Abstract

We demonstrate the first (to our knowledge) general purpose full-field reflection-mode extreme ultraviolet (EUV) microscope based on coherent diffractive imaging. This microscope is capable of nanoscale amplitude and phase imaging of extended surfaces at an arbitrary angle of incidence in a noncontact, nondestructive manner. We use coherent light at 29.5 nm from high-harmonic upconversion to illuminate a surface, directly recording the scatter as the surface is scanned. Ptychographic reconstruction is then combined with tilted plane correction to obtain an image with amplitude and phase information. The image quality and detail from this diffraction-limited tabletop EUV microscope compares favorably with both scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope images. The result is a general and completely extensible imaging technique that can provide a comprehensive and definitive characterization of how light at any wavelength scatters from a surface, with imminent feasibility of elemental imaging with few-nanometer resolution.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. INTRODUCTION

Dramatic advances in coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) using light in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and x-ray regions of the spectrum over the past 15 years have resulted in near-diffraction-limited imaging capabilities using both large- and small-scale light sources [1,2]. In CDI, also called “lensless imaging,” coherent light illuminates a sample, and the scattered light is directly captured by a detector without any intervening imaging optic. Phase retrieval algorithms are then applied to the data set to recover an image. CDI has already been used to study a variety of biological and materials systems [37]. However, the potential for harnessing the power of CDI for imaging complex nanostructured surfaces, which requires the use of a reflection geometry for imaging, has been much less studied. Surfaces are critical in nanoscience and nanotechnology, for example, in catalysis, energy harvesting systems, or nanoelectronics. A few successful demonstrations have applied EUV/x-ray CDI to reflection-mode imaging. However, work to date has either been limited to highly reflective EUV lithography masks in a normal incidence geometry [8], restricted to a low numerical aperture through the use of a transmissive mask [9], or restricted to isolated objects [10,11].

Here we demonstrate the most general reflection-mode CDI to date using any light source, by combining curved-wavefront ptychography CDI [1214] with tilted plane correction [15]. This allows extended (nonisolated) objects to be imaged at any angle, which will enable tomographic imaging of surfaces. Previously, reflection-mode ptychography was limited to a normal-incidence geometry [8,16]. This work also represents the first non-isolated-object, high-fidelity, tabletop EUV coherent reflection imaging, which expands the scope of applications for CDI significantly to a very broad range of science and technology. First, our approach removes restrictions on the numerical aperture, sample, and angle, so that general extended objects can be imaged in reflection mode at any angle of incidence. Second, illumination of the sample with a strongly curved wavefront removes the need for a zero-order beam stop by reducing the dynamic range of the diffraction patterns. The curved illumination also allows the size of the beam to vary according to the sample size, alleviating the need for a large number of scan positions. This also results in fewer necessary scan positions when imaging a large field of view. Third, reflection ptychography produces surface images containing quantitative amplitude and phase information about the sample that are in excellent agreement with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, and also removes all negative effects of nonuniform illumination of the sample or imperfect knowledge of the sample position as it is scanned [17]. The result is a general and extensible imaging technique that can provide a comprehensive and definitive characterization of how light at any wavelength scatters from an object, with the resolution limited only by the wavelength and the numerical aperture of the system. This complete amplitude and phase characterization, thus, is fully capable of pushing full-field optical imaging to its fundamental limit. Finally, because we use a tabletop high harmonic generation (HHG) 30 nm source [18], in the future it will be possible to image energy, charge, and spin transport with nanometer spatial and femtosecond temporal resolution on nanostructured surfaces or buried interfaces, which is a grand challenge in nanoscience and nanotechnology [19,20].

It is worth briefly reviewing the relationship between our work presented here and that of Bragg ptychography CDI [21,22], which has become a very useful technique for quantitative visualization of nanoscale strain in crystalline structures. The experimental geometry for Bragg ptychography CDI is qualitatively similar to that presented here; a surface is illuminated in an off-axis geometry, with diffraction intensities measured in the far field. However, this technique requires an object with a crystalline structure to be illuminated by x-ray light with a wavelength shorter than the lattice constant, and is therefore complementary.

2. EXPERIMENT

The experimental geometry for reflection-mode Fresnel ptychography is shown in Fig. 1. A Ti:sapphire laser beam with wavelength 785nm (1.5 mJ pulse energy, 22 fs pulse duration, 5 kHz repetition rate) is coupled into a 5 cm long, 200 μm inner diameter hollow waveguide filled with 60 Torr of argon. Bright harmonics of the fundamental laser are produced near a center wavelength of 29.5 nm (27th harmonic), since the HHG process is well phase matched [23], ensuring strong coherent signal growth and high spatial coherence. The residual fundamental laser light, which is collinear with the high harmonic beam, is filtered out using a combination of two silicon mirrors (placed near Brewster’s angle for 785 nm light) and two 200 nm thick aluminum filters. The EUV beam is then sent through an adjustable 1mm aperture placed 1m upstream of the sample to remove any stray light outside the beam radius. A pair of Mg/SiC multilayer mirrors then select the 27th harmonic of the Ti:sapphire laser at 29.5 nm. The first mirror is flat, while the second mirror has a radius of curvature (ROC) of 10 cm. This mirror pair focuses the HHG beam onto the sample at an angle of incidence of 45°. The focus position is 300 μm downstream of the sample, so that the HHG beam wavefront at the sample plane has significant curvature. The angle of incidence on the curved mirror is approximately 2°, which introduces small amounts of astigmatism and coma onto the HHG beam.

 

Fig. 1. Experimental setup for reflection-mode Fresnel ptychography. The EUV beam propagates through an adjustable 1mm aperture; a single harmonic is selected using a pair of multilayer mirrors centered at 29.5 nm and focused onto the sample. The scattered light is collected on a CCD detector placed directly after the sample. The inset shows a height profile reconstructed through ptychography.

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The sample consisted of 30nm thick titanium patterned on a silicon substrate using e-beam lithography (see Supplement 1, Appendix C). An SEM image of this object is shown in Fig. 2(b). The scattered light from the object was measured using an EUV-sensitive CCD detector (Andor iKon, 2048×2048, 13.5 μm square pixels) placed 67 mm from the object and oriented so that the detector surface was normal to the specular reflection of the beam. The sample was positioned 300 μm before the circle of least confusion along the beam axis, so that the beam diameter incident on the sample was approximately 10 μm. Diffraction patterns were measured at each position of 10 adjacent 3×3 grids, with a 2.5 μm step size between positions. The positions were randomized by up to 1 μm in order to prevent periodic artifacts from occurring in the ptychographic reconstruction [24].

 

Fig. 2. Diffraction data and ptychographic reconstruction. (a) Representative diffraction pattern, scaled to the 1/4 power, taken from the 90-scan dataset. (b) SEM image of the Ti-patterned Si sample. Note that the large defect circled in the SEM image resulted from contamination after the ptychography measurement. (c) Reconstructed amplitude (thresholded at 5%) of the HHG beam. The inset shows the reconstructed phase (displayed modulo-2π). (d) Ptychographic reconstruction of the object shown in part (b). The reconstruction is plotted as the complex amplitude, where brightness represents reflected amplitude and hue represents the phase of the reconstruction. Note that the majority of defects seen in the SEM image of the Ti nanostructures are reproduced in the ptychographic reconstruction. The scale bar in (b) is shared among (b)–(d).

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3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Due to the non-normal angle-of-incidence on the sample, the patterns must be remapped onto a grid that is linear in spatial frequencies of the sample plane, in order to use fast Fourier transforms in the data analysis. We used tilted plane correction to accomplish this [15]. An example of a corrected diffraction pattern is shown in Fig. 2(a). The diffraction patterns were cropped such that the effective numerical aperture was 0.1, enabling a half-pitch resolution of 150 nm. The image was reconstructed using the extended ptychographical iterative engine (ePIE), along with the subpixel position determination method [17,25] (see Supplement 1, Appendix C, for details). A starting guess for the probe was calculated based on the estimated distance of the sample from the focus. The reconstructed complex amplitude of the object is shown in Fig. 2(d). During the course of the reconstruction, the algorithm was used to further solve for the complex amplitude of the probe as well, resulting in the illumination shown in Fig. 2(c). As discussed in Supplement 1, Appendix A, the reconstructed probe is completely consistent with a measurement of the unscattered beam at the detector. The high fidelity of the CDI reconstruction is evident in the fact that the majority of small defects visible in the SEM image of the Ti patterns [Fig. 2(b)] are also clearly visible in the CDI reconstruction [Fig. 2(d)]. Note that the large defect circled in the SEM image in Fig. 2(b) was the result of sample contamination after the ptychography measurement. Supplement 1, Appendix B, contains a more detailed comparison between the defects seen in the CDI reconstruction and those seen in the SEM and AFM images (Fig. S3). Small artifacts are present at the periphery of the reconstruction, due to fewer overlapping scan positions in this region. With a larger scan, these artifacts will be completely eliminated for any structure of interest that is not near the edge of the scan range.

Ptychography solves for the complex amplitudes of both the object and the probe (or incident beam) simultaneously [12,24]. As a result, reliable quantitative information about the object can be obtained from the reconstruction, since the effect of the probe on the diffraction patterns is essentially divided out. Quantitative surface relief information can be obtained from the phase of the reconstructed object as well. The titanium was patterned at a thickness of approximately 30 nm. The round-trip path difference of the reflected light is 2hcosθ, where h is the height above a reference (such as the substrate) and θ is the angle of incidence. At a 45° angle of incidence for a feature thickness of 30 nm, the round-trip path length difference between the silicon substrate and the patterned titanium features is 42.4 nm. At a 29.5 nm wavelength, this corresponds to between one and two wavelengths’ path length difference. Additionally, the phase change upon reflection can be highly variable for absorbing materials. In the case of this sample, both silicon and titanium have native oxide layers that must be taken into account when calculating this phase change. Thus, some prior knowledge is required in order to retrieve the absolute height of the features. The method for calculating the phase change upon reflection from a thin-film system with complex indices of refraction is described in Born and Wolf [26]. The indices of refraction at the 29.5 nm wavelength necessary for this calculation were obtained from the Center for X-Ray Optics [27]. The thickness of the silicon oxide layer was measured using ellipsometry to be 3.0(1) nm (described in Supplement 1, Appendix C), and the thickness of the titanium oxide layer was assumed to be 2.9(2) nm based on the literature [28,29]. For the SiO2/Si region, the phase change δSi was calculated to be 1.22(3)rad and the theoretical reflectivity was calculated to be 0.33%. For the TiO2/Ti patterns, the phase change δTi was calculated to be 1.92(9)rad and the theoretical reflectivity was calculated to be 10.9%. The difference in reflectivities for titanium versus silicon means that theoretically, the ratio of reflected field amplitudes (square root of intensity) should be 5.7, assuming no surface roughness. The object reconstruction shows a range for the ratio of the reflected amplitudes of 3.0–6.7, with a median ratio of 4.0. The measured ratio is based on a histogram of the reconstructed amplitude shown in Fig. 2(d) and is in reasonable agreement with the calculated reflectivities: it is not unexpected that the median is lower, since the theoretical reflectivity ratio assumed no surface roughness.

A polynomial subtraction was applied to the reconstructed phase of the silicon substrate, similar to that used in AFM image flattening [30]. We first excluded the titanium features from the image and then fit a polynomial function to the remaining phase values. This function was subtracted from the full image, resulting in constant values across the silicon substrate. The peak-to-valley height variation of the subtracted surface fit was <4nm over the full 35μm×40μm field of view. After flattening, the reconstruction shows an average of 4.26 rad of phase difference between the titanium and silicon surfaces, corresponding to a 46.2(7) nm path length difference (when 2π is added and after taking the phase changes upon reflection into account). This corresponds to a 32.7(5) nm average thickness of the titanium patterns. A height map of the sample could then be produced by assuming that 2π should be added to any part of the reconstruction that exhibited an amplitude above 25% of the maximum (based on the relative reflectivities of titanium and silicon, as discussed above). Additionally, the reflection phases δSi and δTi were subtracted from the Si and Ti regions using the same criteria. The result of this analysis is displayed in Fig. 3(a) and represents a significant improvement in image quality compared with all tabletop coherent reflective imaging to date. After the ptychography measurements were taken, an independent height map of the sample was obtained using a Digital Instruments Dimension 3100 AFM. The resulting AFM height map is shown in Fig. 3(b), after applying the same flattening method as that used for the CDI reconstruction. The AFM measurement shows an average height for the titanium features of 32.7 nm, which agrees exactly with the ptychography result within error bars.

 

Fig. 3. Height profile comparison between CDI and AFM. (a) 3D profile of the object based on ptychographic reconstruction and (b) 3D profile of the object based on an AFM measurement. Any features taller than 40 nm were thresholded to 40 nm for the 3D rendering. (c) Histograms of the height profiles shown in (a) and (b). The histograms were used to calculate the average feature thickness of 32.7 nm based on the both the CDI and AFM measurements. The scale axis shown in (a) is shared by both (a) and (b). Note that the large debris spot on the right of the AFM image was introduced after the CDI image was taken.

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Many small pieces of debris are visible in the AFM image shown in Fig. 3(b), with heights above that of the patterned titanium. None of the EUV work was done in a cleanroom environment. The reason these are not visible in the CDI height map [Fig. 3(a)] is that the 3D information relies on the phase difference of light reflecting from the substrate versus the features (at 45°) and not on the absolute height difference. While the debris locations are still evident in the CDI reconstruction [Fig. 2(d)], the modulo 2π ambiguity of the phase information combined with the very short wavelength prevents us from extracting the absolute height information of all features. However, a tomographic or multiwavelength approach would enable full 3D reconstructions of all features on a surface [31].

We find that for ptychographic grids of 3×3 and larger with sufficient overlap between adjacent probe positions (60%–70% area overlap [12]), the algorithm converges to a consistent result for the probe provided that the phase curvature of the starting guess differs by no more than 50% of the actual phase curvature. Even this condition is relaxed entirely in the case of isolated objects. To demonstrate this, we performed a separate ptychographic retrieval of the probe by scanning a 5 μm diameter pinhole across the beam near the focus. The probe that is retrieved using this method can be propagated to the sample plane for comparison to the probe found in the course of the sample reconstruction. We found very good agreement between the two probe reconstructions, independent of the accuracy of the starting guess for the probe. More details of this comparison can be found in Supplement 1, Appendix A.

4. CONCLUSIONS

We have demonstrated the first general tabletop full-field reflection-mode CDI microscope, capable of imaging extended nanosurfaces at arbitrary angles in a noncontact, nondestructive manner. This technique is directly scalable to shorter wavelengths and higher spatial and temporal resolution, as well as tomographic imaging of surfaces. By combining reflection-mode CDI with HHG sources in the kilo-electron-volt photon energy region, it will be possible to capture nanoscale surface dynamics with femtosecond temporal and nanometer spatial resolution. Moreover, full characterization of the curved wavefront of the illuminating HHG beam at the sample plane through ptychography opens up the possibility for reflection keyhole CDI [32,33]. This is significant for dynamic studies, since in contrast to ptychography CDI, which requires overlapping diffraction patterns, keyhole CDI needs only one diffraction pattern and therefore requires no scanning of the sample.

FUNDING INFORMATION

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) (DARPA-BAA-12-63); National Science Foundation (NSF) (COSI IGERT, ERC in EUV Science and Technology); National Security Science and Engineering Faculty Fellowship; Semiconductor Research Corporation (SRC) (2013-OJ-2443).

 

See Supplement 1 for supporting content.

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References

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  1. J.  Miao, P.  Charalambous, J.  Kirz, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342–344 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. D.  Seaberg, D. E.  Adams, E. L.  Townsend, D. A.  Raymondson, W. F.  Schlotter, Y.  Liu, C. S.  Menoni, L.  Rong, C.-C.  Chen, J.  Miao, H. C.  Kapteyn, M. M.  Murnane, “Ultrahigh 22  nm resolution coherent diffractive imaging using a desktop 13  nm high harmonic source,” Opt. Express 19, 22470–22479 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  3. H.  Jiang, C.  Song, C.-C.  Chen, R.  Xu, K. S.  Raines, B. P.  Fahimian, C.-H.  Lu, T.-K.  Lee, A.  Nakashima, J.  Urano, T.  Ishikawa, F.  Tamanoi, J.  Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 11234–11239 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  4. J.  Nelson, X.  Huang, J.  Steinbrener, D.  Shapiro, J.  Kirz, S.  Marchesini, A. M.  Neiman, J. J.  Turner, C.  Jacobsen, “High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 7235–7239 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. N.  Clark, L.  Beitra, G.  Xiong, A.  Higginbotham, D. M.  Fritz, H. T.  Lemke, D.  Zhu, M.  Chollet, G. J.  Williams, M.  Messerschmidt, B.  Abbey, R. J.  Harder, A. M.  Korsunsky, J. S.  Wark, I. K.  Robinson, “Ultrafast three-dimensional imaging of lattice dynamics in individual gold nanocrystals,” Science 341, 56–59 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. J.  Turner, X.  Huang, O.  Krupin, K. A.  Seu, D.  Parks, S.  Kevan, E.  Lima, K.  Kisslinger, I.  McNulty, R.  Gambino, S.  Mangin, S.  Roy, P.  Fischer, “X-ray diffraction microscopy of magnetic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 033904 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  7. R.  Xu, H.  Jiang, C.  Song, J. A.  Rodriguez, Z.  Huang, C.-C.  Chen, D.  Nam, J.  Park, M.  Gallagher-Jones, S.  Kim, S.  Kim, A.  Suzuki, Y.  Takayama, T.  Oroguchi, Y.  Takahashi, J.  Fan, Y.  Zou, T.  Hatsui, Y.  Inubushi, T.  Kameshima, K.  Yonekura, K.  Tono, T.  Togashi, T.  Sato, M.  Yamamoto, M.  Nakasako, M.  Yabashi, T.  Ishikawa, J.  Miao, “Single-shot 3D structure determination of nanocrystals with femtosecond x-ray free electron laser pulses,” arXiv:1310.8594 (2013).
  8. T.  Harada, M.  Nakasuji, Y.  Nagata, T.  Watanabe, H.  Kinoshita, “Phase imaging of extreme-ultraviolet mask using coherent extreme-ultraviolet scatterometry microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52, 06GB02 (2013).
    [Crossref]
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  10. M.  Zürch, C.  Kern, C.  Spielmann, “XUV coherent diffraction imaging in reflection geometry with low numerical aperture,” Opt. Express 21, 21131–21147 (2013).
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  16. D.  Claus, D. J.  Robinson, D. G.  Chetwynd, Y.  Shuo, W. T.  Pike, J. J.  De, J. T.  Garcia, J. M.  Rodenburg, “Dual wavelength optical metrology using ptychography,” J. Opt. 15, 035702 (2013).
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  17. F.  Zhang, I.  Peterson, J.  Vila-comamala, A.  Diaz, R.  Bean, B.  Chen, A.  Menzel, I. K.  Robinson, J. M.  Rodenburg, “Translation position determination in ptychographic coherent diffraction imaging,” Opt. Express 21, 13592–13606 (2013).
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  23. R. A.  Bartels, A.  Paul, H.  Green, H. C.  Kapteyn, M. M.  Murnane, S.  Backus, I. P.  Christov, Y.  Liu, D.  Attwood, C.  Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297, 376–378 (2002).
  24. P.  Thibault, M.  Dierolf, O.  Bunk, A.  Menzel, F.  Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  25. A. M.  Maiden, M. J.  Humphry, F.  Zhang, J. M.  Rodenburg, “Superresolution imaging via ptychography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 604–612 (2011).
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    [Crossref]
  28. T.  Ohtsuka, M.  Masuda, N.  Sato, “Ellipsometric study of anodic oxide films on titanium in hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, and phosphate solution,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 132, 787–792 (1985).
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  29. M.  Advincula, X.  Fan, J.  Lemons, R.  Advincula, “Surface modification of surface sol-gel derived titanium oxide films by self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and non-specific protein adsorption studies,” Colloids Surf. B: Biointerfaces 42, 29–43 (2005).
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  33. B.  Zhang, M. D.  Seaberg, D. E.  Adams, D. F.  Gardner, E. R.  Shanblatt, J. M.  Shaw, W.  Chao, E. M.  Gullikson, F.  Salmassi, H. C.  Kapteyn, M. M.  Murnane, “Full field tabletop EUV coherent diffractive imaging in a transmission geometry,” Opt. Express 21, 21970–21980 (2013).
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2014 (1)

D. J.  Batey, D.  Claus, J. M.  Rodenburg, “Information multiplexing in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 138, 13–21 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (7)

B.  Zhang, M. D.  Seaberg, D. E.  Adams, D. F.  Gardner, E. R.  Shanblatt, J. M.  Shaw, W.  Chao, E. M.  Gullikson, F.  Salmassi, H. C.  Kapteyn, M. M.  Murnane, “Full field tabletop EUV coherent diffractive imaging in a transmission geometry,” Opt. Express 21, 21970–21980 (2013).
[Crossref]

S.  Mathias, C.  La-o-vorakiat, J. M.  Shaw, E.  Turgut, P.  Grychtol, R.  Adam, D.  Rudolf, H. T.  Nembach, T. J.  Silva, M.  Aeschlimann, C. M.  Schneider, H. C.  Kapteyn, M. M.  Murnane, “Ultrafast element-specific magnetization dynamics of complex magnetic materials on a table-top,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 189, 164–170 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. N.  Clark, L.  Beitra, G.  Xiong, A.  Higginbotham, D. M.  Fritz, H. T.  Lemke, D.  Zhu, M.  Chollet, G. J.  Williams, M.  Messerschmidt, B.  Abbey, R. J.  Harder, A. M.  Korsunsky, J. S.  Wark, I. K.  Robinson, “Ultrafast three-dimensional imaging of lattice dynamics in individual gold nanocrystals,” Science 341, 56–59 (2013).
[Crossref]

M.  Zürch, C.  Kern, C.  Spielmann, “XUV coherent diffraction imaging in reflection geometry with low numerical aperture,” Opt. Express 21, 21131–21147 (2013).
[Crossref]

T.  Harada, M.  Nakasuji, Y.  Nagata, T.  Watanabe, H.  Kinoshita, “Phase imaging of extreme-ultraviolet mask using coherent extreme-ultraviolet scatterometry microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52, 06GB02 (2013).
[Crossref]

D.  Claus, D. J.  Robinson, D. G.  Chetwynd, Y.  Shuo, W. T.  Pike, J. J.  De, J. T.  Garcia, J. M.  Rodenburg, “Dual wavelength optical metrology using ptychography,” J. Opt. 15, 035702 (2013).
[Crossref]

F.  Zhang, I.  Peterson, J.  Vila-comamala, A.  Diaz, R.  Bean, B.  Chen, A.  Menzel, I. K.  Robinson, J. M.  Rodenburg, “Translation position determination in ptychographic coherent diffraction imaging,” Opt. Express 21, 13592–13606 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

T.  Popmintchev, M.-C.  Chen, D.  Popmintchev, P.  Arpin, S.  Brown, S.  Alisauskas, G.  Andriukaitis, T.  Balciunas, O. D.  Mücke, A.  Pugzlys, A.  Baltuska, B.  Shim, S. E.  Schrauth, A.  Gaeta, C.  Hernández-Garíca, L.  Plaja, A.  Becker, A.  Jaron-Becker, M. M.  Murnane, H. C.  Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. J.  Humphry, B.  Kraus, A. C.  Hurst, A. M.  Maiden, J. M.  Rodenburg, “Ptychographic electron microscopy using high-angle dark-field scattering for sub-nanometre resolution imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3, 730 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. F.  Gardner, B.  Zhang, M. D.  Seaberg, L. S.  Martin, D. E.  Adams, F.  Salmassi, E.  Gullikson, H.  Kapteyn, M.  Murnane, “High numerical aperture reflection mode coherent diffraction microscopy using off-axis apertured illumination,” Opt. Express 20, 19050–19059 (2012).
[Crossref]

T.  Sun, Z.  Jiang, J.  Strzalka, L.  Ocola, J.  Wang, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray surface scattering imaging near total external reflection,” Nat. Photonics 6, 586–590 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. O.  Hruszkewycz, M. V.  Holt, C. E.  Murray, J.  Bruley, J.  Holt, A.  Tripathi, O. G.  Shpyrko, I.  McNulty, M. J.  Highland, P. H.  Fuoss, “Quantitative nanoscale imaging of lattice distortions in epitaxial semiconductor heterostructures using nanofocused x-ray Bragg projection ptychography,” Nano Lett. 12, 5148–5154 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (6)

P.  Godard, G.  Carbone, M.  Allain, F.  Mastropietro, G.  Chen, L.  Capello, A.  Diaz, T. H.  Metzger, J.  Stangl, V.  Chamard, “Three-dimensional high-resolution quantitative microscopy of extended crystals,” Nat. Commun. 2, 568 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. M.  Maiden, M. J.  Humphry, F.  Zhang, J. M.  Rodenburg, “Superresolution imaging via ptychography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 604–612 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. J.  Turner, X.  Huang, O.  Krupin, K. A.  Seu, D.  Parks, S.  Kevan, E.  Lima, K.  Kisslinger, I.  McNulty, R.  Gambino, S.  Mangin, S.  Roy, P.  Fischer, “X-ray diffraction microscopy of magnetic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 033904 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. D.  Seaberg, D. E.  Adams, E. L.  Townsend, D. A.  Raymondson, W. F.  Schlotter, Y.  Liu, C. S.  Menoni, L.  Rong, C.-C.  Chen, J.  Miao, H. C.  Kapteyn, M. M.  Murnane, “Ultrahigh 22  nm resolution coherent diffractive imaging using a desktop 13  nm high harmonic source,” Opt. Express 19, 22470–22479 (2011).
[Crossref]

S.  Roy, D.  Parks, K. A.  Seu, R.  Su, J. J.  Turner, W.  Chao, E. H.  Anderson, S.  Cabrini, S. D.  Kevan, “Lensless x-ray imaging in reflection geometry,” Nat. Photonics 5, 243–245 (2011).
[Crossref]

D.  Nardi, M.  Travagliati, M. E.  Siemens, Q.  Li, M. M.  Murnane, H. C.  Kapteyn, G.  Ferrini, F.  Parmigiani, F.  Banfi, “Probing thermomechanics at the nanoscale: impulsively excited pseudosurface acoustic waves in hypersonic phononic crystals,” Nano Lett. 11, 4126–4133 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

H.  Jiang, C.  Song, C.-C.  Chen, R.  Xu, K. S.  Raines, B. P.  Fahimian, C.-H.  Lu, T.-K.  Lee, A.  Nakashima, J.  Urano, T.  Ishikawa, F.  Tamanoi, J.  Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 11234–11239 (2010).
[Crossref]

J.  Nelson, X.  Huang, J.  Steinbrener, D.  Shapiro, J.  Kirz, S.  Marchesini, A. M.  Neiman, J. J.  Turner, C.  Jacobsen, “High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 7235–7239 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

A. M.  Maiden, J. M.  Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 1256–1262 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. J.  Vine, G. J.  Williams, B.  Abbey, M. A.  Pfeifer, J. N.  Clark, M. D.  de Jonge, I.  McNulty, A. G.  Peele, K. A.  Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 063823 (2009).
[Crossref]

P.  Thibault, M.  Dierolf, O.  Bunk, A.  Menzel, F.  Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

B.  Abbey, K. A.  Nugent, G. J.  Williams, J. N.  Clark, A. G.  Peele, M. A.  Pfeifer, M.  de Jonge, I.  McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys. 4, 394–398 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M.  Advincula, X.  Fan, J.  Lemons, R.  Advincula, “Surface modification of surface sol-gel derived titanium oxide films by self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and non-specific protein adsorption studies,” Colloids Surf. B: Biointerfaces 42, 29–43 (2005).

2002 (1)

R. A.  Bartels, A.  Paul, H.  Green, H. C.  Kapteyn, M. M.  Murnane, S.  Backus, I. P.  Christov, Y.  Liu, D.  Attwood, C.  Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297, 376–378 (2002).

1999 (1)

J.  Miao, P.  Charalambous, J.  Kirz, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342–344 (1999).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

B. L.  Henke, E. M.  Gullikson, J. C.  Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000  eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

T.  Ohtsuka, M.  Masuda, N.  Sato, “Ellipsometric study of anodic oxide films on titanium in hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, and phosphate solution,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 132, 787–792 (1985).
[Crossref]

Abbey, B.

J. N.  Clark, L.  Beitra, G.  Xiong, A.  Higginbotham, D. M.  Fritz, H. T.  Lemke, D.  Zhu, M.  Chollet, G. J.  Williams, M.  Messerschmidt, B.  Abbey, R. J.  Harder, A. M.  Korsunsky, J. S.  Wark, I. K.  Robinson, “Ultrafast three-dimensional imaging of lattice dynamics in individual gold nanocrystals,” Science 341, 56–59 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J.  Vine, G. J.  Williams, B.  Abbey, M. A.  Pfeifer, J. N.  Clark, M. D.  de Jonge, I.  McNulty, A. G.  Peele, K. A.  Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 063823 (2009).
[Crossref]

B.  Abbey, K. A.  Nugent, G. J.  Williams, J. N.  Clark, A. G.  Peele, M. A.  Pfeifer, M.  de Jonge, I.  McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys. 4, 394–398 (2008).
[Crossref]

Adam, R.

S.  Mathias, C.  La-o-vorakiat, J. M.  Shaw, E.  Turgut, P.  Grychtol, R.  Adam, D.  Rudolf, H. T.  Nembach, T. J.  Silva, M.  Aeschlimann, C. M.  Schneider, H. C.  Kapteyn, M. M.  Murnane, “Ultrafast element-specific magnetization dynamics of complex magnetic materials on a table-top,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 189, 164–170 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adams, D. E.

Advincula, M.

M.  Advincula, X.  Fan, J.  Lemons, R.  Advincula, “Surface modification of surface sol-gel derived titanium oxide films by self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and non-specific protein adsorption studies,” Colloids Surf. B: Biointerfaces 42, 29–43 (2005).

Advincula, R.

M.  Advincula, X.  Fan, J.  Lemons, R.  Advincula, “Surface modification of surface sol-gel derived titanium oxide films by self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and non-specific protein adsorption studies,” Colloids Surf. B: Biointerfaces 42, 29–43 (2005).

Aeschlimann, M.

S.  Mathias, C.  La-o-vorakiat, J. M.  Shaw, E.  Turgut, P.  Grychtol, R.  Adam, D.  Rudolf, H. T.  Nembach, T. J.  Silva, M.  Aeschlimann, C. M.  Schneider, H. C.  Kapteyn, M. M.  Murnane, “Ultrafast element-specific magnetization dynamics of complex magnetic materials on a table-top,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 189, 164–170 (2013).
[Crossref]

Alisauskas, S.

T.  Popmintchev, M.-C.  Chen, D.  Popmintchev, P.  Arpin, S.  Brown, S.  Alisauskas, G.  Andriukaitis, T.  Balciunas, O. D.  Mücke, A.  Pugzlys, A.  Baltuska, B.  Shim, S. E.  Schrauth, A.  Gaeta, C.  Hernández-Garíca, L.  Plaja, A.  Becker, A.  Jaron-Becker, M. M.  Murnane, H. C.  Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref]

Allain, M.

P.  Godard, G.  Carbone, M.  Allain, F.  Mastropietro, G.  Chen, L.  Capello, A.  Diaz, T. H.  Metzger, J.  Stangl, V.  Chamard, “Three-dimensional high-resolution quantitative microscopy of extended crystals,” Nat. Commun. 2, 568 (2011).
[Crossref]

Anderson, E. H.

S.  Roy, D.  Parks, K. A.  Seu, R.  Su, J. J.  Turner, W.  Chao, E. H.  Anderson, S.  Cabrini, S. D.  Kevan, “Lensless x-ray imaging in reflection geometry,” Nat. Photonics 5, 243–245 (2011).
[Crossref]

Andriukaitis, G.

T.  Popmintchev, M.-C.  Chen, D.  Popmintchev, P.  Arpin, S.  Brown, S.  Alisauskas, G.  Andriukaitis, T.  Balciunas, O. D.  Mücke, A.  Pugzlys, A.  Baltuska, B.  Shim, S. E.  Schrauth, A.  Gaeta, C.  Hernández-Garíca, L.  Plaja, A.  Becker, A.  Jaron-Becker, M. M.  Murnane, H. C.  Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref]

Arpin, P.

T.  Popmintchev, M.-C.  Chen, D.  Popmintchev, P.  Arpin, S.  Brown, S.  Alisauskas, G.  Andriukaitis, T.  Balciunas, O. D.  Mücke, A.  Pugzlys, A.  Baltuska, B.  Shim, S. E.  Schrauth, A.  Gaeta, C.  Hernández-Garíca, L.  Plaja, A.  Becker, A.  Jaron-Becker, M. M.  Murnane, H. C.  Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref]

Attwood, D.

R. A.  Bartels, A.  Paul, H.  Green, H. C.  Kapteyn, M. M.  Murnane, S.  Backus, I. P.  Christov, Y.  Liu, D.  Attwood, C.  Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297, 376–378 (2002).

Backus, S.

R. A.  Bartels, A.  Paul, H.  Green, H. C.  Kapteyn, M. M.  Murnane, S.  Backus, I. P.  Christov, Y.  Liu, D.  Attwood, C.  Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297, 376–378 (2002).

Balciunas, T.

T.  Popmintchev, M.-C.  Chen, D.  Popmintchev, P.  Arpin, S.  Brown, S.  Alisauskas, G.  Andriukaitis, T.  Balciunas, O. D.  Mücke, A.  Pugzlys, A.  Baltuska, B.  Shim, S. E.  Schrauth, A.  Gaeta, C.  Hernández-Garíca, L.  Plaja, A.  Becker, A.  Jaron-Becker, M. M.  Murnane, H. C.  Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baltuska, A.

T.  Popmintchev, M.-C.  Chen, D.  Popmintchev, P.  Arpin, S.  Brown, S.  Alisauskas, G.  Andriukaitis, T.  Balciunas, O. D.  Mücke, A.  Pugzlys, A.  Baltuska, B.  Shim, S. E.  Schrauth, A.  Gaeta, C.  Hernández-Garíca, L.  Plaja, A.  Becker, A.  Jaron-Becker, M. M.  Murnane, H. C.  Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref]

Banfi, F.

D.  Nardi, M.  Travagliati, M. E.  Siemens, Q.  Li, M. M.  Murnane, H. C.  Kapteyn, G.  Ferrini, F.  Parmigiani, F.  Banfi, “Probing thermomechanics at the nanoscale: impulsively excited pseudosurface acoustic waves in hypersonic phononic crystals,” Nano Lett. 11, 4126–4133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bartels, R. A.

R. A.  Bartels, A.  Paul, H.  Green, H. C.  Kapteyn, M. M.  Murnane, S.  Backus, I. P.  Christov, Y.  Liu, D.  Attwood, C.  Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297, 376–378 (2002).

Batey, D. J.

D. J.  Batey, D.  Claus, J. M.  Rodenburg, “Information multiplexing in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 138, 13–21 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bean, R.

Becker, A.

T.  Popmintchev, M.-C.  Chen, D.  Popmintchev, P.  Arpin, S.  Brown, S.  Alisauskas, G.  Andriukaitis, T.  Balciunas, O. D.  Mücke, A.  Pugzlys, A.  Baltuska, B.  Shim, S. E.  Schrauth, A.  Gaeta, C.  Hernández-Garíca, L.  Plaja, A.  Becker, A.  Jaron-Becker, M. M.  Murnane, H. C.  Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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J.  Nelson, X.  Huang, J.  Steinbrener, D.  Shapiro, J.  Kirz, S.  Marchesini, A. M.  Neiman, J. J.  Turner, C.  Jacobsen, “High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 7235–7239 (2010).
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Jaron-Becker, A.

T.  Popmintchev, M.-C.  Chen, D.  Popmintchev, P.  Arpin, S.  Brown, S.  Alisauskas, G.  Andriukaitis, T.  Balciunas, O. D.  Mücke, A.  Pugzlys, A.  Baltuska, B.  Shim, S. E.  Schrauth, A.  Gaeta, C.  Hernández-Garíca, L.  Plaja, A.  Becker, A.  Jaron-Becker, M. M.  Murnane, H. C.  Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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S.  Mathias, C.  La-o-vorakiat, J. M.  Shaw, E.  Turgut, P.  Grychtol, R.  Adam, D.  Rudolf, H. T.  Nembach, T. J.  Silva, M.  Aeschlimann, C. M.  Schneider, H. C.  Kapteyn, M. M.  Murnane, “Ultrafast element-specific magnetization dynamics of complex magnetic materials on a table-top,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 189, 164–170 (2013).
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T.  Harada, M.  Nakasuji, Y.  Nagata, T.  Watanabe, H.  Kinoshita, “Phase imaging of extreme-ultraviolet mask using coherent extreme-ultraviolet scatterometry microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52, 06GB02 (2013).
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J. J.  Turner, X.  Huang, O.  Krupin, K. A.  Seu, D.  Parks, S.  Kevan, E.  Lima, K.  Kisslinger, I.  McNulty, R.  Gambino, S.  Mangin, S.  Roy, P.  Fischer, “X-ray diffraction microscopy of magnetic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 033904 (2011).
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D.  Nardi, M.  Travagliati, M. E.  Siemens, Q.  Li, M. M.  Murnane, H. C.  Kapteyn, G.  Ferrini, F.  Parmigiani, F.  Banfi, “Probing thermomechanics at the nanoscale: impulsively excited pseudosurface acoustic waves in hypersonic phononic crystals,” Nano Lett. 11, 4126–4133 (2011).
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J. J.  Turner, X.  Huang, O.  Krupin, K. A.  Seu, D.  Parks, S.  Kevan, E.  Lima, K.  Kisslinger, I.  McNulty, R.  Gambino, S.  Mangin, S.  Roy, P.  Fischer, “X-ray diffraction microscopy of magnetic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 033904 (2011).
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M. D.  Seaberg, D. E.  Adams, E. L.  Townsend, D. A.  Raymondson, W. F.  Schlotter, Y.  Liu, C. S.  Menoni, L.  Rong, C.-C.  Chen, J.  Miao, H. C.  Kapteyn, M. M.  Murnane, “Ultrahigh 22  nm resolution coherent diffractive imaging using a desktop 13  nm high harmonic source,” Opt. Express 19, 22470–22479 (2011).
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H.  Jiang, C.  Song, C.-C.  Chen, R.  Xu, K. S.  Raines, B. P.  Fahimian, C.-H.  Lu, T.-K.  Lee, A.  Nakashima, J.  Urano, T.  Ishikawa, F.  Tamanoi, J.  Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 11234–11239 (2010).
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M. J.  Humphry, B.  Kraus, A. C.  Hurst, A. M.  Maiden, J. M.  Rodenburg, “Ptychographic electron microscopy using high-angle dark-field scattering for sub-nanometre resolution imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3, 730 (2012).
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J.  Nelson, X.  Huang, J.  Steinbrener, D.  Shapiro, J.  Kirz, S.  Marchesini, A. M.  Neiman, J. J.  Turner, C.  Jacobsen, “High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 7235–7239 (2010).
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J. J.  Turner, X.  Huang, O.  Krupin, K. A.  Seu, D.  Parks, S.  Kevan, E.  Lima, K.  Kisslinger, I.  McNulty, R.  Gambino, S.  Mangin, S.  Roy, P.  Fischer, “X-ray diffraction microscopy of magnetic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 033904 (2011).
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J. N.  Clark, L.  Beitra, G.  Xiong, A.  Higginbotham, D. M.  Fritz, H. T.  Lemke, D.  Zhu, M.  Chollet, G. J.  Williams, M.  Messerschmidt, B.  Abbey, R. J.  Harder, A. M.  Korsunsky, J. S.  Wark, I. K.  Robinson, “Ultrafast three-dimensional imaging of lattice dynamics in individual gold nanocrystals,” Science 341, 56–59 (2013).
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P.  Godard, G.  Carbone, M.  Allain, F.  Mastropietro, G.  Chen, L.  Capello, A.  Diaz, T. H.  Metzger, J.  Stangl, V.  Chamard, “Three-dimensional high-resolution quantitative microscopy of extended crystals,” Nat. Commun. 2, 568 (2011).
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M. D.  Seaberg, D. E.  Adams, E. L.  Townsend, D. A.  Raymondson, W. F.  Schlotter, Y.  Liu, C. S.  Menoni, L.  Rong, C.-C.  Chen, J.  Miao, H. C.  Kapteyn, M. M.  Murnane, “Ultrahigh 22  nm resolution coherent diffractive imaging using a desktop 13  nm high harmonic source,” Opt. Express 19, 22470–22479 (2011).
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H.  Jiang, C.  Song, C.-C.  Chen, R.  Xu, K. S.  Raines, B. P.  Fahimian, C.-H.  Lu, T.-K.  Lee, A.  Nakashima, J.  Urano, T.  Ishikawa, F.  Tamanoi, J.  Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 11234–11239 (2010).
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J.  Miao, P.  Charalambous, J.  Kirz, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342–344 (1999).
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T.  Popmintchev, M.-C.  Chen, D.  Popmintchev, P.  Arpin, S.  Brown, S.  Alisauskas, G.  Andriukaitis, T.  Balciunas, O. D.  Mücke, A.  Pugzlys, A.  Baltuska, B.  Shim, S. E.  Schrauth, A.  Gaeta, C.  Hernández-Garíca, L.  Plaja, A.  Becker, A.  Jaron-Becker, M. M.  Murnane, H. C.  Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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Murnane, M. M.

S.  Mathias, C.  La-o-vorakiat, J. M.  Shaw, E.  Turgut, P.  Grychtol, R.  Adam, D.  Rudolf, H. T.  Nembach, T. J.  Silva, M.  Aeschlimann, C. M.  Schneider, H. C.  Kapteyn, M. M.  Murnane, “Ultrafast element-specific magnetization dynamics of complex magnetic materials on a table-top,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 189, 164–170 (2013).
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D.  Nardi, M.  Travagliati, M. E.  Siemens, Q.  Li, M. M.  Murnane, H. C.  Kapteyn, G.  Ferrini, F.  Parmigiani, F.  Banfi, “Probing thermomechanics at the nanoscale: impulsively excited pseudosurface acoustic waves in hypersonic phononic crystals,” Nano Lett. 11, 4126–4133 (2011).
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Murray, C. E.

S. O.  Hruszkewycz, M. V.  Holt, C. E.  Murray, J.  Bruley, J.  Holt, A.  Tripathi, O. G.  Shpyrko, I.  McNulty, M. J.  Highland, P. H.  Fuoss, “Quantitative nanoscale imaging of lattice distortions in epitaxial semiconductor heterostructures using nanofocused x-ray Bragg projection ptychography,” Nano Lett. 12, 5148–5154 (2012).
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T.  Harada, M.  Nakasuji, Y.  Nagata, T.  Watanabe, H.  Kinoshita, “Phase imaging of extreme-ultraviolet mask using coherent extreme-ultraviolet scatterometry microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52, 06GB02 (2013).
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R.  Xu, H.  Jiang, C.  Song, J. A.  Rodriguez, Z.  Huang, C.-C.  Chen, D.  Nam, J.  Park, M.  Gallagher-Jones, S.  Kim, S.  Kim, A.  Suzuki, Y.  Takayama, T.  Oroguchi, Y.  Takahashi, J.  Fan, Y.  Zou, T.  Hatsui, Y.  Inubushi, T.  Kameshima, K.  Yonekura, K.  Tono, T.  Togashi, T.  Sato, M.  Yamamoto, M.  Nakasako, M.  Yabashi, T.  Ishikawa, J.  Miao, “Single-shot 3D structure determination of nanocrystals with femtosecond x-ray free electron laser pulses,” arXiv:1310.8594 (2013).

Takahashi, Y.

R.  Xu, H.  Jiang, C.  Song, J. A.  Rodriguez, Z.  Huang, C.-C.  Chen, D.  Nam, J.  Park, M.  Gallagher-Jones, S.  Kim, S.  Kim, A.  Suzuki, Y.  Takayama, T.  Oroguchi, Y.  Takahashi, J.  Fan, Y.  Zou, T.  Hatsui, Y.  Inubushi, T.  Kameshima, K.  Yonekura, K.  Tono, T.  Togashi, T.  Sato, M.  Yamamoto, M.  Nakasako, M.  Yabashi, T.  Ishikawa, J.  Miao, “Single-shot 3D structure determination of nanocrystals with femtosecond x-ray free electron laser pulses,” arXiv:1310.8594 (2013).

Takayama, Y.

R.  Xu, H.  Jiang, C.  Song, J. A.  Rodriguez, Z.  Huang, C.-C.  Chen, D.  Nam, J.  Park, M.  Gallagher-Jones, S.  Kim, S.  Kim, A.  Suzuki, Y.  Takayama, T.  Oroguchi, Y.  Takahashi, J.  Fan, Y.  Zou, T.  Hatsui, Y.  Inubushi, T.  Kameshima, K.  Yonekura, K.  Tono, T.  Togashi, T.  Sato, M.  Yamamoto, M.  Nakasako, M.  Yabashi, T.  Ishikawa, J.  Miao, “Single-shot 3D structure determination of nanocrystals with femtosecond x-ray free electron laser pulses,” arXiv:1310.8594 (2013).

Tamanoi, F.

H.  Jiang, C.  Song, C.-C.  Chen, R.  Xu, K. S.  Raines, B. P.  Fahimian, C.-H.  Lu, T.-K.  Lee, A.  Nakashima, J.  Urano, T.  Ishikawa, F.  Tamanoi, J.  Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 11234–11239 (2010).
[Crossref]

Thibault, P.

P.  Thibault, M.  Dierolf, O.  Bunk, A.  Menzel, F.  Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[Crossref]

Togashi, T.

R.  Xu, H.  Jiang, C.  Song, J. A.  Rodriguez, Z.  Huang, C.-C.  Chen, D.  Nam, J.  Park, M.  Gallagher-Jones, S.  Kim, S.  Kim, A.  Suzuki, Y.  Takayama, T.  Oroguchi, Y.  Takahashi, J.  Fan, Y.  Zou, T.  Hatsui, Y.  Inubushi, T.  Kameshima, K.  Yonekura, K.  Tono, T.  Togashi, T.  Sato, M.  Yamamoto, M.  Nakasako, M.  Yabashi, T.  Ishikawa, J.  Miao, “Single-shot 3D structure determination of nanocrystals with femtosecond x-ray free electron laser pulses,” arXiv:1310.8594 (2013).

Tono, K.

R.  Xu, H.  Jiang, C.  Song, J. A.  Rodriguez, Z.  Huang, C.-C.  Chen, D.  Nam, J.  Park, M.  Gallagher-Jones, S.  Kim, S.  Kim, A.  Suzuki, Y.  Takayama, T.  Oroguchi, Y.  Takahashi, J.  Fan, Y.  Zou, T.  Hatsui, Y.  Inubushi, T.  Kameshima, K.  Yonekura, K.  Tono, T.  Togashi, T.  Sato, M.  Yamamoto, M.  Nakasako, M.  Yabashi, T.  Ishikawa, J.  Miao, “Single-shot 3D structure determination of nanocrystals with femtosecond x-ray free electron laser pulses,” arXiv:1310.8594 (2013).

Townsend, E. L.

Travagliati, M.

D.  Nardi, M.  Travagliati, M. E.  Siemens, Q.  Li, M. M.  Murnane, H. C.  Kapteyn, G.  Ferrini, F.  Parmigiani, F.  Banfi, “Probing thermomechanics at the nanoscale: impulsively excited pseudosurface acoustic waves in hypersonic phononic crystals,” Nano Lett. 11, 4126–4133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tripathi, A.

S. O.  Hruszkewycz, M. V.  Holt, C. E.  Murray, J.  Bruley, J.  Holt, A.  Tripathi, O. G.  Shpyrko, I.  McNulty, M. J.  Highland, P. H.  Fuoss, “Quantitative nanoscale imaging of lattice distortions in epitaxial semiconductor heterostructures using nanofocused x-ray Bragg projection ptychography,” Nano Lett. 12, 5148–5154 (2012).
[Crossref]

Turgut, E.

S.  Mathias, C.  La-o-vorakiat, J. M.  Shaw, E.  Turgut, P.  Grychtol, R.  Adam, D.  Rudolf, H. T.  Nembach, T. J.  Silva, M.  Aeschlimann, C. M.  Schneider, H. C.  Kapteyn, M. M.  Murnane, “Ultrafast element-specific magnetization dynamics of complex magnetic materials on a table-top,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 189, 164–170 (2013).
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Turner, J. J.

J. J.  Turner, X.  Huang, O.  Krupin, K. A.  Seu, D.  Parks, S.  Kevan, E.  Lima, K.  Kisslinger, I.  McNulty, R.  Gambino, S.  Mangin, S.  Roy, P.  Fischer, “X-ray diffraction microscopy of magnetic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 033904 (2011).
[Crossref]

S.  Roy, D.  Parks, K. A.  Seu, R.  Su, J. J.  Turner, W.  Chao, E. H.  Anderson, S.  Cabrini, S. D.  Kevan, “Lensless x-ray imaging in reflection geometry,” Nat. Photonics 5, 243–245 (2011).
[Crossref]

J.  Nelson, X.  Huang, J.  Steinbrener, D.  Shapiro, J.  Kirz, S.  Marchesini, A. M.  Neiman, J. J.  Turner, C.  Jacobsen, “High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 7235–7239 (2010).
[Crossref]

Urano, J.

H.  Jiang, C.  Song, C.-C.  Chen, R.  Xu, K. S.  Raines, B. P.  Fahimian, C.-H.  Lu, T.-K.  Lee, A.  Nakashima, J.  Urano, T.  Ishikawa, F.  Tamanoi, J.  Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 11234–11239 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vila-comamala, J.

Vine, D. J.

D. J.  Vine, G. J.  Williams, B.  Abbey, M. A.  Pfeifer, J. N.  Clark, M. D.  de Jonge, I.  McNulty, A. G.  Peele, K. A.  Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 063823 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

T.  Sun, Z.  Jiang, J.  Strzalka, L.  Ocola, J.  Wang, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray surface scattering imaging near total external reflection,” Nat. Photonics 6, 586–590 (2012).
[Crossref]

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J. N.  Clark, L.  Beitra, G.  Xiong, A.  Higginbotham, D. M.  Fritz, H. T.  Lemke, D.  Zhu, M.  Chollet, G. J.  Williams, M.  Messerschmidt, B.  Abbey, R. J.  Harder, A. M.  Korsunsky, J. S.  Wark, I. K.  Robinson, “Ultrafast three-dimensional imaging of lattice dynamics in individual gold nanocrystals,” Science 341, 56–59 (2013).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, T.

T.  Harada, M.  Nakasuji, Y.  Nagata, T.  Watanabe, H.  Kinoshita, “Phase imaging of extreme-ultraviolet mask using coherent extreme-ultraviolet scatterometry microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52, 06GB02 (2013).
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J. N.  Clark, L.  Beitra, G.  Xiong, A.  Higginbotham, D. M.  Fritz, H. T.  Lemke, D.  Zhu, M.  Chollet, G. J.  Williams, M.  Messerschmidt, B.  Abbey, R. J.  Harder, A. M.  Korsunsky, J. S.  Wark, I. K.  Robinson, “Ultrafast three-dimensional imaging of lattice dynamics in individual gold nanocrystals,” Science 341, 56–59 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J.  Vine, G. J.  Williams, B.  Abbey, M. A.  Pfeifer, J. N.  Clark, M. D.  de Jonge, I.  McNulty, A. G.  Peele, K. A.  Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 063823 (2009).
[Crossref]

B.  Abbey, K. A.  Nugent, G. J.  Williams, J. N.  Clark, A. G.  Peele, M. A.  Pfeifer, M.  de Jonge, I.  McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys. 4, 394–398 (2008).
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Wolf, E.

M.  Born, E.  Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1999).

Xiong, G.

J. N.  Clark, L.  Beitra, G.  Xiong, A.  Higginbotham, D. M.  Fritz, H. T.  Lemke, D.  Zhu, M.  Chollet, G. J.  Williams, M.  Messerschmidt, B.  Abbey, R. J.  Harder, A. M.  Korsunsky, J. S.  Wark, I. K.  Robinson, “Ultrafast three-dimensional imaging of lattice dynamics in individual gold nanocrystals,” Science 341, 56–59 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, R.

H.  Jiang, C.  Song, C.-C.  Chen, R.  Xu, K. S.  Raines, B. P.  Fahimian, C.-H.  Lu, T.-K.  Lee, A.  Nakashima, J.  Urano, T.  Ishikawa, F.  Tamanoi, J.  Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 11234–11239 (2010).
[Crossref]

R.  Xu, H.  Jiang, C.  Song, J. A.  Rodriguez, Z.  Huang, C.-C.  Chen, D.  Nam, J.  Park, M.  Gallagher-Jones, S.  Kim, S.  Kim, A.  Suzuki, Y.  Takayama, T.  Oroguchi, Y.  Takahashi, J.  Fan, Y.  Zou, T.  Hatsui, Y.  Inubushi, T.  Kameshima, K.  Yonekura, K.  Tono, T.  Togashi, T.  Sato, M.  Yamamoto, M.  Nakasako, M.  Yabashi, T.  Ishikawa, J.  Miao, “Single-shot 3D structure determination of nanocrystals with femtosecond x-ray free electron laser pulses,” arXiv:1310.8594 (2013).

Yabashi, M.

R.  Xu, H.  Jiang, C.  Song, J. A.  Rodriguez, Z.  Huang, C.-C.  Chen, D.  Nam, J.  Park, M.  Gallagher-Jones, S.  Kim, S.  Kim, A.  Suzuki, Y.  Takayama, T.  Oroguchi, Y.  Takahashi, J.  Fan, Y.  Zou, T.  Hatsui, Y.  Inubushi, T.  Kameshima, K.  Yonekura, K.  Tono, T.  Togashi, T.  Sato, M.  Yamamoto, M.  Nakasako, M.  Yabashi, T.  Ishikawa, J.  Miao, “Single-shot 3D structure determination of nanocrystals with femtosecond x-ray free electron laser pulses,” arXiv:1310.8594 (2013).

Yamamoto, M.

R.  Xu, H.  Jiang, C.  Song, J. A.  Rodriguez, Z.  Huang, C.-C.  Chen, D.  Nam, J.  Park, M.  Gallagher-Jones, S.  Kim, S.  Kim, A.  Suzuki, Y.  Takayama, T.  Oroguchi, Y.  Takahashi, J.  Fan, Y.  Zou, T.  Hatsui, Y.  Inubushi, T.  Kameshima, K.  Yonekura, K.  Tono, T.  Togashi, T.  Sato, M.  Yamamoto, M.  Nakasako, M.  Yabashi, T.  Ishikawa, J.  Miao, “Single-shot 3D structure determination of nanocrystals with femtosecond x-ray free electron laser pulses,” arXiv:1310.8594 (2013).

Yonekura, K.

R.  Xu, H.  Jiang, C.  Song, J. A.  Rodriguez, Z.  Huang, C.-C.  Chen, D.  Nam, J.  Park, M.  Gallagher-Jones, S.  Kim, S.  Kim, A.  Suzuki, Y.  Takayama, T.  Oroguchi, Y.  Takahashi, J.  Fan, Y.  Zou, T.  Hatsui, Y.  Inubushi, T.  Kameshima, K.  Yonekura, K.  Tono, T.  Togashi, T.  Sato, M.  Yamamoto, M.  Nakasako, M.  Yabashi, T.  Ishikawa, J.  Miao, “Single-shot 3D structure determination of nanocrystals with femtosecond x-ray free electron laser pulses,” arXiv:1310.8594 (2013).

Zhang, B.

Zhang, F.

Zhu, D.

J. N.  Clark, L.  Beitra, G.  Xiong, A.  Higginbotham, D. M.  Fritz, H. T.  Lemke, D.  Zhu, M.  Chollet, G. J.  Williams, M.  Messerschmidt, B.  Abbey, R. J.  Harder, A. M.  Korsunsky, J. S.  Wark, I. K.  Robinson, “Ultrafast three-dimensional imaging of lattice dynamics in individual gold nanocrystals,” Science 341, 56–59 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zou, Y.

R.  Xu, H.  Jiang, C.  Song, J. A.  Rodriguez, Z.  Huang, C.-C.  Chen, D.  Nam, J.  Park, M.  Gallagher-Jones, S.  Kim, S.  Kim, A.  Suzuki, Y.  Takayama, T.  Oroguchi, Y.  Takahashi, J.  Fan, Y.  Zou, T.  Hatsui, Y.  Inubushi, T.  Kameshima, K.  Yonekura, K.  Tono, T.  Togashi, T.  Sato, M.  Yamamoto, M.  Nakasako, M.  Yabashi, T.  Ishikawa, J.  Miao, “Single-shot 3D structure determination of nanocrystals with femtosecond x-ray free electron laser pulses,” arXiv:1310.8594 (2013).

Zürch, M.

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D.  Nardi, M.  Travagliati, M. E.  Siemens, Q.  Li, M. M.  Murnane, H. C.  Kapteyn, G.  Ferrini, F.  Parmigiani, F.  Banfi, “Probing thermomechanics at the nanoscale: impulsively excited pseudosurface acoustic waves in hypersonic phononic crystals,” Nano Lett. 11, 4126–4133 (2011).
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S. O.  Hruszkewycz, M. V.  Holt, C. E.  Murray, J.  Bruley, J.  Holt, A.  Tripathi, O. G.  Shpyrko, I.  McNulty, M. J.  Highland, P. H.  Fuoss, “Quantitative nanoscale imaging of lattice distortions in epitaxial semiconductor heterostructures using nanofocused x-ray Bragg projection ptychography,” Nano Lett. 12, 5148–5154 (2012).
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T.  Sun, Z.  Jiang, J.  Strzalka, L.  Ocola, J.  Wang, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray surface scattering imaging near total external reflection,” Nat. Photonics 6, 586–590 (2012).
[Crossref]

S.  Roy, D.  Parks, K. A.  Seu, R.  Su, J. J.  Turner, W.  Chao, E. H.  Anderson, S.  Cabrini, S. D.  Kevan, “Lensless x-ray imaging in reflection geometry,” Nat. Photonics 5, 243–245 (2011).
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B.  Abbey, K. A.  Nugent, G. J.  Williams, J. N.  Clark, A. G.  Peele, M. A.  Pfeifer, M.  de Jonge, I.  McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys. 4, 394–398 (2008).
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D. J.  Vine, G. J.  Williams, B.  Abbey, M. A.  Pfeifer, J. N.  Clark, M. D.  de Jonge, I.  McNulty, A. G.  Peele, K. A.  Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 063823 (2009).
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J. J.  Turner, X.  Huang, O.  Krupin, K. A.  Seu, D.  Parks, S.  Kevan, E.  Lima, K.  Kisslinger, I.  McNulty, R.  Gambino, S.  Mangin, S.  Roy, P.  Fischer, “X-ray diffraction microscopy of magnetic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 033904 (2011).
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J.  Nelson, X.  Huang, J.  Steinbrener, D.  Shapiro, J.  Kirz, S.  Marchesini, A. M.  Neiman, J. J.  Turner, C.  Jacobsen, “High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 7235–7239 (2010).
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Science (3)

J. N.  Clark, L.  Beitra, G.  Xiong, A.  Higginbotham, D. M.  Fritz, H. T.  Lemke, D.  Zhu, M.  Chollet, G. J.  Williams, M.  Messerschmidt, B.  Abbey, R. J.  Harder, A. M.  Korsunsky, J. S.  Wark, I. K.  Robinson, “Ultrafast three-dimensional imaging of lattice dynamics in individual gold nanocrystals,” Science 341, 56–59 (2013).
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P.  Thibault, M.  Dierolf, O.  Bunk, A.  Menzel, F.  Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Experimental setup for reflection-mode Fresnel ptychography. The EUV beam propagates through an adjustable 1 mm aperture; a single harmonic is selected using a pair of multilayer mirrors centered at 29.5 nm and focused onto the sample. The scattered light is collected on a CCD detector placed directly after the sample. The inset shows a height profile reconstructed through ptychography.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Diffraction data and ptychographic reconstruction. (a) Representative diffraction pattern, scaled to the 1 / 4 power, taken from the 90-scan dataset. (b) SEM image of the Ti-patterned Si sample. Note that the large defect circled in the SEM image resulted from contamination after the ptychography measurement. (c) Reconstructed amplitude (thresholded at 5%) of the HHG beam. The inset shows the reconstructed phase (displayed modulo- 2 π ). (d) Ptychographic reconstruction of the object shown in part (b). The reconstruction is plotted as the complex amplitude, where brightness represents reflected amplitude and hue represents the phase of the reconstruction. Note that the majority of defects seen in the SEM image of the Ti nanostructures are reproduced in the ptychographic reconstruction. The scale bar in (b) is shared among (b)–(d).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Height profile comparison between CDI and AFM. (a) 3D profile of the object based on ptychographic reconstruction and (b) 3D profile of the object based on an AFM measurement. Any features taller than 40 nm were thresholded to 40 nm for the 3D rendering. (c) Histograms of the height profiles shown in (a) and (b). The histograms were used to calculate the average feature thickness of 32.7 nm based on the both the CDI and AFM measurements. The scale axis shown in (a) is shared by both (a) and (b). Note that the large debris spot on the right of the AFM image was introduced after the CDI image was taken.

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