Abstract

Advances in artificial intelligence have greatly increased demand for data-intensive computing. Integrated photonics is a promising approach to meet this demand in big-data processing due to its potential for wide bandwidth, high speed, low latency, and low-energy computing. Photonic computing using phase-change materials combines the benefits of integrated photonics and co-located data storage, which of late has evolved rapidly as an emerging area of interest. In spite of rapid advances of demonstrations in this field on both silicon and silicon nitride platforms, a clear pathway towards choosing between the two has been lacking. In this paper, we systematically evaluate and compare computation performance of phase-change photonics on a silicon platform and a silicon nitride platform. Our experimental results show that while silicon platforms are superior to silicon nitride in terms of potential for integration, modulation speed, and device footprint, they require trade-offs in terms of energy efficiency. We then successfully demonstrate single-pulse modulation using phase-change optical memory on silicon photonic waveguides and demonstrate efficient programming, memory retention, and readout of $ \gt {4}$ bits of data per cell. Our approach paves the way for in-memory computing on the silicon photonic platform.

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References

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2019 (15)

T. J. Seok, K. Kwon, J. Henriksson, J. Luo, and M. C. Wu, “Wafer-scale silicon photonic switches beyond die size limit,” Optica 6, 490–494 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Chrostowski, H. Shoman, M. Hammood, H. Yun, J. Jhoja, E. Luan, S. Lin, A. Mistry, D. Witt, N. A. F. Jaeger, S. Shekhar, H. Jayatilleka, P. Jean, S. Belanger-de Villers, J. Cauchon, W. Shi, C. Horvath, J. Bachman, K. Setzer, M. Aktary, S. Patrick, R. Bojko, X. Wang, T. F. de Lima, A. Tait, P. Prucnal, D. Hagan, D. Stevanovic, and A. Knights, “Silicon photonic circuit design using rapid prototyping foundry process design kits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25, 8201326 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, L. Zhou, J. Xu, N. Wang, H. Hu, L. Lu, B. M. A. Rahman, and J. Chen, “Nonvolatile waveguide transmission tuning with electrically-driven ultra-small GST phase-change material,” Sci. Bull. 64(11), 782–789 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. N. Tait, T. F. de Lima, M. A. Nahmias, H. B. Miller, H.-T. Peng, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “Silicon photonic modulator neuron,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11, 064043 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, W. Chen, T. Dai, and P. Wang, “Nonvolatile integrated optical phase shifter with flash memory technology,” Appl. Phys. Express 12, 102005 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Youngblood, C. Ríos, E. Gemo, J. Feldmann, Z. Cheng, A. Baldycheva, W. H. Pernice, C. D. Wright, and H. Bhaskaran, “Tunable volatility of Ge2Sb2Te5 in integrated photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 29, 1807571 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Li, N. Youngblood, C. Ríos, Z. Cheng, C. D. Wright, W. H. Pernice, and H. Bhaskaran, “Fast and reliable storage using a 5  bit, nonvolatile photonic memory cell,” Optica 6, 1–6 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Zheng, A. Khanolkar, P. Xu, S. Colburn, S. Deshmukh, J. Myers, J. Frantz, E. Pop, J. Hendrickson, J. Doylend, N. Boechler, and A. Majumdar, “Non-volatile quasi-continuously programmable silicon photonics using phase-change materials (conference presentation),” Proc. SPIE 10923, 109230U (2019).
[Crossref]

P. Xu, J. Zheng, J. K. Doylend, and A. Majumdar, “Low-loss and broadband nonvolatile phase-change directional coupler switches,” ACS Photon. 6, 553–557 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Feldmann, N. Youngblood, C. D. Wright, H. Bhaskaran, and W. H. P. Pernice, “All-optical spiking neurosynaptic networks with self-learning capabilities,” Nature 569, 208–214 (2019).
[Crossref]

E. Yalon, I. M. Datye, J. S. Moon, K. A. Son, K. Lee, and E. Pop, “Energy-efficient indirectly heated phase change RF switch,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 40, 455–458 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, L. Zhou, L. Lu, J. Xu, N. Wang, H. Hu, B. M. A. Rahman, Z. Zhou, and J. Chen, “Miniature multilevel optical memristive switch using phase change material,” ACS Photon. 6, 2205–2212 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Ríos, N. Youngblood, Z. Cheng, M. Le Gallo, W. H. P. Pernice, C. D. Wright, A. Sebastian, and H. Bhaskaran, “In-memory computing on a photonic platform,” Sci. Adv. 5, eaau5759 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Farmakidis, N. Youngblood, X. Li, J. Tan, J. L. Swett, Z. Cheng, C. D. Wright, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. Bhaskaran, “Plasmonic nanogap enhanced phase-change devices with dual electrical-optical functionality,” Sci. Adv. 5, eaaw2687 (2019).
[Crossref]

Q. Wilmart, H. El Dirani, N. Tyler, D. Fowler, S. Malhouitre, S. Garcia, M. Casale, S. Kerdiles, K. Hassan, C. Monat, X. Letartre, A. Kamel, M. Pu, K. Yvind, L. Oxenløwe, W. Rabaud, C. Sciancalepore, B. Szelag, and S. Olivier, “A versatile silicon-silicon nitride photonics platform for enhanced functionalities and applications,” Appl. Sci. 9, 255 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (15)

C. Rios, M. Stegmaier, Z. Cheng, N. Youngblood, C. D. Wright, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. Bhaskaran, “Controlled switching of phase-change materials by evanescent-field coupling in integrated photonics [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 8, 2455–2470 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Zheng, A. Khanolkar, P. Xu, S. Colburn, S. Deshmukh, J. Myers, J. Frantz, E. Pop, J. Hendrickson, J. Doylend, N. Boechler, and A. Majumdar, “GST-on-silicon hybrid nanophotonic integrated circuits: a non-volatile quasi-continuously reprogrammable platform,” Opt. Mater. Express 8, 1551–1561 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Cheng, C. Ríos, N. Youngblood, C. D. Wright, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. Bhaskaran, “Device-level photonic memories and logic applications using phase-change materials,” Adv. Mater. 30, 1802435 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, S. Paesani, Y. Ding, R. Santagati, P. Skrzypczyk, A. Salavrakos, J. Tura, R. Augusiak, L. Mančinska, D. Bacco, D. Bonneau, J. W. Silverstone, Q. Gong, A. Acín, K. Rottwitt, L. K. Oxenløwe, J. L. O’Brien, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Multidimensional quantum entanglement with large-scale integrated optics,” Science 360, 285–291 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Wen, Y. Meng, M. Jiang, and Y. Wang, “Multi-level coding-recoding by ultrafast phase transition on Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films,” Sci. Rep. 8, 4979 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Von Keitz, J. Feldmann, N. Gruhler, C. Ríos, D. Wright, H. Bhaskaran, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Reconfigurable nanophotonic cavities with nonvolatile response,” ACS Photon. 5, 4644–4649 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Klein, G. Masri, H. Duadi, K. Sulimany, O. Lib, H. Steinberg, S. A. Kolpakov, and M. Fridman, “Ultrafast rogue wave patterns in fiber lasers,” Optica 5, 774–778 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562, 101–104 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. W. Jia, K. H. Tan, W. K. Loke, S. Wicaksono, and S. F. Yoon, “Integration of an InSb photodetector on Si via heteroepitaxy for the mid-infrared wavelength region,” Opt. Express 26, 7227–7234 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Zheng, H. Zhao, B. Cerjan, S. Yazdi, E. Ringe, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “A room-temperature mid-infrared photodetector for on-chip molecular vibrational spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 101105 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. S. Magden, N. Li, M. Raval, C. V. Poulton, A. Ruocco, N. Singh, D. Vermeulen, E. P. Ippen, L. A. Kolodziejski, and M. R. Watts, “Transmissive silicon photonic dichroic filters with spectrally selective waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 9, 3009 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. J. Winzer, D. T. Neilson, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Fiber-optic transmission and networking: the previous 20 and the next 20 years [Invited],” Opt. Express 26, 24190–24239 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Xiao, Z. Liu, X. U. Han, J. Yang, G. Ren, A. Mitchell, and Y. Tian, “On-chip reconfigurable and scalable optical mode multiplexer/demultiplexer based on three-waveguide-coupling structure,” Optics Express 26, 22366–22377 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Feng, J. Wang, R. Zhou, Q. Sun, H. Gao, Y. Zhou, J. Liu, Y. Huang, S. Zhang, M. Ikeda, H. Wang, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, and H. Yang, “On-chip integration of GaN-based laser, modulator, and photodetector grown on Si,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 8200305 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Salamin, P. Ma, B. Baeuerle, A. Emboras, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Cheng, A. Josten, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz plasmonic photodetector,” ACS Photon. 5, 3291–3297 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (6)

K. Wu, C. Guo, H. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “All-optical phase shifter and switch near 1550nm using tungsten disulfide (WS_2) deposited tapered fiber,” Opt. Express 25, 17639–17649 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Rodriguez-Hernandez, P. Hosseini, C. Ríos, C. D. Wright, and H. Bhaskaran, “Mixed-mode electro-optical operation of Ge2Sb2Te5 nanoscale crossbar devices,” Adv. Electron. Mater. 3, 1700079 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Feldmann, M. Stegmaier, N. Gruhler, C. Riós, H. Bhaskaran, C. D. Wright, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Calculating with light using a chip-scale all-optical abacus,” Nat. Commun. 8, 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Stegmaier, C. Ríos, H. Bhaskaran, C. D. Wright, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Nonvolatile all-optical 1 × 2 switch for chipscale photonic networks,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1600346 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Cheng, C. Ríos, W. H. P. Pernice, C. D. Wright, and H. Bhaskaran, “On-chip photonic synapse,” Sci. Adv. 3, 1–7 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Muñoz, G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Pérez, J. D. Doménech, J. Fernández, R. Baños, B. Gargallo, R. Alemany, A. M. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, R. Mas, and C. Domínguez, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared applications,” Sensors 17, 2088 (2017).
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2014 (1)

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2013 (2)

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2012 (2)

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2010 (2)

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2002 (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Refractive indices of Si, ${{\rm Si}_3}{{\rm N}_4}$, and GST in their amorphous and crystalline states. (a) Real and (b) imaginary parts of refractive indices measured by ellipsometry.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Device design. (a) 3D overview and (b) cross-sectional view of an Si waveguide phase-change computing cell; (c) optical image of a GST photonic device. The material inside red dashed square is GST. (d) Normalized transmission spectrum of a typical photonic device without GST, with as-deposited amorphous GST, and with annealed crystalline GST.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Simulated eigenmode profiles and propagation profiles of the fundamental TE mode inside Si and SiN waveguides with GST. The 2D mode profile of Si waveguides with (a) amorphous and (b) crystalline GST and their SiN counterparts, (c) and (d). (e) and (f) show simulation results for propagation of the fundamental mode with 4 µm (e) amorphous and (f) crystalline GST on top of the waveguide. (g) and (h) are SiN waveguide comparisons.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Simulation and experimental results of dynamic response during amorphization process. (a) Temperature distribution maps from the top view for 4 µm GST on top of 500 nm Si waveguide and 1.3 µm SiN waveguide with 10 mW 20 ns pulse. A black dot is deposited on the position that has the highest temperature. (b) Simulated temperature changes for pump pulses with increasing amplitude. Fixed 20 ns rectangular pulses with power of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 mW are sent to Si and SiN devices. (c)–(d) are thermo-optical changes taken with a high-speed photodetector with variation of (c) pump amplitude and (d) time width. (e) is dead time (definition from [4]) comparison between amplitude amorphization modulation and time width amorphization modulation methods, and with SiN devices from [4]. (f) is zoomed-in dead time comparison between these two modulation methods on Si waveguides.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Relationship among switching parameters, optical transmitted signal, and energy consumption. Photonic computing unit with 2 µm (length along transmission) functional PCOM and 4 µm functional PCOM are shown with solid line and dashed line separately. (a) shows 3D maps for energy needed and associated transmission changes for 2 and 4 µm devices separately. (b) Relative transmission changes with the increase of time width of pump pulses from 5 to 100 ns as a comparison between 2 and 4 µm devices. (c) Comparison of energy consumption of Si and SiN devices. The length of GST is 4 µm on Si and 5 µm on the SiN device from [48], with pulse widths from 20 to 100 ns. Every data point is averaged from 300 repeated measurements.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Single-pulse recrystallization on Si waveguides. (a) Independent multilevel states with pulse amplitude modulation; (b) programming power for different levels in (a) accordingly; (c) experimental crystallization pulses and (d) device corresponding response signal with double-step crystallization pulses with 25 ns for the first pulse and 300–600 ns for the second pulse time width variation; (e) error bar of relative transmission contrast recrystallization second step time width modulation.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Silicon versus SiN Integrated Photonic Devices Performance Comparisona

Equations (3)

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α = 4 π I m ( n e f f ) λ .
κ s i l i c o n = 148 W m 1 K , κ S i 3 N 4 = 43 W m 1 K .
t d e a d t i m e = t 1 e T final state t T final state .

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