonator soliton dual-comb spectroscopy,” Science 354, 600–603 (2016).
[Crossref]

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P. Trocha, M. Karpov, D. Ganin, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, S. Wolf, J. Krockenberger, P. Marin-Palomo, C. Weimann, S. Randel, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs,” Science 359, 887 (2018).
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M.-G. Suh and K. J. Vahala, “Soliton microcomb range measurement,” Science 359, 884–887 (2018).
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V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip–based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351, 357–360 (2016).
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Other (2)

M. H. Anderson, R. Bouchand, J. Liu, W. Weng, E. Obrzud, T. Herr, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based resonant supercontinuum,” arxiv:1909.00022 (2019).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Visualization of harmonic and rational harmonic driving for different pump repetition rates: (a) ${f_{{\rm in}}} \approx {\rm FSR}$, (b) ${f_{{\rm in}}} \approx 3 {\rm FSR}$, (c) ${f_{{\rm in}}} \approx 3/2 {\rm FSR}$, and (d) ${f_{{\rm in}}} \approx 2/3 {\rm FSR}$. The red arrows represent the input pump pulses, while the blue, green, and orange arrows represent the solitons.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Photograph of the waveguide ring resonator (WRR) used in our experiments. (b) Schematic illustration of the experimental setup. EO, electro-optic; DCF, dispersion compensating fiber; SMF, single-mode fiber; NALM, nonlinear amplifying loop mirror; EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier; circ., circulator; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer; BPF, band-pass filter; PD, photodetector; ESA, electrical spectral analyzer; osc., oscilloscope.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Average comb power measured through an offset filter as the pump carrier frequency is scanned across a resonance. MI, modulation instability; UCS, unstable CS. (b) Measured comb spectrum when operating in the single soliton regime (blue curve) and ${{\rm sech}^2}$ fit corresponding to a 300 fs CS (red curve). (c) RF beat note for a comb in the MI state (magenta) and CS state (blue curve).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a)–(c) Optical spectra of the soliton comb when the resonator is pumped at two, four, and six times the cavity FSR, respectively. The insets show a zoom over a 0.5 nm spectral range centered around 1560 nm. (d)–(f) RF spectra corresponding to the optical spectra shown in (a)–(c), respectively.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a)–(c) Optical spectra of the soliton comb (blue curve) and the pump pulse train (orange curve) when the resonator is pumped at 3/2, 5/2, and 2/3 of the cavity FSR, respectively. The corresponding electronic RF spectra are shown in (d)–(f). Note that the pump and soliton spectra are offset for clarity.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Pump Peak Power Threshold P m / n for the Onset of Soliton Formation Measured at a Range of Different Rational Fractions of the Drive Frequency: f i n = ( m / n ) F S R

Equations (2)

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f i n m n F S R ,
X = γ PL θ α 3 ,

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