Abstract

In the last decade, coherent optical transmission technology has dominated the provision of high-capacity communications in metro and long-haul networks and is expected to expand to short-reach networks such as data center and passive optical networks. Capacities of more than 1.5 Tb/s have been demonstrated for a single wavelength. In-phase/quadrature (IQ) modulation allows information to be encoded in both the phase and amplitude of light (or in-phase and quadrature components) and is typically achieved by nested multiple Mach–Zehnder modulators (MZMs). MZMs have advantages including low chirp, broadband operation, and easy to achieve high-order quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), but they are typically large and have high RF power consumption and excess losses. A small IQ transmitter with low RF power consumption is therefore in demand for low-cost and highly integrated coherent modules. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate a directly reflectivity-modulated laser that can potentially achieve this goal. We demonstrate the device on a hybrid silicon/III-V platform, where silicon photonics offers compact components for filters, modulators, and reflectors, and the III-V material provides gain. In principle, the device could inherit the benefits of conventional directly modulated lasers while overcoming their speed limits. We demonstrate 32/50 Gbaud quadrature phase-shifted keying with low bit error ratios and experimentally prove the feasibility of 30 Gbaud 16-QAM.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. INTRODUCTION

Compact optical modulating devices that encode electrical signals to optical signals are key elements for high-capacity communications. Particularly, future switching and signal-processing integrated circuits (ICs) demand highly integrated transceiver modules and/or co-packaged optical transceivers to communicate among each other with unprecedented capacity, capacity density, and energy efficiency. These transceivers require modulating devices with very low power consumption and compact device size. Among the most successful devices are directly modulated lasers (DMLs), including vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) [13]. Other compact modulating devices include electro-absorption modulators (EAMs) and microring modulators [4,5], which utilize strong electro-optic effects close to the material’s or device’s resonant wavelengths. The aforementioned modulators have very compact size, ranging from a few to a few hundred micrometers. The compact size results in small device capacitances, which in turn reduce the RF power consumption. Yet, these devices generally work for intensity modulation with frequency chirps, which make them not suitable for coherent transmitters. Coherent transmitters typically utilize nested Mach–Zehnder modulators (MZMs) [6], which have larger size and higher RF power consumption but allow for both intensity and phase modulation. A novel modulator with similar behavior to that of MZMs but with compact size and low RF power consumption would be highly desired.

A novel type of DML was proposed and experimentally demonstrated in [710], in which the laser’s output is modulated through its actively tunable Michelson-interferometer-modulated (MIM)-based mirror. The laser is hence termed a directly reflectivity-modulated laser (DRML). The basic working principle relies on very fast modulation of the mirror’s broadband reflectivity (or output coupling) with a speed beyond the relaxation oscillation frequency so that the gain medium is not disturbed, or very weakly disturbed. Under this scenario, the intra-cavity optical power or field remains essentially static, and the output follows the modulation of reflectivity (or transmission). The break of speed limit imposed by the laser’s intrinsic relaxation oscillation frequency is similar to those of other non-gain-modulated lasers [1116]. Because the MIM is essentially a reflective MZM, the same modulation behavior as an MZM can be expected, including high-speed modulation with low chirp and flexible modulation format. In addition, two or more independently modulated outputs are allowed [9,10]. More importantly, the device can still retain the key benefit of traditional DMLs, namely, low RF driving power, because the phase change to modulate the MIM-based mirror in a laser cavity is much smaller than that required for an external MZM [8].

In this Letter, we extend the concept of DRML to generate in-phase/quadrature (IQ). A hybrid silicon/III-V DRML with two high-speed MIM-based mirrors on silicon is used for generating IQ components. Very low bit error ratios (BERs) of 32 Gbaud and 50 Gbaud quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) are successfully demonstrated. A 30 Gbaud 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) is also demonstrated. The reported DRML paves the way for high-capacity and energy-efficient coherent transmitters that are highly demanded in future telecom and datacom networks.

 

Fig. 1. Proposed DRML for in-phase/quadrature modulation. (a) Two high-speed modulated mirrors (MIM 1 and MIM 2) in the laser cavity provide the modulated carrier-less signals for I/Q components, and the output is combined with a 90 deg phase shifter. (b) MIM circuit in (a). PS, phase shifter.

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2. DRML CONCEPT AND CIRCUIT

A schematic of the DRML working as an IQ transmitter used in this paper is depicted in Fig. 1 [17]. Three mirrors are employed to form a closed cavity shown in Fig. 1(a), whereas the left mirror provides a static high reflection. Two mirrors based on MIMs are dynamically tunable with high-speed operation (MIM 1 and MIM 2). There are two narrow-band optical filters (Ring 1 and Ring 2) before them to select the reflected wavelengths and filter out and block high-speed modulated components. The reflected light from these two mirrors is combined by a ${1\times 2}$ coupler. Maximum reflection into the gain medium occurs if the wavelengths and magnitudes of reflectivity from two mirrors are identical and the phase between them satisfies the constructive interference condition. Multiple phase shifters (PSs) are used to achieve this. High-speed tunable mirrors are obtained by MIMs with the optical circuit shown in Fig. 1(b). The MIM is essentially a folded or reflective MZM, which therefore allows for both amplitude and phase modulation with low chirp. Each MIM can generate carrier-less phase-shift keying signals such as in [8] while being biased at maximum reflection. Combing both outputs of MIMs with a 90 deg phase difference produces carrier-less coherent signals, like nested MZMs.

The technical benefits of the DRML as an IQ transmitter compared with an external modulator can be easily understood in the case that the MIM does not have excess loss. In principle, a modulating device such as a MIM does not need to rely on the material’s resonance, and hence the absorption loss can be negligible. Under this scenario, the average power from the DRML is approximately ${P_{{\rm in}}}*\langle T \rangle $, where ${P_{{\rm in}}}$ is the intra-cavity optical power just before the MIM, while the MIM has a 100% reflection (required by carrier-less modulation), and $\langle T \rangle$ is the time-averaged transmission of the MIM under the condition of very small modulation. For the case that an external MIM is used after the laser, the average power after the MIM is ${P_{{\rm ext}}}*\langle T \rangle $, where ${P_{{\rm ext}}}$ is the output power of the laser. Under the same pump condition, ${P_{{\rm in}}}$ with a 100% reflection from the cavity mirror is the maximal intra-cavity power, and it is always larger than ${P_{{\rm ext}}}$, even with an optimized mirror reflection for the latter case. Therefore, in principle, the DRML can be more efficient than external modulators, especially in carrier-less modulation. This is true under the condition that the MIM has low excess loss and the amount of modulation of the reflectivity (or transmission) is very small. Since the reflectivity modulation is small, the RF drive power is also small.

 

Fig. 2. Device pictures for silicon PIC (top) and packaged DRML (bottom). The silicon PIC, with the optical circuit shown in Fig. 1, consists of rings, phase modulators (PMs), loop mirrors (LMs), and various PSs. The yellow dashed lines serve as a guideline for waveguide routing. The DRML (bottom) is a packaged module with an InP SOA, silicon PIC, a fiber, and printed circuit boards.

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The proposed DRML IQ transmitter is realized in a hybrid silicon/III-V platform [18,19]. It can also be achieved in other photonics platforms, such as indium phosphide (InP) or heterogeneous silicon/III-V [20,21]. A commercial reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) on InP with a device length of 1.0 mm is used for gain with a high-reflective coating at one facet. A silicon photonic IC (PIC) is employed for the rest of the optical cavity. The PIC is designed and fabricated on a 220 nm silicon-on-insulator platform in a commercial foundry. The RSOA and silicon PIC are butt-coupled, see Fig. 2. On the silicon PIC, two inverted silicon tapers are used to achieve high coupling efficiency to both the RSOA and fiber. Two thermally tunable rings with different free spectral ranges (FSRs) are used to achieve wide wavelength tunability. The FSRs are 4.96 nm and 5.49 nm in the C-band, respectively. The MIM-based mirrors comprise a ${2\times 2}$ multi-mode interference (MMI) coupler, two high-speed phase modulators based on reverse-biased $pn$ junctions [5], two static thermal PSs, and two Sagnac loop mirrors (LMs). Two arms of the MIM are symmetric, leading to broadband reflection. The length for $pn$-junction phase modulators is 500 µm, with a junction capacitance of ${\sim}{100}\;{\rm fF}$ and a modulation efficiency of ${\sim}{2.5}\;{\rm V}\cdot {\rm cm}$. Figure 2(b) exhibits a packaged device with the RSOA, PIC, a fiber, and electrical boards.

 

Fig. 3. (a) Optical spectra with different injection currents. The spectrum resolution used is 0.5 nm. (b) Fiber-coupled power versus RSOA current. The threshold current is less than 50 mA.

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3. LASER STATIC PERFORMANCE

We characterize the static performance of the laser, including the output power and spectra. We collect the spectra before and after the threshold current, shown in Fig. 3(a). It is seen that the threshold current is less than 50 mA. Two rings’ resonant wavelengths are clearly seen in the spectra, and the laser wavelength is exactly where the two rings’ resonances line up. The fiber-coupled power is further measured as a function of injected RSOA currents at a wavelength around 1555 nm under room temperature, presented in Fig. 3(b). At each RSOA current, we adjust all the PSs so that maximum power is obtained. The power reaches 0 dBm with a current of 150 mA. The relatively low power, compared with conventional distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs), can be attributed to the coupling losses at the RSOA-to-PIC (${2}\;{\rm dB}$) and PIC-to-fiber interfaces (${2.5}\;{\rm dB}$) and on-chip PIC losses (${2}\;{\rm dB}$), such as from the MIM and ring filters. The free-carrier loss from the $pn$ junctions in the MIMs amounts to 0.8 dB in a single pass. We like to point out that the excess loss of the DRML, compared with other types of lasers, comes only from the MIMs.

The current DRML has wide wavelength tunability thanks to the Vernier effect from two rings with different FSRs. Figure 4 exhibits various spectra where one of the rings is thermally tuned and the other ring has fixed resonant wavelengths. In these measurements, the RSOA current is fixed at 150 mA. We achieve wavelength tunability of ${\gt}{50}\;{\rm nm}$ and side-mode suppression ratios of ${\gt}{50}\;{\rm dB}$.

 

Fig. 4. Optical spectra to demonstrate wide wavelength tunablity. (a) Spectra while one of the rings is thermally tuned, with the other fixed. (b) Spectra while the other ring is thermally tuned, with the first fixed. The heating powers applied to the rings are shown in the figures. The spectrum resolution is 0.1 nm.

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4. RELAXATION OSCILLATION FREQUENCY

The relaxation oscillation frequency (${f_r}$) is useful to understand the dynamics of the laser. Here, we measure ${f_r}$ by using a high-speed 10G optical receiver with an electrical spectrum analyzer (ESA). The continuous-wave (CW) optical output with a power of ${-}{3}\;{\rm dBm}$ is detected by the receiver, and the resultant electrical power spectrum from the ESA is shown in Fig. 5. The ${f_r}$ is determined as 1.3 GHz. Considering that the cavity consists of of 1-mm-long SOA and ${\sim}{3.5}$-mm-long silicon waveguides (equivalent to an FSR of 9 GHz for the whole cavity), the measured ${f_r}$ would be reasonable. In [8], the ${f_r}$ was measured by another technique, and the measured value may be significantly underestimated because the high loss from the coupling between RSOA and PIC results in significant difficulty to determine the ${f_r}$.

 

Fig. 5. Measured electrical power spectrum to determine ${f_r}$.

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5. QPSK AND 16-QAM MODULATION

To achieve QPSK modulation, the two MIMs are differentially driven, while the MIMs are biased at maximum reflection (equivalent to null transmission in MZMs). A four-channel digital-to-analog converter (DAC) with a sampling rate of 120 GS/s is used to generate pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) bit patterns with a length of ${{2}^{15}} - {1}$ as signal sources. RF amplifiers are used to boost the differential driving voltage to about 4 V with a DC bias of 2.0 V. The induced phase change between two arms of the MIM is ${\sim}{0.2}\pi$, leading to an estimated reflectivity swing of ${\sim}{1}\%$ back into RSOA, after taking consideration of a 3 dB round-trip loss from the MIM, a 2 dB PIC-to-RSOA coupling loss, and a 0.5 dB routing loss. We also apply Nyquist pulse shaping with a raised cosine frequency response with a roll-off factor of 80% and frequency pre-emphasis to compensate for the frequency roll-off of the MIM. The estimated bandwidth of the MIM is 15–20 GHz based on our previous measurement in a similar device [8]. The RSOA current is kept at 150 mA for all of the following experiments. The output laser power after modulation is around ${-}{20}\;{\rm dBm}$. Two main reasons contribute to the low output power under IQ modulation: (1) the reflectivity modulation is weak, and (2) there is a 3 dB loss for combining I/Q branches.

 

Fig. 6. Optical spectra of generated carrier-less QPSK signals.

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Fig. 7. QPSK constellations with measured BERs.

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Fig. 8. BER performance for 32 Gbaud and 50 Gbaud QPSK.

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We use a pre-amplified coherent receiver with a real-time scope at 160 GS/s to detect the QPSK signals. An external tunable laser is used as a local oscillator (LO). The spectra in Fig. 6 demonstrate carrier-less modulation with Nyquist shaping. Off-line digital signal processing (DSP) is further used to decode the QPSK signals. The resultant constellations are depicted in Fig. 7 with BERs. At 50 Gbaud, the BER is ${1.0} \times {{10}^{- 5}}$ for an optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) of 27 dB. Further increase of OSNR does not reduce the BER. At 32 Gbaud, the QPSK signal shows no errors in 32,768 bits at an OSNR of 31 dB. We further measure the BERs as a function of OSNRs in Fig. 8. At a BER of ${{10}^{- 3}}$, the OSNR penalties are 3.1 dB and 4.0 dB from the theoretical limits for 32 Gbaud and 50 Gbaud, respectively. This OSNR penalty is about 2 dB higher than the state-of-the-art coherent transmitter using external modulators. We believe the performance can be greatly improved if the laser operates in a much stabler packaging environment. In addition, the QPSK signal with a ${-}{20}\;{\rm dBm}$ power can transmit tens of kilometers in fibers without amplification (a coherent receiver has a sensitivity ${\lt}- {25}\;{\rm dBm}$) or much longer distance with amplification.

We further demonstrate that high-order QAM is feasible and show a constellation for 30 Gbaud 16-QAM in Fig. 9. The driving condition is similar to that for QPSK. We achieve a BER of ${3} \times {{10}^{- 2}}$ in this case.

 

Fig. 9. 30 Gbaud 16-QAM constellation with measured BER.

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6. CONCLUSION

In summary, we have successfully demonstrated a unique DRML for IQ modulation. Up to 50 Gbaud QPSK is generated with a very low BER of ${{10}^{- 5}}$. The 32 Gbaud QPSK has an even lower BER floor, demonstrating that the performance of the current device is mainly limited by the MIM modulation bandwidth. We achieve low BERs with a relaxation oscillation frequency of 1.3 GHz, mainly because the absolute modulated reflection back to RSOA is weak because of the low reflectivity modulation, high coupling loss between RSOA and PIC, and on-chip losses. If these losses are reduced, which is desired to improve the output power and efficiency, a higher BER floor may occur due to the crosstalk between in-phase and quadrature components. However, it would not be a problem for a coherent transmitter because the forward error correction (FEC) used in current optical communications requires a BER in the range of ${{10}^{- 4}}$ to ${{10}^{- 2}}$. In addition, digital compensation can be used to reduce the BERs if a deterministic crosstalk between I/Q is known [22].

The demonstrated DRML retains low RF power consumption due to very low device capacitance (${\sim}{100}\;{\rm fF}$) which is close to that of microring modulators and EAMs. The calculated RF energy efficiency based on a driving voltage of 4 V is 200 fJ/bit. This device truly leverages the technical advantages of silicon photonics, where various extremely compact optical elements can be integrated on a single chip. It is also feasible to employ four or more tunable MIM-based mirrors so that dual-polarization coherent transmitters can be realized. However, a more detailed theoretical study on laser dynamics needs to be carried out to further optimize the device performance. A compact coherent transmitter with low RF power consumption can find wide-range applications in communications.

Disclosures

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

REFERENCES

1. T. Yamamoto, “High-speed directly modulated lasers,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Los Angeles, California, USA (2012), paper OTH3F5.

2. W. Kobayashi, T. Ito, T. Yamanaka, T. Fujisawa, Y. Shibata, T. Kurosaki, M. Kohtoku, T. Tadokoro, and H. Sanjoh, “50-Gb/s direct modulation of 1.3-µm InGaAlAs-based DFB laser with ridge waveguide structure,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1500908 (2013). [CrossRef]  

3. Y. Matsui, T. Pham, W. A. Ling, R. Schatz, G. P. Carey, H. M. Daghighian, and T. Sudo, “55-GHz bandwidth short-cavity distributed reflector laser and its application to 112-Gb/s PAM-4,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, California, USA (2016), paper Th5B.4.

4. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005). [CrossRef]  

5. P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17, 22484–22490 (2009). [CrossRef]  

6. P. J. Winzer and R. Essiambre, “Advanced optical modulation formats,” Proc. IEEE 94, 952–985 (2006). [CrossRef]  

7. P. Dong, A. Maho, R. Brenot, Y.-K. Chen, and A. Melikyan, “Directly reflectivity modulated laser,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC), Gothenburg, Sweden (2017), paper PDP.C.2.

8. P. Dong, A. Maho, R. Brenot, Y.-K. Chen, and A. Melikyan, “Directly reflectivity modulated laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 1255–1261 (2018). [CrossRef]  

9. P. Dong, K. Kim, and A. Melikyan, “Generating two optical signals from a single directly reflectivity modulated laser,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Rome, Italy (2018), pp. 1–3.

10. G. Liu, A. Melikyan, S. J. Yoo, and P. Dong, “Modelling directly reflectivity modulated lasers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper JTu2A.76.

11. T. Kakitsuka, S. Matsuo, T. Segawa, Y. Shibata, Y. Kawaguchi, and R. Takahashi, “20-km transmission of 40-Gb/s signal using frequency modulated DBR laser,” in Proc. of Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) (2009), paper OThG4.

12. E. A. Avrutina, V. B. Gorfinkel, S. Luryi, and K. A. Shore, “Control of surface-emitting laser diodes by modulating the distributed Bragg mirror reflectivity: small-signal analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2460–2462 (1993). [CrossRef]  

13. J.-J. He, “Proposal for Q-modulated semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 285–287 (2007). [CrossRef]  

14. D. Liu and J.-J. He, “Monolithically integrated channel-selectable wavelength converter based on XAM and Q-modulation principle,” in IEEE PhotonicsGlobal, Singapore (2008), pp. 13–14.

15. D. Dai, A. Fang, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon lasers for optical interconnects,” New J. Phys. 11, 125016 (2009). [CrossRef]  

16. W. D. Sacher, E. J. Zhang, B. A. Kruger, and J. K. S. Poon, “High-speed laser modulation beyond the relaxation resonance frequency limit,” Opt. Express 18, 7047–7054 (2010). [CrossRef]  

17. P. Dong, A. Melikyan, K. Kim, N. Kaneda, B. Stern, and Y. Baeyens, “In-phase/quadrature modulation by directly reflectivity modulated laser,” in Proceeding of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2020), paper M2B.2.

18. K. Sato, N. Kobayashi, M. Namiwaka, K. Yamamoto, T. Kita, H. Yamada, and H. Yamazaki, “High output power and narrow linewidth silicon photonic hybrid ring-filter external cavity wavelength tunable lasers,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Cannes, France (2014), paper PD2.3.

19. S. Yang, Y. Zhang, D. W. Grund, G. A. Ejzak, Y. Liu, A. Novack, D. Prather, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A single adiabatic microring-based laser in 220 nm silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 22, 1172–1180 (2014). [CrossRef]  

20. A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14, 9203–9210 (2006). [CrossRef]  

21. S. Tanaka, S.-H. Jeong, S. Sekiguchi, T. Kurahashi, Y. Tanaka, and K. Morito, “High-output-power, single-wavelength silicon hybrid laser using precise flip-chip bonding technology,” Opt. Express 20, 28057–28069 (2012). [CrossRef]  

22. X. Chen, P. Dong, S. Chandrasekhar, K. Kim, B. Li, H. Chen, A. Adamiecki, A. Gnauck, and P. Winzer, “Characterization and digital pre-compensation of electro-optic crosstalk in silicon photonics I/Q modulators,” in Proc. of 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Dusseldorf, Germany (2016), pp. 1–3.

References

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  1. T. Yamamoto, “High-speed directly modulated lasers,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Los Angeles, California, USA (2012), paper OTH3F5.
  2. W. Kobayashi, T. Ito, T. Yamanaka, T. Fujisawa, Y. Shibata, T. Kurosaki, M. Kohtoku, T. Tadokoro, and H. Sanjoh, “50-Gb/s direct modulation of 1.3-µm InGaAlAs-based DFB laser with ridge waveguide structure,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1500908 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  3. Y. Matsui, T. Pham, W. A. Ling, R. Schatz, G. P. Carey, H. M. Daghighian, and T. Sudo, “55-GHz bandwidth short-cavity distributed reflector laser and its application to 112-Gb/s PAM-4,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, California, USA (2016), paper Th5B.4.
  4. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  5. P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17, 22484–22490 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  6. P. J. Winzer and R. Essiambre, “Advanced optical modulation formats,” Proc. IEEE 94, 952–985 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  7. P. Dong, A. Maho, R. Brenot, Y.-K. Chen, and A. Melikyan, “Directly reflectivity modulated laser,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC), Gothenburg, Sweden (2017), paper PDP.C.2.
  8. P. Dong, A. Maho, R. Brenot, Y.-K. Chen, and A. Melikyan, “Directly reflectivity modulated laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 1255–1261 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  9. P. Dong, K. Kim, and A. Melikyan, “Generating two optical signals from a single directly reflectivity modulated laser,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Rome, Italy (2018), pp. 1–3.
  10. G. Liu, A. Melikyan, S. J. Yoo, and P. Dong, “Modelling directly reflectivity modulated lasers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper JTu2A.76.
  11. T. Kakitsuka, S. Matsuo, T. Segawa, Y. Shibata, Y. Kawaguchi, and R. Takahashi, “20-km transmission of 40-Gb/s signal using frequency modulated DBR laser,” in Proc. of Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) (2009), paper OThG4.
  12. E. A. Avrutina, V. B. Gorfinkel, S. Luryi, and K. A. Shore, “Control of surface-emitting laser diodes by modulating the distributed Bragg mirror reflectivity: small-signal analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2460–2462 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  13. J.-J. He, “Proposal for Q-modulated semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 285–287 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  14. D. Liu and J.-J. He, “Monolithically integrated channel-selectable wavelength converter based on XAM and Q-modulation principle,” in IEEE PhotonicsGlobal, Singapore (2008), pp. 13–14.
  15. D. Dai, A. Fang, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon lasers for optical interconnects,” New J. Phys. 11, 125016 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  16. W. D. Sacher, E. J. Zhang, B. A. Kruger, and J. K. S. Poon, “High-speed laser modulation beyond the relaxation resonance frequency limit,” Opt. Express 18, 7047–7054 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  17. P. Dong, A. Melikyan, K. Kim, N. Kaneda, B. Stern, and Y. Baeyens, “In-phase/quadrature modulation by directly reflectivity modulated laser,” in Proceeding of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2020), paper M2B.2.
  18. K. Sato, N. Kobayashi, M. Namiwaka, K. Yamamoto, T. Kita, H. Yamada, and H. Yamazaki, “High output power and narrow linewidth silicon photonic hybrid ring-filter external cavity wavelength tunable lasers,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Cannes, France (2014), paper PD2.3.
  19. S. Yang, Y. Zhang, D. W. Grund, G. A. Ejzak, Y. Liu, A. Novack, D. Prather, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A single adiabatic microring-based laser in 220 nm silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 22, 1172–1180 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  20. A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14, 9203–9210 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  21. S. Tanaka, S.-H. Jeong, S. Sekiguchi, T. Kurahashi, Y. Tanaka, and K. Morito, “High-output-power, single-wavelength silicon hybrid laser using precise flip-chip bonding technology,” Opt. Express 20, 28057–28069 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  22. X. Chen, P. Dong, S. Chandrasekhar, K. Kim, B. Li, H. Chen, A. Adamiecki, A. Gnauck, and P. Winzer, “Characterization and digital pre-compensation of electro-optic crosstalk in silicon photonics I/Q modulators,” in Proc. of 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Dusseldorf, Germany (2016), pp. 1–3.

2018 (1)

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

W. Kobayashi, T. Ito, T. Yamanaka, T. Fujisawa, Y. Shibata, T. Kurosaki, M. Kohtoku, T. Tadokoro, and H. Sanjoh, “50-Gb/s direct modulation of 1.3-µm InGaAlAs-based DFB laser with ridge waveguide structure,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1500908 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

2007 (1)

J.-J. He, “Proposal for Q-modulated semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 285–287 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

E. A. Avrutina, V. B. Gorfinkel, S. Luryi, and K. A. Shore, “Control of surface-emitting laser diodes by modulating the distributed Bragg mirror reflectivity: small-signal analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2460–2462 (1993).
[Crossref]

Adamiecki, A.

X. Chen, P. Dong, S. Chandrasekhar, K. Kim, B. Li, H. Chen, A. Adamiecki, A. Gnauck, and P. Winzer, “Characterization and digital pre-compensation of electro-optic crosstalk in silicon photonics I/Q modulators,” in Proc. of 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Dusseldorf, Germany (2016), pp. 1–3.

Asghari, M.

Avrutina, E. A.

E. A. Avrutina, V. B. Gorfinkel, S. Luryi, and K. A. Shore, “Control of surface-emitting laser diodes by modulating the distributed Bragg mirror reflectivity: small-signal analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2460–2462 (1993).
[Crossref]

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baeyens, Y.

P. Dong, A. Melikyan, K. Kim, N. Kaneda, B. Stern, and Y. Baeyens, “In-phase/quadrature modulation by directly reflectivity modulated laser,” in Proceeding of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2020), paper M2B.2.

Bowers, J. E.

Brenot, R.

P. Dong, A. Maho, R. Brenot, Y.-K. Chen, and A. Melikyan, “Directly reflectivity modulated laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 1255–1261 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Dong, A. Maho, R. Brenot, Y.-K. Chen, and A. Melikyan, “Directly reflectivity modulated laser,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC), Gothenburg, Sweden (2017), paper PDP.C.2.

Carey, G. P.

Y. Matsui, T. Pham, W. A. Ling, R. Schatz, G. P. Carey, H. M. Daghighian, and T. Sudo, “55-GHz bandwidth short-cavity distributed reflector laser and its application to 112-Gb/s PAM-4,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, California, USA (2016), paper Th5B.4.

Chandrasekhar, S.

X. Chen, P. Dong, S. Chandrasekhar, K. Kim, B. Li, H. Chen, A. Adamiecki, A. Gnauck, and P. Winzer, “Characterization and digital pre-compensation of electro-optic crosstalk in silicon photonics I/Q modulators,” in Proc. of 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Dusseldorf, Germany (2016), pp. 1–3.

Chen, H.

X. Chen, P. Dong, S. Chandrasekhar, K. Kim, B. Li, H. Chen, A. Adamiecki, A. Gnauck, and P. Winzer, “Characterization and digital pre-compensation of electro-optic crosstalk in silicon photonics I/Q modulators,” in Proc. of 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Dusseldorf, Germany (2016), pp. 1–3.

Chen, X.

X. Chen, P. Dong, S. Chandrasekhar, K. Kim, B. Li, H. Chen, A. Adamiecki, A. Gnauck, and P. Winzer, “Characterization and digital pre-compensation of electro-optic crosstalk in silicon photonics I/Q modulators,” in Proc. of 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Dusseldorf, Germany (2016), pp. 1–3.

Chen, Y.-K.

P. Dong, A. Maho, R. Brenot, Y.-K. Chen, and A. Melikyan, “Directly reflectivity modulated laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 1255–1261 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Dong, A. Maho, R. Brenot, Y.-K. Chen, and A. Melikyan, “Directly reflectivity modulated laser,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC), Gothenburg, Sweden (2017), paper PDP.C.2.

Cohen, O.

Daghighian, H. M.

Y. Matsui, T. Pham, W. A. Ling, R. Schatz, G. P. Carey, H. M. Daghighian, and T. Sudo, “55-GHz bandwidth short-cavity distributed reflector laser and its application to 112-Gb/s PAM-4,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, California, USA (2016), paper Th5B.4.

Dai, D.

D. Dai, A. Fang, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon lasers for optical interconnects,” New J. Phys. 11, 125016 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dong, P.

P. Dong, A. Maho, R. Brenot, Y.-K. Chen, and A. Melikyan, “Directly reflectivity modulated laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 1255–1261 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17, 22484–22490 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Dong, A. Maho, R. Brenot, Y.-K. Chen, and A. Melikyan, “Directly reflectivity modulated laser,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC), Gothenburg, Sweden (2017), paper PDP.C.2.

P. Dong, K. Kim, and A. Melikyan, “Generating two optical signals from a single directly reflectivity modulated laser,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Rome, Italy (2018), pp. 1–3.

G. Liu, A. Melikyan, S. J. Yoo, and P. Dong, “Modelling directly reflectivity modulated lasers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper JTu2A.76.

P. Dong, A. Melikyan, K. Kim, N. Kaneda, B. Stern, and Y. Baeyens, “In-phase/quadrature modulation by directly reflectivity modulated laser,” in Proceeding of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2020), paper M2B.2.

X. Chen, P. Dong, S. Chandrasekhar, K. Kim, B. Li, H. Chen, A. Adamiecki, A. Gnauck, and P. Winzer, “Characterization and digital pre-compensation of electro-optic crosstalk in silicon photonics I/Q modulators,” in Proc. of 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Dusseldorf, Germany (2016), pp. 1–3.

Ejzak, G. A.

Essiambre, R.

P. J. Winzer and R. Essiambre, “Advanced optical modulation formats,” Proc. IEEE 94, 952–985 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fang, A.

D. Dai, A. Fang, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon lasers for optical interconnects,” New J. Phys. 11, 125016 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fang, A. W.

Feng, D.

Fujisawa, T.

W. Kobayashi, T. Ito, T. Yamanaka, T. Fujisawa, Y. Shibata, T. Kurosaki, M. Kohtoku, T. Tadokoro, and H. Sanjoh, “50-Gb/s direct modulation of 1.3-µm InGaAlAs-based DFB laser with ridge waveguide structure,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1500908 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gnauck, A.

X. Chen, P. Dong, S. Chandrasekhar, K. Kim, B. Li, H. Chen, A. Adamiecki, A. Gnauck, and P. Winzer, “Characterization and digital pre-compensation of electro-optic crosstalk in silicon photonics I/Q modulators,” in Proc. of 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Dusseldorf, Germany (2016), pp. 1–3.

Gorfinkel, V. B.

E. A. Avrutina, V. B. Gorfinkel, S. Luryi, and K. A. Shore, “Control of surface-emitting laser diodes by modulating the distributed Bragg mirror reflectivity: small-signal analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2460–2462 (1993).
[Crossref]

Grund, D. W.

He, J.-J.

J.-J. He, “Proposal for Q-modulated semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 285–287 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Liu and J.-J. He, “Monolithically integrated channel-selectable wavelength converter based on XAM and Q-modulation principle,” in IEEE PhotonicsGlobal, Singapore (2008), pp. 13–14.

Hochberg, M.

Ito, T.

W. Kobayashi, T. Ito, T. Yamanaka, T. Fujisawa, Y. Shibata, T. Kurosaki, M. Kohtoku, T. Tadokoro, and H. Sanjoh, “50-Gb/s direct modulation of 1.3-µm InGaAlAs-based DFB laser with ridge waveguide structure,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1500908 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jeong, S.-H.

Jones, R.

Kakitsuka, T.

T. Kakitsuka, S. Matsuo, T. Segawa, Y. Shibata, Y. Kawaguchi, and R. Takahashi, “20-km transmission of 40-Gb/s signal using frequency modulated DBR laser,” in Proc. of Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) (2009), paper OThG4.

Kaneda, N.

P. Dong, A. Melikyan, K. Kim, N. Kaneda, B. Stern, and Y. Baeyens, “In-phase/quadrature modulation by directly reflectivity modulated laser,” in Proceeding of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2020), paper M2B.2.

Kawaguchi, Y.

T. Kakitsuka, S. Matsuo, T. Segawa, Y. Shibata, Y. Kawaguchi, and R. Takahashi, “20-km transmission of 40-Gb/s signal using frequency modulated DBR laser,” in Proc. of Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) (2009), paper OThG4.

Kim, K.

P. Dong, K. Kim, and A. Melikyan, “Generating two optical signals from a single directly reflectivity modulated laser,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Rome, Italy (2018), pp. 1–3.

P. Dong, A. Melikyan, K. Kim, N. Kaneda, B. Stern, and Y. Baeyens, “In-phase/quadrature modulation by directly reflectivity modulated laser,” in Proceeding of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2020), paper M2B.2.

X. Chen, P. Dong, S. Chandrasekhar, K. Kim, B. Li, H. Chen, A. Adamiecki, A. Gnauck, and P. Winzer, “Characterization and digital pre-compensation of electro-optic crosstalk in silicon photonics I/Q modulators,” in Proc. of 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Dusseldorf, Germany (2016), pp. 1–3.

Kita, T.

K. Sato, N. Kobayashi, M. Namiwaka, K. Yamamoto, T. Kita, H. Yamada, and H. Yamazaki, “High output power and narrow linewidth silicon photonic hybrid ring-filter external cavity wavelength tunable lasers,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Cannes, France (2014), paper PD2.3.

Kobayashi, N.

K. Sato, N. Kobayashi, M. Namiwaka, K. Yamamoto, T. Kita, H. Yamada, and H. Yamazaki, “High output power and narrow linewidth silicon photonic hybrid ring-filter external cavity wavelength tunable lasers,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Cannes, France (2014), paper PD2.3.

Kobayashi, W.

W. Kobayashi, T. Ito, T. Yamanaka, T. Fujisawa, Y. Shibata, T. Kurosaki, M. Kohtoku, T. Tadokoro, and H. Sanjoh, “50-Gb/s direct modulation of 1.3-µm InGaAlAs-based DFB laser with ridge waveguide structure,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1500908 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kohtoku, M.

W. Kobayashi, T. Ito, T. Yamanaka, T. Fujisawa, Y. Shibata, T. Kurosaki, M. Kohtoku, T. Tadokoro, and H. Sanjoh, “50-Gb/s direct modulation of 1.3-µm InGaAlAs-based DFB laser with ridge waveguide structure,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1500908 (2013).
[Crossref]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kruger, B. A.

Kung, C.-C.

Kurahashi, T.

Kurosaki, T.

W. Kobayashi, T. Ito, T. Yamanaka, T. Fujisawa, Y. Shibata, T. Kurosaki, M. Kohtoku, T. Tadokoro, and H. Sanjoh, “50-Gb/s direct modulation of 1.3-µm InGaAlAs-based DFB laser with ridge waveguide structure,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1500908 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, B.

X. Chen, P. Dong, S. Chandrasekhar, K. Kim, B. Li, H. Chen, A. Adamiecki, A. Gnauck, and P. Winzer, “Characterization and digital pre-compensation of electro-optic crosstalk in silicon photonics I/Q modulators,” in Proc. of 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Dusseldorf, Germany (2016), pp. 1–3.

Li, G.

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

Lim, A. E.-J.

Ling, W. A.

Y. Matsui, T. Pham, W. A. Ling, R. Schatz, G. P. Carey, H. M. Daghighian, and T. Sudo, “55-GHz bandwidth short-cavity distributed reflector laser and its application to 112-Gb/s PAM-4,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, California, USA (2016), paper Th5B.4.

Lipson, M.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, D.

D. Liu and J.-J. He, “Monolithically integrated channel-selectable wavelength converter based on XAM and Q-modulation principle,” in IEEE PhotonicsGlobal, Singapore (2008), pp. 13–14.

Liu, G.

G. Liu, A. Melikyan, S. J. Yoo, and P. Dong, “Modelling directly reflectivity modulated lasers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper JTu2A.76.

Liu, Y.

Lo, G.-Q.

Luryi, S.

E. A. Avrutina, V. B. Gorfinkel, S. Luryi, and K. A. Shore, “Control of surface-emitting laser diodes by modulating the distributed Bragg mirror reflectivity: small-signal analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2460–2462 (1993).
[Crossref]

Maho, A.

P. Dong, A. Maho, R. Brenot, Y.-K. Chen, and A. Melikyan, “Directly reflectivity modulated laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 1255–1261 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Dong, A. Maho, R. Brenot, Y.-K. Chen, and A. Melikyan, “Directly reflectivity modulated laser,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC), Gothenburg, Sweden (2017), paper PDP.C.2.

Matsui, Y.

Y. Matsui, T. Pham, W. A. Ling, R. Schatz, G. P. Carey, H. M. Daghighian, and T. Sudo, “55-GHz bandwidth short-cavity distributed reflector laser and its application to 112-Gb/s PAM-4,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, California, USA (2016), paper Th5B.4.

Matsuo, S.

T. Kakitsuka, S. Matsuo, T. Segawa, Y. Shibata, Y. Kawaguchi, and R. Takahashi, “20-km transmission of 40-Gb/s signal using frequency modulated DBR laser,” in Proc. of Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) (2009), paper OThG4.

Melikyan, A.

P. Dong, A. Maho, R. Brenot, Y.-K. Chen, and A. Melikyan, “Directly reflectivity modulated laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 1255–1261 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Dong, K. Kim, and A. Melikyan, “Generating two optical signals from a single directly reflectivity modulated laser,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Rome, Italy (2018), pp. 1–3.

P. Dong, A. Maho, R. Brenot, Y.-K. Chen, and A. Melikyan, “Directly reflectivity modulated laser,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC), Gothenburg, Sweden (2017), paper PDP.C.2.

G. Liu, A. Melikyan, S. J. Yoo, and P. Dong, “Modelling directly reflectivity modulated lasers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper JTu2A.76.

P. Dong, A. Melikyan, K. Kim, N. Kaneda, B. Stern, and Y. Baeyens, “In-phase/quadrature modulation by directly reflectivity modulated laser,” in Proceeding of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2020), paper M2B.2.

Morito, K.

Namiwaka, M.

K. Sato, N. Kobayashi, M. Namiwaka, K. Yamamoto, T. Kita, H. Yamada, and H. Yamazaki, “High output power and narrow linewidth silicon photonic hybrid ring-filter external cavity wavelength tunable lasers,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Cannes, France (2014), paper PD2.3.

Novack, A.

Paniccia, M. J.

Park, H.

Pham, T.

Y. Matsui, T. Pham, W. A. Ling, R. Schatz, G. P. Carey, H. M. Daghighian, and T. Sudo, “55-GHz bandwidth short-cavity distributed reflector laser and its application to 112-Gb/s PAM-4,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, California, USA (2016), paper Th5B.4.

Poon, J. K. S.

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref]

Prather, D.

Qian, W.

Sacher, W. D.

Sanjoh, H.

W. Kobayashi, T. Ito, T. Yamanaka, T. Fujisawa, Y. Shibata, T. Kurosaki, M. Kohtoku, T. Tadokoro, and H. Sanjoh, “50-Gb/s direct modulation of 1.3-µm InGaAlAs-based DFB laser with ridge waveguide structure,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1500908 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sato, K.

K. Sato, N. Kobayashi, M. Namiwaka, K. Yamamoto, T. Kita, H. Yamada, and H. Yamazaki, “High output power and narrow linewidth silicon photonic hybrid ring-filter external cavity wavelength tunable lasers,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Cannes, France (2014), paper PD2.3.

Schatz, R.

Y. Matsui, T. Pham, W. A. Ling, R. Schatz, G. P. Carey, H. M. Daghighian, and T. Sudo, “55-GHz bandwidth short-cavity distributed reflector laser and its application to 112-Gb/s PAM-4,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, California, USA (2016), paper Th5B.4.

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref]

Segawa, T.

T. Kakitsuka, S. Matsuo, T. Segawa, Y. Shibata, Y. Kawaguchi, and R. Takahashi, “20-km transmission of 40-Gb/s signal using frequency modulated DBR laser,” in Proc. of Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) (2009), paper OThG4.

Sekiguchi, S.

Shafiiha, R.

Shibata, Y.

W. Kobayashi, T. Ito, T. Yamanaka, T. Fujisawa, Y. Shibata, T. Kurosaki, M. Kohtoku, T. Tadokoro, and H. Sanjoh, “50-Gb/s direct modulation of 1.3-µm InGaAlAs-based DFB laser with ridge waveguide structure,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1500908 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Kakitsuka, S. Matsuo, T. Segawa, Y. Shibata, Y. Kawaguchi, and R. Takahashi, “20-km transmission of 40-Gb/s signal using frequency modulated DBR laser,” in Proc. of Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) (2009), paper OThG4.

Shore, K. A.

E. A. Avrutina, V. B. Gorfinkel, S. Luryi, and K. A. Shore, “Control of surface-emitting laser diodes by modulating the distributed Bragg mirror reflectivity: small-signal analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2460–2462 (1993).
[Crossref]

Stern, B.

P. Dong, A. Melikyan, K. Kim, N. Kaneda, B. Stern, and Y. Baeyens, “In-phase/quadrature modulation by directly reflectivity modulated laser,” in Proceeding of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2020), paper M2B.2.

Sudo, T.

Y. Matsui, T. Pham, W. A. Ling, R. Schatz, G. P. Carey, H. M. Daghighian, and T. Sudo, “55-GHz bandwidth short-cavity distributed reflector laser and its application to 112-Gb/s PAM-4,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, California, USA (2016), paper Th5B.4.

Tadokoro, T.

W. Kobayashi, T. Ito, T. Yamanaka, T. Fujisawa, Y. Shibata, T. Kurosaki, M. Kohtoku, T. Tadokoro, and H. Sanjoh, “50-Gb/s direct modulation of 1.3-µm InGaAlAs-based DFB laser with ridge waveguide structure,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1500908 (2013).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, R.

T. Kakitsuka, S. Matsuo, T. Segawa, Y. Shibata, Y. Kawaguchi, and R. Takahashi, “20-km transmission of 40-Gb/s signal using frequency modulated DBR laser,” in Proc. of Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) (2009), paper OThG4.

Tanaka, S.

Tanaka, Y.

Winzer, P.

X. Chen, P. Dong, S. Chandrasekhar, K. Kim, B. Li, H. Chen, A. Adamiecki, A. Gnauck, and P. Winzer, “Characterization and digital pre-compensation of electro-optic crosstalk in silicon photonics I/Q modulators,” in Proc. of 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Dusseldorf, Germany (2016), pp. 1–3.

Winzer, P. J.

P. J. Winzer and R. Essiambre, “Advanced optical modulation formats,” Proc. IEEE 94, 952–985 (2006).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yamada, H.

K. Sato, N. Kobayashi, M. Namiwaka, K. Yamamoto, T. Kita, H. Yamada, and H. Yamazaki, “High output power and narrow linewidth silicon photonic hybrid ring-filter external cavity wavelength tunable lasers,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Cannes, France (2014), paper PD2.3.

Yamamoto, K.

K. Sato, N. Kobayashi, M. Namiwaka, K. Yamamoto, T. Kita, H. Yamada, and H. Yamazaki, “High output power and narrow linewidth silicon photonic hybrid ring-filter external cavity wavelength tunable lasers,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Cannes, France (2014), paper PD2.3.

Yamamoto, T.

T. Yamamoto, “High-speed directly modulated lasers,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Los Angeles, California, USA (2012), paper OTH3F5.

Yamanaka, T.

W. Kobayashi, T. Ito, T. Yamanaka, T. Fujisawa, Y. Shibata, T. Kurosaki, M. Kohtoku, T. Tadokoro, and H. Sanjoh, “50-Gb/s direct modulation of 1.3-µm InGaAlAs-based DFB laser with ridge waveguide structure,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1500908 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yamazaki, H.

K. Sato, N. Kobayashi, M. Namiwaka, K. Yamamoto, T. Kita, H. Yamada, and H. Yamazaki, “High output power and narrow linewidth silicon photonic hybrid ring-filter external cavity wavelength tunable lasers,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Cannes, France (2014), paper PD2.3.

Yang, S.

Yoo, S. J.

G. Liu, A. Melikyan, S. J. Yoo, and P. Dong, “Modelling directly reflectivity modulated lasers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper JTu2A.76.

Zhang, E. J.

Zhang, Y.

Zheng, D.

Zheng, X.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. A. Avrutina, V. B. Gorfinkel, S. Luryi, and K. A. Shore, “Control of surface-emitting laser diodes by modulating the distributed Bragg mirror reflectivity: small-signal analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2460–2462 (1993).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. Kobayashi, T. Ito, T. Yamanaka, T. Fujisawa, Y. Shibata, T. Kurosaki, M. Kohtoku, T. Tadokoro, and H. Sanjoh, “50-Gb/s direct modulation of 1.3-µm InGaAlAs-based DFB laser with ridge waveguide structure,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1500908 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J.-J. He, “Proposal for Q-modulated semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 285–287 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nature (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

D. Dai, A. Fang, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon lasers for optical interconnects,” New J. Phys. 11, 125016 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Proc. IEEE (1)

P. J. Winzer and R. Essiambre, “Advanced optical modulation formats,” Proc. IEEE 94, 952–985 (2006).
[Crossref]

Other (10)

P. Dong, A. Maho, R. Brenot, Y.-K. Chen, and A. Melikyan, “Directly reflectivity modulated laser,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC), Gothenburg, Sweden (2017), paper PDP.C.2.

P. Dong, K. Kim, and A. Melikyan, “Generating two optical signals from a single directly reflectivity modulated laser,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Rome, Italy (2018), pp. 1–3.

G. Liu, A. Melikyan, S. J. Yoo, and P. Dong, “Modelling directly reflectivity modulated lasers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper JTu2A.76.

T. Kakitsuka, S. Matsuo, T. Segawa, Y. Shibata, Y. Kawaguchi, and R. Takahashi, “20-km transmission of 40-Gb/s signal using frequency modulated DBR laser,” in Proc. of Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) (2009), paper OThG4.

P. Dong, A. Melikyan, K. Kim, N. Kaneda, B. Stern, and Y. Baeyens, “In-phase/quadrature modulation by directly reflectivity modulated laser,” in Proceeding of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2020), paper M2B.2.

K. Sato, N. Kobayashi, M. Namiwaka, K. Yamamoto, T. Kita, H. Yamada, and H. Yamazaki, “High output power and narrow linewidth silicon photonic hybrid ring-filter external cavity wavelength tunable lasers,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Cannes, France (2014), paper PD2.3.

D. Liu and J.-J. He, “Monolithically integrated channel-selectable wavelength converter based on XAM and Q-modulation principle,” in IEEE PhotonicsGlobal, Singapore (2008), pp. 13–14.

Y. Matsui, T. Pham, W. A. Ling, R. Schatz, G. P. Carey, H. M. Daghighian, and T. Sudo, “55-GHz bandwidth short-cavity distributed reflector laser and its application to 112-Gb/s PAM-4,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Anaheim, California, USA (2016), paper Th5B.4.

X. Chen, P. Dong, S. Chandrasekhar, K. Kim, B. Li, H. Chen, A. Adamiecki, A. Gnauck, and P. Winzer, “Characterization and digital pre-compensation of electro-optic crosstalk in silicon photonics I/Q modulators,” in Proc. of 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Dusseldorf, Germany (2016), pp. 1–3.

T. Yamamoto, “High-speed directly modulated lasers,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Los Angeles, California, USA (2012), paper OTH3F5.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Proposed DRML for in-phase/quadrature modulation. (a) Two high-speed modulated mirrors (MIM 1 and MIM 2) in the laser cavity provide the modulated carrier-less signals for I/Q components, and the output is combined with a 90 deg phase shifter. (b) MIM circuit in (a). PS, phase shifter.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Device pictures for silicon PIC (top) and packaged DRML (bottom). The silicon PIC, with the optical circuit shown in Fig. 1, consists of rings, phase modulators (PMs), loop mirrors (LMs), and various PSs. The yellow dashed lines serve as a guideline for waveguide routing. The DRML (bottom) is a packaged module with an InP SOA, silicon PIC, a fiber, and printed circuit boards.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Optical spectra with different injection currents. The spectrum resolution used is 0.5 nm. (b) Fiber-coupled power versus RSOA current. The threshold current is less than 50 mA.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Optical spectra to demonstrate wide wavelength tunablity. (a) Spectra while one of the rings is thermally tuned, with the other fixed. (b) Spectra while the other ring is thermally tuned, with the first fixed. The heating powers applied to the rings are shown in the figures. The spectrum resolution is 0.1 nm.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Measured electrical power spectrum to determine ${f_r}$.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Optical spectra of generated carrier-less QPSK signals.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. QPSK constellations with measured BERs.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. BER performance for 32 Gbaud and 50 Gbaud QPSK.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. 30 Gbaud 16-QAM constellation with measured BER.

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