Abstract

High-order harmonic generation (HHG) provides a promising tabletop source of coherent short wavelength radiation. However, the low generation efficiency limits the mean photon flux of HHG sources when driven with low average power, kHz repetition rate lasers. The HHG flux could be increased by employing MHz repetition rate driving lasers. However, the low pulse energy necessitates tight focusing, which limits the effective interaction volume. Generating harmonics in a gas-filled photonic crystal fiber (PCF) mitigates this problem, but for both free focus and PCF targets, the HHG conversion efficiency is optimized at technologically challenging multibar gas pressures. Here, we perform HHG with μJ-level driving pulses in a hollow-core PCF. We observe dramatic 60-fold enhancement of the HHG flux through a time-multiplexed multimodal quasi-phase-matching technique at low gas pressures. We also observe high harmonic photon energies up to 61.6 eV with continuous spectral tunability made possible by controlled ionization-induced blue shifting of the driving laser.

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References

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2017 (5)

2016 (4)

W. Wissdorf, D. Müller, Y. Brachthäuser, M. Langner, V. Derpmann, S. Klopotowski, C. Polaczek, H. Kersten, K. Brockmann, and T. Benter, “Gas flow dynamics in inlet capillaries: evidence for non laminar conditions,” J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 27, 1550–1563 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Yu and J. C. Knight, “Negative curvature hollow-core optical fiber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 4400610 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Brons, V. Pervak, D. Bauer, D. Sutter, O. Pronin, and F. Krausz, “Powerful 100-fs-scale Kerr-lens mode-locked thin-disk oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 41, 3567–3570 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Gaida, M. Gebhardt, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Thulium-doped fiber chirped-pulse amplification system with 2  GW of peak power,” Opt. Lett. 41, 4130–4133 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

J. Rothhardt, M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Absorption-limited and phase-matched high harmonic generation in the tight focusing regime,” New J. Phys. 16, 033022 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, F. Brizuela, J. Schwenke, A. Persson, E. Mansten, R. Rakowski, L. Rading, F. Campi, B. Kim, P. Johnsson, and A. L’Huillier, “A high-flux high-order harmonic source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 073103 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, Z. Lewis, K. O’Keeffe, and S. M. Hooker, “Quasi-phase-matching of high-order-harmonic generation using multimode polarization beating,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 023810 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Jaworski, F. Yu, R. R. J. Maier, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, J. D. Shephard, and D. P. Hand, “Picosecond and nanosecond pulse delivery through a hollow-core negative-curvature fiber for micro machining applications,” Opt. Express 21, 22742–22753 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Yu and J. C. Knight, “Spectral attenuation limits of silica hollow core negative curvature fiber,” Opt. Express 21, 21467–21471 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

2011 (2)

A. Vernaleken, J. Weitenberg, T. Sartorius, P. Russbueldt, W. Schneider, S. L. Stebbings, M. F. Kling, P. Hommelhoff, H.-D. Hoffmann, R. Poprawe, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Single-pass high-harmonic generation at 20.8  MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3428–3430 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. F. Saleh, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, J. C. Travers, N. Y. Joly, P. S. Russell, and F. Biancalana, “Theory of photoionization-induced blueshift of ultrashort solitons in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203902 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Legare, M. Giguere, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073902 (2009).
[Crossref]

O. Heckl, C. Baer, C. Kränkel, S. Marchese, F. Schapper, M. Holler, T. Südmeyer, J. Robinson, J. Tisch, F. Couny, P. Light, F. Benabid, and U. Keller, “High harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 369–373 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

2003 (2)

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft X-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95–98 (2003).
[Crossref]

F. Lindner, W. Stremme, M. G. Schatzel, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Hartmann, and L. Struder, “High-order harmonic generation at a repetition rate of 100  kHz,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 013814 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. Kolesik, J. Moloney, and M. Mlejnek, “Unidirectional optical pulse propagation equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 283902 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187–2190 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187–2190 (1999).
[Crossref]

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, C. Dorrer, C. L. Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1994).
[Crossref]

S. C. Rae and K. Burnett, “Generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in a rapidly ionizing medium,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 3438–3446 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salieres, and P. Balcou, “High-order harmonic-generation cutoff,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R3433 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

S. C. Rae and K. Burnett, “Detailed simulations of plasma-induced spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 1084–1090 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Higher-order harmonic generation in xenon at 1064 nm: The role of phase matching,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2200–2203 (1991).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, “Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2-Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13–15 (1986).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783–1809 (1964).
[Crossref]

Agostini, P.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, C. Dorrer, C. L. Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
[Crossref]

Amezcua-Correa, R.

Antonio-Lopez, J.

Aquila, A.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft X-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95–98 (2003).
[Crossref]

Arnold, C. L.

C. M. Heyl, C. L. Arnold, A. Couairon, and A. L’Huillier, “Introduction to macroscopic power scaling principles for high-order harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 50, 013001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Attwood, D. T.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft X-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95–98 (2003).
[Crossref]

Backus, S.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft X-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95–98 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187–2190 (1999).
[Crossref]

Baer, C.

O. Heckl, C. Baer, C. Kränkel, S. Marchese, F. Schapper, M. Holler, T. Südmeyer, J. Robinson, J. Tisch, F. Couny, P. Light, F. Benabid, and U. Keller, “High harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 369–373 (2009).
[Crossref]

Baer, C. R. E.

Balcou, P.

A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salieres, and P. Balcou, “High-order harmonic-generation cutoff,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R3433 (1993).
[Crossref]

Bandulet, H.-C.

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Legare, M. Giguere, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073902 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bauer, D.

Benabid, F.

O. Heckl, C. Baer, C. Kränkel, S. Marchese, F. Schapper, M. Holler, T. Südmeyer, J. Robinson, J. Tisch, F. Couny, P. Light, F. Benabid, and U. Keller, “High harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 369–373 (2009).
[Crossref]

Benter, T.

W. Wissdorf, D. Müller, Y. Brachthäuser, M. Langner, V. Derpmann, S. Klopotowski, C. Polaczek, H. Kersten, K. Brockmann, and T. Benter, “Gas flow dynamics in inlet capillaries: evidence for non laminar conditions,” J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 27, 1550–1563 (2016).
[Crossref]

Biancalana, F.

M. F. Saleh, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, J. C. Travers, N. Y. Joly, P. S. Russell, and F. Biancalana, “Theory of photoionization-induced blueshift of ultrashort solitons in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203902 (2011).
[Crossref]

Biersach, C. M.

Bizouard, P.

Blanc, C. L.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, C. Dorrer, C. L. Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
[Crossref]

Brachthäuser, Y.

W. Wissdorf, D. Müller, Y. Brachthäuser, M. Langner, V. Derpmann, S. Klopotowski, C. Polaczek, H. Kersten, K. Brockmann, and T. Benter, “Gas flow dynamics in inlet capillaries: evidence for non laminar conditions,” J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 27, 1550–1563 (2016).
[Crossref]

Breger, P.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, C. Dorrer, C. L. Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
[Crossref]

Brizuela, F.

P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, F. Brizuela, J. Schwenke, A. Persson, E. Mansten, R. Rakowski, L. Rading, F. Campi, B. Kim, P. Johnsson, and A. L’Huillier, “A high-flux high-order harmonic source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 073103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brockmann, K.

W. Wissdorf, D. Müller, Y. Brachthäuser, M. Langner, V. Derpmann, S. Klopotowski, C. Polaczek, H. Kersten, K. Brockmann, and T. Benter, “Gas flow dynamics in inlet capillaries: evidence for non laminar conditions,” J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 27, 1550–1563 (2016).
[Crossref]

Brons, J.

Burnett, K.

S. C. Rae and K. Burnett, “Generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in a rapidly ionizing medium,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 3438–3446 (1994).
[Crossref]

S. C. Rae and K. Burnett, “Detailed simulations of plasma-induced spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 1084–1090 (1992).
[Crossref]

Cabasse, A.

Campi, F.

P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, F. Brizuela, J. Schwenke, A. Persson, E. Mansten, R. Rakowski, L. Rading, F. Campi, B. Kim, P. Johnsson, and A. L’Huillier, “A high-flux high-order harmonic source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 073103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chang, W.

M. F. Saleh, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, J. C. Travers, N. Y. Joly, P. S. Russell, and F. Biancalana, “Theory of photoionization-induced blueshift of ultrashort solitons in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203902 (2011).
[Crossref]

Christov, I. P.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft X-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95–98 (2003).
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Duguay, M. A.

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E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft X-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95–98 (2003).
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J. Rothhardt, M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Absorption-limited and phase-matched high harmonic generation in the tight focusing regime,” New J. Phys. 16, 033022 (2014).
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Hänsch, T. W.

Hartmann, R.

F. Lindner, W. Stremme, M. G. Schatzel, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Hartmann, and L. Struder, “High-order harmonic generation at a repetition rate of 100  kHz,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 013814 (2003).
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Herne, C.

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187–2190 (1999).
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Heyl, C. M.

C. M. Heyl, C. L. Arnold, A. Couairon, and A. L’Huillier, “Introduction to macroscopic power scaling principles for high-order harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 50, 013001 (2017).
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P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, F. Brizuela, J. Schwenke, A. Persson, E. Mansten, R. Rakowski, L. Rading, F. Campi, B. Kim, P. Johnsson, and A. L’Huillier, “A high-flux high-order harmonic source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 073103 (2013).
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C. M. Heyl, J. Güdde, A. L’Huillier, and U. Höfer, “High-order harmonic generation with μJ laser pulses at high repetition rates,” J. Phys. B 45, 074020 (2012).
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Höfer, U.

C. M. Heyl, J. Güdde, A. L’Huillier, and U. Höfer, “High-order harmonic generation with μJ laser pulses at high repetition rates,” J. Phys. B 45, 074020 (2012).
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Hoffmann, M.

Holler, M.

O. Heckl, C. Baer, C. Kränkel, S. Marchese, F. Schapper, M. Holler, T. Südmeyer, J. Robinson, J. Tisch, F. Couny, P. Light, F. Benabid, and U. Keller, “High harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 369–373 (2009).
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M. F. Saleh, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, J. C. Travers, N. Y. Joly, P. S. Russell, and F. Biancalana, “Theory of photoionization-induced blueshift of ultrashort solitons in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203902 (2011).
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Hooker, S. M.

L. Liu, Z. Lewis, K. O’Keeffe, and S. M. Hooker, “Quasi-phase-matching of high-order-harmonic generation using multimode polarization beating,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 023810 (2013).
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M. Zepf, B. Dromey, M. Landreman, P. Foster, and S. M. Hooker, “Bright quasi-phase-matched soft-X-ray harmonic radiation from argon ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 143901 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Dromey, M. Zepf, M. Landreman, and S. M. Hooker, “Quasi-phasematching of harmonic generation via multimode beating in waveguides,” Opt. Express 15, 7894–7900 (2007).
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Jaworski, P.

Johnsson, P.

P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, F. Brizuela, J. Schwenke, A. Persson, E. Mansten, R. Rakowski, L. Rading, F. Campi, B. Kim, P. Johnsson, and A. L’Huillier, “A high-flux high-order harmonic source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 073103 (2013).
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M. F. Saleh, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, J. C. Travers, N. Y. Joly, P. S. Russell, and F. Biancalana, “Theory of photoionization-induced blueshift of ultrashort solitons in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203902 (2011).
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E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft X-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95–98 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187–2190 (1999).
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Kemmer, R.

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W. Wissdorf, D. Müller, Y. Brachthäuser, M. Langner, V. Derpmann, S. Klopotowski, C. Polaczek, H. Kersten, K. Brockmann, and T. Benter, “Gas flow dynamics in inlet capillaries: evidence for non laminar conditions,” J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 27, 1550–1563 (2016).
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A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Legare, M. Giguere, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073902 (2009).
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P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, F. Brizuela, J. Schwenke, A. Persson, E. Mansten, R. Rakowski, L. Rading, F. Campi, B. Kim, P. Johnsson, and A. L’Huillier, “A high-flux high-order harmonic source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 073103 (2013).
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Kling, M. F.

Klopotowski, S.

W. Wissdorf, D. Müller, Y. Brachthäuser, M. Langner, V. Derpmann, S. Klopotowski, C. Polaczek, H. Kersten, K. Brockmann, and T. Benter, “Gas flow dynamics in inlet capillaries: evidence for non laminar conditions,” J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 27, 1550–1563 (2016).
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M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, “Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2-Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13–15 (1986).
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O. Heckl, C. Baer, C. Kränkel, S. Marchese, F. Schapper, M. Holler, T. Südmeyer, J. Robinson, J. Tisch, F. Couny, P. Light, F. Benabid, and U. Keller, “High harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 369–373 (2009).
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Krebs, M.

J. Rothhardt, M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Absorption-limited and phase-matched high harmonic generation in the tight focusing regime,” New J. Phys. 16, 033022 (2014).
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P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, F. Brizuela, J. Schwenke, A. Persson, E. Mansten, R. Rakowski, L. Rading, F. Campi, B. Kim, P. Johnsson, and A. L’Huillier, “A high-flux high-order harmonic source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 073103 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. M. Heyl, J. Güdde, A. L’Huillier, and U. Höfer, “High-order harmonic generation with μJ laser pulses at high repetition rates,” J. Phys. B 45, 074020 (2012).
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M. Zepf, B. Dromey, M. Landreman, P. Foster, and S. M. Hooker, “Bright quasi-phase-matched soft-X-ray harmonic radiation from argon ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 143901 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Dromey, M. Zepf, M. Landreman, and S. M. Hooker, “Quasi-phasematching of harmonic generation via multimode beating in waveguides,” Opt. Express 15, 7894–7900 (2007).
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W. Wissdorf, D. Müller, Y. Brachthäuser, M. Langner, V. Derpmann, S. Klopotowski, C. Polaczek, H. Kersten, K. Brockmann, and T. Benter, “Gas flow dynamics in inlet capillaries: evidence for non laminar conditions,” J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 27, 1550–1563 (2016).
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A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Legare, M. Giguere, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073902 (2009).
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L. Liu, Z. Lewis, K. O’Keeffe, and S. M. Hooker, “Quasi-phase-matching of high-order-harmonic generation using multimode polarization beating,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 023810 (2013).
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O. Heckl, C. Baer, C. Kränkel, S. Marchese, F. Schapper, M. Holler, T. Südmeyer, J. Robinson, J. Tisch, F. Couny, P. Light, F. Benabid, and U. Keller, “High harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 369–373 (2009).
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Lindner, F.

F. Lindner, W. Stremme, M. G. Schatzel, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Hartmann, and L. Struder, “High-order harmonic generation at a repetition rate of 100  kHz,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 013814 (2003).
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L. Liu, Z. Lewis, K. O’Keeffe, and S. M. Hooker, “Quasi-phase-matching of high-order-harmonic generation using multimode polarization beating,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 023810 (2013).
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Maier, R. R. J.

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P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, F. Brizuela, J. Schwenke, A. Persson, E. Mansten, R. Rakowski, L. Rading, F. Campi, B. Kim, P. Johnsson, and A. L’Huillier, “A high-flux high-order harmonic source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 073103 (2013).
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O. Heckl, C. Baer, C. Kränkel, S. Marchese, F. Schapper, M. Holler, T. Südmeyer, J. Robinson, J. Tisch, F. Couny, P. Light, F. Benabid, and U. Keller, “High harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 369–373 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mével, E.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, C. Dorrer, C. L. Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mlejnek, M.

M. Kolesik, J. Moloney, and M. Mlejnek, “Unidirectional optical pulse propagation equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 283902 (2002).
[Crossref]

Moloney, J.

M. Kolesik, J. Moloney, and M. Mlejnek, “Unidirectional optical pulse propagation equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 283902 (2002).
[Crossref]

Müller, D.

W. Wissdorf, D. Müller, Y. Brachthäuser, M. Langner, V. Derpmann, S. Klopotowski, C. Polaczek, H. Kersten, K. Brockmann, and T. Benter, “Gas flow dynamics in inlet capillaries: evidence for non laminar conditions,” J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 27, 1550–1563 (2016).
[Crossref]

Murnane, M. M.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft X-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95–98 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187–2190 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nazarkin, A.

M. F. Saleh, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, J. C. Travers, N. Y. Joly, P. S. Russell, and F. Biancalana, “Theory of photoionization-induced blueshift of ultrashort solitons in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203902 (2011).
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H. Ren, A. Nazarkin, J. Nold, and P. S. Russell, “Quasi-phase-matched high harmonic generation in hollow core photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 16, 17052–17059 (2008).
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O’Keeffe, K.

L. Liu, Z. Lewis, K. O’Keeffe, and S. M. Hooker, “Quasi-phase-matching of high-order-harmonic generation using multimode polarization beating,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 023810 (2013).
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Osvay, K.

Paul, A.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft X-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95–98 (2003).
[Crossref]

Paulus, G. G.

F. Lindner, W. Stremme, M. G. Schatzel, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Hartmann, and L. Struder, “High-order harmonic generation at a repetition rate of 100  kHz,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 013814 (2003).
[Crossref]

Persson, A.

P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, F. Brizuela, J. Schwenke, A. Persson, E. Mansten, R. Rakowski, L. Rading, F. Campi, B. Kim, P. Johnsson, and A. L’Huillier, “A high-flux high-order harmonic source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 073103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pervak, V.

Pfeifer, T.

Pfeiffer, L.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, “Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2-Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13–15 (1986).
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Polaczek, C.

W. Wissdorf, D. Müller, Y. Brachthäuser, M. Langner, V. Derpmann, S. Klopotowski, C. Polaczek, H. Kersten, K. Brockmann, and T. Benter, “Gas flow dynamics in inlet capillaries: evidence for non laminar conditions,” J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 27, 1550–1563 (2016).
[Crossref]

Poprawe, R.

Pronin, O.

Rading, L.

P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, F. Brizuela, J. Schwenke, A. Persson, E. Mansten, R. Rakowski, L. Rading, F. Campi, B. Kim, P. Johnsson, and A. L’Huillier, “A high-flux high-order harmonic source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 073103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rae, S. C.

S. C. Rae and K. Burnett, “Generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in a rapidly ionizing medium,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 3438–3446 (1994).
[Crossref]

S. C. Rae and K. Burnett, “Detailed simulations of plasma-induced spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 1084–1090 (1992).
[Crossref]

Rakowski, R.

P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, F. Brizuela, J. Schwenke, A. Persson, E. Mansten, R. Rakowski, L. Rading, F. Campi, B. Kim, P. Johnsson, and A. L’Huillier, “A high-flux high-order harmonic source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 073103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ren, H.

Robinson, J.

O. Heckl, C. Baer, C. Kränkel, S. Marchese, F. Schapper, M. Holler, T. Südmeyer, J. Robinson, J. Tisch, F. Couny, P. Light, F. Benabid, and U. Keller, “High harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 369–373 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rothhardt, J.

J. Rothhardt, M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Absorption-limited and phase-matched high harmonic generation in the tight focusing regime,” New J. Phys. 16, 033022 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rudawski, P.

P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, F. Brizuela, J. Schwenke, A. Persson, E. Mansten, R. Rakowski, L. Rading, F. Campi, B. Kim, P. Johnsson, and A. L’Huillier, “A high-flux high-order harmonic source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 073103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rundquist, A. R.

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187–2190 (1999).
[Crossref]

Russbueldt, P.

Russell, P. S.

F. Köttig, F. Tani, C. M. Biersach, J. C. Travers, and P. S. Russell, “Generation of microjoule pulses in the deep ultraviolet at megahertz repetition rates,” Optica 4, 1272–1276 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. F. Saleh, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, J. C. Travers, N. Y. Joly, P. S. Russell, and F. Biancalana, “Theory of photoionization-induced blueshift of ultrashort solitons in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203902 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Ren, A. Nazarkin, J. Nold, and P. S. Russell, “Quasi-phase-matched high harmonic generation in hollow core photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 16, 17052–17059 (2008).
[Crossref]

Russell, P. S. J.

Saleh, M. F.

M. F. Saleh, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, J. C. Travers, N. Y. Joly, P. S. Russell, and F. Biancalana, “Theory of photoionization-induced blueshift of ultrashort solitons in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203902 (2011).
[Crossref]

Salieres, P.

A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salieres, and P. Balcou, “High-order harmonic-generation cutoff,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R3433 (1993).
[Crossref]

Salin, F.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, C. Dorrer, C. L. Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
[Crossref]

Saraceno, C. J.

Sartorius, T.

Schafer, K. J.

A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Higher-order harmonic generation in xenon at 1064 nm: The role of phase matching,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2200–2203 (1991).
[Crossref]

Schapper, F.

O. Heckl, C. Baer, C. Kränkel, S. Marchese, F. Schapper, M. Holler, T. Südmeyer, J. Robinson, J. Tisch, F. Couny, P. Light, F. Benabid, and U. Keller, “High harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 369–373 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schatzel, M. G.

F. Lindner, W. Stremme, M. G. Schatzel, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Hartmann, and L. Struder, “High-order harmonic generation at a repetition rate of 100  kHz,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 013814 (2003).
[Crossref]

Schmeltzer, R. A.

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783–1809 (1964).
[Crossref]

Schneider, W.

Schriber, C.

Schulzgen, A.

Schwenke, J.

P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, F. Brizuela, J. Schwenke, A. Persson, E. Mansten, R. Rakowski, L. Rading, F. Campi, B. Kim, P. Johnsson, and A. L’Huillier, “A high-flux high-order harmonic source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 073103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shephard, J. D.

Shiner, A. D.

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Legare, M. Giguere, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073902 (2009).
[Crossref]

Spielmann, C.

Spitzenpfeil, R.

Stebbings, S. L.

Stremme, W.

F. Lindner, W. Stremme, M. G. Schatzel, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Hartmann, and L. Struder, “High-order harmonic generation at a repetition rate of 100  kHz,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 013814 (2003).
[Crossref]

Struder, L.

F. Lindner, W. Stremme, M. G. Schatzel, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Hartmann, and L. Struder, “High-order harmonic generation at a repetition rate of 100  kHz,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 013814 (2003).
[Crossref]

Stutzki, F.

Südmeyer, T.

C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Hoffmann, C. Schriber, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “275  W average output power from a femtosecond thin disk oscillator operated in a vacuum environment,” Opt. Express 20, 23535–23541 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. Heckl, C. Baer, C. Kränkel, S. Marchese, F. Schapper, M. Holler, T. Südmeyer, J. Robinson, J. Tisch, F. Couny, P. Light, F. Benabid, and U. Keller, “High harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 369–373 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sutter, D.

Tani, F.

Thiré, N.

Tisch, J.

O. Heckl, C. Baer, C. Kränkel, S. Marchese, F. Schapper, M. Holler, T. Südmeyer, J. Robinson, J. Tisch, F. Couny, P. Light, F. Benabid, and U. Keller, “High harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 369–373 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tobey, R.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft X-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95–98 (2003).
[Crossref]

Trallero-Herrero, C.

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Legare, M. Giguere, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073902 (2009).
[Crossref]

Travers, J. C.

F. Tani, M. H. Frosz, J. C. Travers, and P. S. J. Russell, “Continuously wavelength-tunable high harmonic generation via soliton dynamics,” Opt. Lett. 42, 1768–1771 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Köttig, F. Tani, C. M. Biersach, J. C. Travers, and P. S. Russell, “Generation of microjoule pulses in the deep ultraviolet at megahertz repetition rates,” Optica 4, 1272–1276 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. F. Saleh, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, J. C. Travers, N. Y. Joly, P. S. Russell, and F. Biancalana, “Theory of photoionization-induced blueshift of ultrashort solitons in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203902 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tünnermann, A.

Udem, T.

Vernaleken, A.

Villeneuve, D. M.

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Legare, M. Giguere, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073902 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wagner, N.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft X-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95–98 (2003).
[Crossref]

Walter, D.

Walther, H.

F. Lindner, W. Stremme, M. G. Schatzel, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Hartmann, and L. Struder, “High-order harmonic generation at a repetition rate of 100  kHz,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 013814 (2003).
[Crossref]

Weitenberg, J.

Winterfeldt, C.

Wissdorf, W.

W. Wissdorf, D. Müller, Y. Brachthäuser, M. Langner, V. Derpmann, S. Klopotowski, C. Polaczek, H. Kersten, K. Brockmann, and T. Benter, “Gas flow dynamics in inlet capillaries: evidence for non laminar conditions,” J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 27, 1550–1563 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yu, F.

F. Yu and J. C. Knight, “Negative curvature hollow-core optical fiber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 4400610 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Yu and J. C. Knight, “Spectral attenuation limits of silica hollow core negative curvature fiber,” Opt. Express 21, 21467–21471 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Jaworski, F. Yu, R. R. J. Maier, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, J. D. Shephard, and D. P. Hand, “Picosecond and nanosecond pulse delivery through a hollow-core negative-curvature fiber for micro machining applications,” Opt. Express 21, 22742–22753 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Yu, “Hollow core negative curvature optical fibres,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Bath, 2013), p. 100.

Zepf, M.

M. Zepf, B. Dromey, M. Landreman, P. Foster, and S. M. Hooker, “Bright quasi-phase-matched soft-X-ray harmonic radiation from argon ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 143901 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Dromey, M. Zepf, M. Landreman, and S. M. Hooker, “Quasi-phasematching of harmonic generation via multimode beating in waveguides,” Opt. Express 15, 7894–7900 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

O. Heckl, C. Baer, C. Kränkel, S. Marchese, F. Schapper, M. Holler, T. Südmeyer, J. Robinson, J. Tisch, F. Couny, P. Light, F. Benabid, and U. Keller, “High harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 369–373 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, “Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2-Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13–15 (1986).
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Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783–1809 (1964).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

F. Yu and J. C. Knight, “Negative curvature hollow-core optical fiber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 4400610 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (1)

W. Wissdorf, D. Müller, Y. Brachthäuser, M. Langner, V. Derpmann, S. Klopotowski, C. Polaczek, H. Kersten, K. Brockmann, and T. Benter, “Gas flow dynamics in inlet capillaries: evidence for non laminar conditions,” J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 27, 1550–1563 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. B (2)

C. M. Heyl, C. L. Arnold, A. Couairon, and A. L’Huillier, “Introduction to macroscopic power scaling principles for high-order harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 50, 013001 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. M. Heyl, J. Güdde, A. L’Huillier, and U. Höfer, “High-order harmonic generation with μJ laser pulses at high repetition rates,” J. Phys. B 45, 074020 (2012).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

J. Rothhardt, M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Absorption-limited and phase-matched high harmonic generation in the tight focusing regime,” New J. Phys. 16, 033022 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

F. Yu and J. C. Knight, “Spectral attenuation limits of silica hollow core negative curvature fiber,” Opt. Express 21, 21467–21471 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Dromey, M. Zepf, M. Landreman, and S. M. Hooker, “Quasi-phasematching of harmonic generation via multimode beating in waveguides,” Opt. Express 15, 7894–7900 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Ren, A. Nazarkin, J. Nold, and P. S. Russell, “Quasi-phase-matched high harmonic generation in hollow core photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 16, 17052–17059 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Hoffmann, C. Schriber, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “275  W average output power from a femtosecond thin disk oscillator operated in a vacuum environment,” Opt. Express 20, 23535–23541 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Jaworski, F. Yu, R. R. J. Maier, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, J. D. Shephard, and D. P. Hand, “Picosecond and nanosecond pulse delivery through a hollow-core negative-curvature fiber for micro machining applications,” Opt. Express 21, 22742–22753 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Thiré, R. Maksimenka, B. Kiss, C. Ferchaud, P. Bizouard, E. Cormier, K. Osvay, and N. Forget, “4-W, 100-kHz, few-cycle mid-infrared source with sub-100-mrad carrier-envelope phase noise,” Opt. Express 25, 1505–1514 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Walter, T. Pfeifer, C. Winterfeldt, R. Kemmer, R. Spitzenpfeil, G. Gerber, and C. Spielmann, “Adaptive spatial control of fiber modes and their excitation for high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 14, 3433–3442 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Optica (2)

Phys. Rev. A (5)

S. C. Rae and K. Burnett, “Generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in a rapidly ionizing medium,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 3438–3446 (1994).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, Z. Lewis, K. O’Keeffe, and S. M. Hooker, “Quasi-phase-matching of high-order-harmonic generation using multimode polarization beating,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 023810 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salieres, and P. Balcou, “High-order harmonic-generation cutoff,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R3433 (1993).
[Crossref]

S. C. Rae and K. Burnett, “Detailed simulations of plasma-induced spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 1084–1090 (1992).
[Crossref]

F. Lindner, W. Stremme, M. G. Schatzel, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Hartmann, and L. Struder, “High-order harmonic generation at a repetition rate of 100  kHz,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 013814 (2003).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Higher-order harmonic generation in xenon at 1064 nm: The role of phase matching,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2200–2203 (1991).
[Crossref]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. Zepf, B. Dromey, M. Landreman, P. Foster, and S. M. Hooker, “Bright quasi-phase-matched soft-X-ray harmonic radiation from argon ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 143901 (2007).
[Crossref]

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, C. Dorrer, C. L. Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. F. Saleh, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, J. C. Travers, N. Y. Joly, P. S. Russell, and F. Biancalana, “Theory of photoionization-induced blueshift of ultrashort solitons in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203902 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Kolesik, J. Moloney, and M. Mlejnek, “Unidirectional optical pulse propagation equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 283902 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187–2190 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Legare, M. Giguere, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073902 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, F. Brizuela, J. Schwenke, A. Persson, E. Mansten, R. Rakowski, L. Rading, F. Campi, B. Kim, P. Johnsson, and A. L’Huillier, “A high-flux high-order harmonic source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 073103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft X-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95–98 (2003).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

F. Yu, “Hollow core negative curvature optical fibres,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Bath, 2013), p. 100.

CXRO, 2010, www.cxro.lbl.gov .

Supplementary Material (1)

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» Supplement 1       HHG build-up model

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Experimental setup. (a) A Ti:sapphire laser (KMLabs) delivers 1 mJ, 30 fs pulses at a repetition rate of 1 kHz and a central wavelength of 785 nm. The pulse duration is measured with spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction (SPIDER). The pulse energy is reduced to 1–15 μJ by means of a variable beam splitter. After spatial filtering in an evacuated capillary, a pair of pulses is generated in a Mach–Zehnder interferometer fitted with a variable delay stage in one beam path. The pulses are then coupled into a section of a NC-PCF ( L = 22.5 mm ) using a lens mounted on a XYZ stage. The NC-PCF is filled with Ar or Ne gas at various pressures. The high-harmonic beam is analyzed in a flat-field XUV spectrometer (XUV) and the residual driving laser is analyzed in a fiber-coupled near-infrared spectrometer (NIR). (b) Microscope image of the NC-PCF used in the present experiment. The diameter of the hollow core (shortest distance between two opposite hypocycloids) is 22.5 μm.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Measured XUV and IR spectra. (a) Harmonic spectrum generated in Ne at an inlet pressure of 0.8 bar with single 15 μJ pulses. Harmonics up to H39 (20 nm, 61.6 eV) are detected. (b) Harmonic spectrum (H19–23) in Ar at a pressure of 0.1 bar and (c) spectrum of the driving laser measured at the exit of the NC-PCF for the same three pulse energies used in Fig. 2(b). The spectral broadening and blue shift of the driver due to nonlinear propagation in the NC-PCF is transferred to the harmonic spectrum. The red dashed lines indicate the central wavelength of the transmitted driving laser [Fig. 2(c), black lines] divided by the order q of different harmonics ( q = 19 , 21, 23).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Intermodal-delay-controlled QPM. (a) Concept and (b) simulation results of IDC-QPM for a set of five low-order waveguide modes ( LP 01 LP 05 ). A control and a drive pulse are launched into a gas-filled section of a NC-PCF with a relative delay. Modal dispersion of the waveguide results in a temporal separation of higher-order spatial modes as the pulses propagate along the NC-PCF. Overlap of one higher-order mode of the control pulse with the fundamental mode of the drive pulse causes mode beating at the exit of the NC-PCF and rapid longitudinal modulation of the combined electric fields (inset). The amplitude modulation depth, 5% in the present case, is set by the relative intensity of the beating modes at the exit of the NC-PCF. (c) Experimental results: Intensity of H21-25 as a function of delay τ between drive and control pulse. The dashed lines indicate, for a propagation distance of z = 22.5 mm , the difference in group delay between various higher-order modes and the fundamental mode.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Enhancement of the HHG flux due to MM-QPM. (a) Experimental harmonic spectrum H21–25 driven with pairs of 5 μJ pulses (delay τ = 190 fs ) with IDC-QPM (blue curve) and driven with single 10 μJ pulses without any QPM (red curves); the bottom panel shows the same single-pulse data but rescaled. The brightness enhancement of H21–25 by a factor of 60 is the result of IDC-QPM. (b) Modeled on-axis yield of H21 in the NC-PCF used in the present experiment for beating of the LP 01 with LP 13 mode in case of a uniform argon pressure in the NC-PCF, Δ P = ( P 0 P L ) = 0 , (all blue lines) and in case of a longitudinal pressure profile, Δ P > 0 (all red lines). In both cases, the largest brightness enhancement is expected for beating of the LP 01 with LP 13 mode assuming 100% amplitude modulation (AM) in case of equally intense modes (dashed lines) and 10% AM in case of a weak LP 13 mode (solid lines). Compared to the case where a pressure gradient is present in the NC-PCF, as in the present experiment, the model suggests further enhancement due to IDC-QPM at a uniform filling pressure of 200 mbar (solid & dashed blue lines). The dotted lines correspond to the case when drive and control pulse propagate in the same mode without mode beating. The blue dotted line indicates full phase matching at a uniform pressure close to 1 bar. Even though, the HHG conversion efficiency is highest at this pressure, the resulting high gas load is experimentally challenging.

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