Abstract

Nowadays, buffer-gas cooling represents an invaluable option to produce cold stable molecules, both in view of secondary cooling/trapping strategies towards the achievement of quantum degeneracy and for fundamental studies of complex molecules. From this follows a demand to establish a pool of specialized, increasingly precise spectroscopic interrogation techniques. Here, we demonstrate a general approach to Lamb-dip ro-vibrational spectroscopy of buffer-gas-cooled molecules. The saturation intensity of the selected molecular transition is achieved by coupling the probe laser to a high-finesse optical cavity surrounding the cold sample. A cavity ring-down technique is then implemented to perform saturation sub-Doppler measurements as the buffer (He) and molecular gas flux are varied. As an example, the (ν1+ν3) R(1) ro-vibrational line in a 20 Kelvin acetylene sample is addressed. By referencing the probe laser to a Rb/GPS clock, the corresponding line-center frequency as well as the self and foreign (i.e., due to the buffer gas) collisional broadening coefficients are absolutely determined. Our approach represents an important step towards the development of a novel method to perform ultra-precise ro-vibrational spectroscopy on an extremely wide range of cold molecules. In this respect, we finally discuss a number of relevant upgrades underway in the experimental setup to considerably improve the ultimate spectroscopic performance.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (2)

P. B. Changala, M. L. Weichman, K. F. Lee, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Rovibrational quantum state resolution of the C60 fullerene,” Science 363, 49–54 (2019).
[Crossref]

T.-P. Hua, Y. R. Sun, J. Wang, C.-L. Hu, L.-G. Tao, A.-W. Liu, and S.-M. Hu, “Cavity-enhanced saturation spectroscopy of molecules with sub-kHz accuracy,” Chin. J. Chem. Phys. 32, 1 (2019).

2018 (9)

L.-G. Tao, T.-P. Hua, Y. R. Sun, J. Wang, A.-W. Liu, and S.-M. Hu, “Frequency metrology of the acetylene lines near 789  nm from Lamb-dip measurements,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 210, 111–115 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. A. Meek, A. Hipke, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Doppler-free Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 43, 162–165 (2018).
[Crossref]

L.-G. Tao, A.-W. Liu, K. Pachucki, J. Komasa, Y. R. Sun, J. Wang, and S.-M. Hu, “Toward a determination of the proton-electron mass ratio from the Lamb-dip measurement of HD,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 153001(2018).
[Crossref]

V. Di Sarno, P. De Natale, J. Tasseva, L. Santamaria, E. Cané, F. Tamassia, and P. Maddaloni, “Frequency-comb-assisted absolute calibration and linestrength of H12C13CH ro-vibrational transitions in the 2ν3 band,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 206, 31–35 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. S. Safronova, D. Budker, D. DeMille, D. F. Jackson Kimball, A. Derevianko, and C. W. Clark, “Search for new physics with atoms and molecules,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 90, 025008 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. M. J. Cozijn, P. Dupre, E. J. Salumbides, K. S. E. Eikema, and W. Ubachs, “Sub-Doppler frequency metrology in HD for test of fundamental physics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 153002 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Alighanbari, M. G. Hansen, V. I. Koroborov, and S. Schiller, “Rotational spectroscopy of cold and trapped molecular ions in the Lamb-Dicke regime,” Nat. Phys. 14, 555–559 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Anderegg, B. L. Augenbraun, Y. Bao, S. Burchesky, L. W. Cheuk, W. Ketterle, and J. M. Doyle, “Laser cooling of optically trapped molecules,” Nat. Phys. 14, 890–893 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. J. Williams, L. Caldwell, N. J. Fitch, S. Truppe, J. Rodewald, E. A. Hinds, B. E. Sauer, and M. R. Tarbutt, “Magnetic trapping and coherent control of laser-cooled molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 163201 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

C. Braggio, G. Carugno, F. Chiossi, A. Di Lieto, M. Guarise, P. Maddaloni, A. Ortolan, G. Ruoso, L. Santamaria, J. Tasseva, and M. Tonelli, “Axion dark matter detection by laser induced fluorescence in rare-earth doped materials,” Sci. Rep. 7, 15168 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. K. Tokunaga, R. J. Hendricks, M. R. Tarbut, and B. Darquié, “High-resolution mid-infrared spectroscopy of buffer-gas-cooled methyltrioxorhenium molecules,” New J. Phys. 19, 053006 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Z. Iwata, R. L. McNally, and T. Zelevinsky, “High-resolution optical spectroscopy with a buffer-gas-cooled beam of BaH molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 022509 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Karhu, M. Vainio, M. Metsälä, and L. Halonen, “Frequency comb assisted two-photon vibrational spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 25, 4688–4699 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (9)

P. S. Barklem and R. Collet, “Partition functions and equilibrium constants for diatomic molecules and atoms of astrophysical interest,” Astron. Astrophys. 588, A96 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Galli, S. Bartalini, R. Ballerini, M. Barucci, P. Cancio, M. De Pas, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, N. Akikusa, and P. De Natale, “Spectroscopic detection of radiocarbon dioxide at parts-per-quadrillion sensitivity,” Optica 3, 385–388 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Santamaria, V. Di Sarno, P. De Natale, M. De Rosa, M. Inguscio, S. Mosca, I. Ricciardi, D. Calonico, F. Levi, and P. Maddaloni, “Comb-assisted cavity ring-down spectroscopy of a buffer-gas-cooled molecular beam,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18, 16715–16720 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Spaun, P. Bryan Changala, D. Patterson, B. J. Bjork, O. H. Heckl, J. M. Doyle, and J. Ye, “Continuous probing of cold complex molecules with infrared frequency comb spectroscopy,” Nature 533, 517–520 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Lee, D. Hauser, O. Lakhmanskaya, S. Spieler, E. Endres, K. Geistlinger, S. Kumar, and R. Wester, “Terahertz-visible two-photon rotational spectroscopy of cold OD-,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 032513 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Gatti, R. Gotti, A. Gambetta, M. Belmonte, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, and M. Marangoni, “Comb-locked Lamb-dip spectrometer,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27183 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Sadiek and G. Friedrichs, “Saturation dynamics and working limits of saturated absorption cavity ringdown spectroscopy,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18, 22978–22989 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. E. Wall, “Preparation of cold molecules for high-precision measurements,” J. Phys. B 49, 243001 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. K. Altmann, S. Galtier, L. S. Dreissen, and K. S. E. Eikema, “High-precision Ramsey-comb spectroscopy at deep ultraviolet wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 173201 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (9)

A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, J. Ye, E. Peik, and P. O. Schmidt, “Optical atomic clocks,” Rev. Modern Phys. 87, 637–701 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Santamaria, C. Braggio, G. Carugno, V. Di Sarno, P. Maddaloni, and G. Ruoso, “Axion dark matter detection by laser spectroscopy of ultracold molecular oxygen: a proposal,” New J. Phys. 17, 113025 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Santamaria, V. Di Sarno, I. Ricciardi, S. Mosca, M. De Rosa, G. Santambrogio, P. Maddaloni, and P. De Natale, “Assessing the time constancy of the proton-to-electron mass ratio by precision ro-vibrational spectroscopy of a cold molecular beam,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 300, 116–123 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Burkart, T. Sala, D. Romanini, M. Marangoni, A. Campargue, and S. Kassi, “Communication: Saturated CO2 absorption near 1.6  μm for kilohertz-accuracy transition frequencies,” J. Chem. Phys. 142, 191103(2015).
[Crossref]

L. Santamaria, V. Di Sarno, I. Ricciardi, M. De Rosa, S. Mosca, G. Santambrogio, P. Maddaloni, and P. De Natale, “Low-temperature spectroscopy of the 12C2H2(ν1 + ν3) band in a helium buffer gas,” Astrophys. J. 801, 50 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Asvany, K. Yamada, S. Brünken, A. Potapov, and S. Schlemmer, “Experimental ground-state combination differences of CH5+,” Science 347, 1346–1349 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Reuter, J. S. Sousa, G. D. Stancu, and J.-P. H. van Helden, “Review on VUV to MIR absorption spectroscopy of atmospheric pressure plasma jets,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 24, 054001 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Jansen, L. Semeria, L. Esteban Hofer, S. Scheidegger, J. A. Agner, H. Schmutz, and F. Merkt, “Precision spectroscopy in cold molecules: the lowest rotational interval of He2+ and metastable He2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133202 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Giusfredi, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, and P. De Natale, “Theory of saturated-absorption cavity ring-down: radiocarbon dioxide detection, a case study,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32, 2223–2237 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

A. S. Burrows, “Spectra as windows into exoplanet atmospheres,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 12601–12609 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

S. K. Tokunaga, C. Stoeffler, F. Auguste, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, and B. Darquié, “Probing weak force-induced parity violation by high-resolution mid-infrared molecular spectroscopy,” Mol. Phys. 111, 2363–2373 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Baron, W. C. Campbell, D. DeMille, J. M. Doyle, G. Gabrielse, Y. V. Gurevich, P. W. Hess, N. R. Hutzler, E. Kirilov, I. Kozyryev, B. R. O’Leary, C. D. Panda, M. F. Parsons, E. S. Petrik, B. Spaun, A. C. Vutha, and A. D. West, “Order of magnitude smaller limit on the electric dipole moment of the electron,” Science 343, 269–272 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

D. Patterson and J. M. Doyle, “Cooling molecules in a cell for FTMW spectroscopy,” Mol. Phys. 110, 1757–1766 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. S. N. Parker, F. Zhang, Y. S. Kim, R. I. Kaiser, A. Landera, V. V. Kislov, A. M. Mebel, and A. G. G. M. Tielens, “Low temperature formation of naphthalene and its role in the synthesis of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the interstellar medium,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 53–58 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

A. Cygan, D. Lisak, P. Maslowski, K. Bielska, S. Wojtewicz, J. Domyslawska, R. S. Trawinski, R. Ciurylo, H. Abe, and J. T. Hodges, “Pound-Drever-Hall-locked, frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 063107 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

G. Giusfredi, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Saturated-absorption cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 110801 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

S. M. Skoff, R. J. Hendricks, C. D. J. Sinclair, M. R. Tarbutt, J. J. Hudson, D. M. Segal, B. E. Sauer, and E. A. Hinds, “Doppler-free laser spectroscopy of buffer-gas-cooled molecular radicals,” New J. Phys. 11, 123026 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Ahtee, M. Merimaa, and K. Nyholm, “Precision spectroscopy of acetylene transitions using an optical frequency synthesizer,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2619–2621 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4, 55–57 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

W. Ma, A. Foltynowicz, and O. Axner, “Theoretical description of Doppler-broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy under optically saturated conditions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1144–1155 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. L. Stancik and E. B. Brauns, “A simple asymmetric lineshape for fitting infrared absorption spectra,” Vib. Spectrosc. 47, 66–69 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Shelkovnikov, R. J. Butcher, C. Chardonnet, and A. Amy-Klein, “Stability of the proton-to-electron mass ratio,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 150801 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

D. Lisak and J. T. Hodges, “High-resolution cavity ring-down spectroscopy measurements of blended H2O transitions,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 317–325 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

S. E. Maxwell, N. Brahms, R. deCarvalho, D. R. Glenn, J. S. Helton, S. V. Nguyen, D. Patterson, J. Petricka, D. DeMille, and J. M. Doyle, “High-flux beam source for cold, slow atoms or molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 173201 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

A. Czajkowski, A. A. Madej, and P. Dubé, “Development and study of a 1.5 μm optical frequency standard referenced to the P(16) saturated absorption line in the ν1 + ν3 overtone band of 12C2H2,” Opt. Commun. 234, 259–268 (2004).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, K. Amar, A. Boca, B. C. Odom, B. Friedrich, and J. M. Doyle, “Spectroscopy of buffer-gas cooled vanadium monoxide in a magnetic trapping field,” J. Chem. Phys. 109, 2656–2661 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1984 (1)

J. K. Messer and F. C. De Lucia, “Measurement of pressure-broadening parameters for the CO-He system at 4  K,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2555–2558 (1984).
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Abe, H.

A. Cygan, D. Lisak, P. Maslowski, K. Bielska, S. Wojtewicz, J. Domyslawska, R. S. Trawinski, R. Ciurylo, H. Abe, and J. T. Hodges, “Pound-Drever-Hall-locked, frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 063107 (2011).
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Agner, J. A.

P. Jansen, L. Semeria, L. Esteban Hofer, S. Scheidegger, J. A. Agner, H. Schmutz, and F. Merkt, “Precision spectroscopy in cold molecules: the lowest rotational interval of He2+ and metastable He2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133202 (2015).
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Ahtee, V.

Akikusa, N.

Alcock, A. J.

Alighanbari, S.

S. Alighanbari, M. G. Hansen, V. I. Koroborov, and S. Schiller, “Rotational spectroscopy of cold and trapped molecular ions in the Lamb-Dicke regime,” Nat. Phys. 14, 555–559 (2018).
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Altmann, R. K.

R. K. Altmann, S. Galtier, L. S. Dreissen, and K. S. E. Eikema, “High-precision Ramsey-comb spectroscopy at deep ultraviolet wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 173201 (2016).
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Amar, K.

J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, K. Amar, A. Boca, B. C. Odom, B. Friedrich, and J. M. Doyle, “Spectroscopy of buffer-gas cooled vanadium monoxide in a magnetic trapping field,” J. Chem. Phys. 109, 2656–2661 (1998).
[Crossref]

Amy-Klein, A.

S. K. Tokunaga, C. Stoeffler, F. Auguste, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, and B. Darquié, “Probing weak force-induced parity violation by high-resolution mid-infrared molecular spectroscopy,” Mol. Phys. 111, 2363–2373 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Shelkovnikov, R. J. Butcher, C. Chardonnet, and A. Amy-Klein, “Stability of the proton-to-electron mass ratio,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 150801 (2008).
[Crossref]

Anderegg, L.

L. Anderegg, B. L. Augenbraun, Y. Bao, S. Burchesky, L. W. Cheuk, W. Ketterle, and J. M. Doyle, “Laser cooling of optically trapped molecules,” Nat. Phys. 14, 890–893 (2018).
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Asvany, O.

O. Asvany, K. Yamada, S. Brünken, A. Potapov, and S. Schlemmer, “Experimental ground-state combination differences of CH5+,” Science 347, 1346–1349 (2015).
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Augenbraun, B. L.

L. Anderegg, B. L. Augenbraun, Y. Bao, S. Burchesky, L. W. Cheuk, W. Ketterle, and J. M. Doyle, “Laser cooling of optically trapped molecules,” Nat. Phys. 14, 890–893 (2018).
[Crossref]

Auguste, F.

S. K. Tokunaga, C. Stoeffler, F. Auguste, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, and B. Darquié, “Probing weak force-induced parity violation by high-resolution mid-infrared molecular spectroscopy,” Mol. Phys. 111, 2363–2373 (2013).
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Awaji, Y.

Axner, O.

Ballerini, R.

Bao, Y.

L. Anderegg, B. L. Augenbraun, Y. Bao, S. Burchesky, L. W. Cheuk, W. Ketterle, and J. M. Doyle, “Laser cooling of optically trapped molecules,” Nat. Phys. 14, 890–893 (2018).
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Barklem, P. S.

P. S. Barklem and R. Collet, “Partition functions and equilibrium constants for diatomic molecules and atoms of astrophysical interest,” Astron. Astrophys. 588, A96 (2016).
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Baron, J.

J. Baron, W. C. Campbell, D. DeMille, J. M. Doyle, G. Gabrielse, Y. V. Gurevich, P. W. Hess, N. R. Hutzler, E. Kirilov, I. Kozyryev, B. R. O’Leary, C. D. Panda, M. F. Parsons, E. S. Petrik, B. Spaun, A. C. Vutha, and A. D. West, “Order of magnitude smaller limit on the electric dipole moment of the electron,” Science 343, 269–272 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bartalini, S.

I. Galli, S. Bartalini, R. Ballerini, M. Barucci, P. Cancio, M. De Pas, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, N. Akikusa, and P. De Natale, “Spectroscopic detection of radiocarbon dioxide at parts-per-quadrillion sensitivity,” Optica 3, 385–388 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Giusfredi, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Saturated-absorption cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 110801 (2010).
[Crossref]

Barucci, M.

Belmonte, M.

D. Gatti, R. Gotti, A. Gambetta, M. Belmonte, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, and M. Marangoni, “Comb-locked Lamb-dip spectrometer,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27183 (2016).
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Bernard, J. E.

Bernhardt, B.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4, 55–57 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bielska, K.

A. Cygan, D. Lisak, P. Maslowski, K. Bielska, S. Wojtewicz, J. Domyslawska, R. S. Trawinski, R. Ciurylo, H. Abe, and J. T. Hodges, “Pound-Drever-Hall-locked, frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 063107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bjork, B. J.

B. Spaun, P. Bryan Changala, D. Patterson, B. J. Bjork, O. H. Heckl, J. M. Doyle, and J. Ye, “Continuous probing of cold complex molecules with infrared frequency comb spectroscopy,” Nature 533, 517–520 (2016).
[Crossref]

Boca, A.

J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, K. Amar, A. Boca, B. C. Odom, B. Friedrich, and J. M. Doyle, “Spectroscopy of buffer-gas cooled vanadium monoxide in a magnetic trapping field,” J. Chem. Phys. 109, 2656–2661 (1998).
[Crossref]

Borri, S.

G. Giusfredi, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Saturated-absorption cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 110801 (2010).
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Boyd, M. M.

A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, J. Ye, E. Peik, and P. O. Schmidt, “Optical atomic clocks,” Rev. Modern Phys. 87, 637–701 (2015).
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Braggio, C.

C. Braggio, G. Carugno, F. Chiossi, A. Di Lieto, M. Guarise, P. Maddaloni, A. Ortolan, G. Ruoso, L. Santamaria, J. Tasseva, and M. Tonelli, “Axion dark matter detection by laser induced fluorescence in rare-earth doped materials,” Sci. Rep. 7, 15168 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Santamaria, C. Braggio, G. Carugno, V. Di Sarno, P. Maddaloni, and G. Ruoso, “Axion dark matter detection by laser spectroscopy of ultracold molecular oxygen: a proposal,” New J. Phys. 17, 113025 (2015).
[Crossref]

Brahms, N.

S. E. Maxwell, N. Brahms, R. deCarvalho, D. R. Glenn, J. S. Helton, S. V. Nguyen, D. Patterson, J. Petricka, D. DeMille, and J. M. Doyle, “High-flux beam source for cold, slow atoms or molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 173201 (2005).
[Crossref]

Brauns, E. B.

A. L. Stancik and E. B. Brauns, “A simple asymmetric lineshape for fitting infrared absorption spectra,” Vib. Spectrosc. 47, 66–69 (2008).
[Crossref]

Brünken, S.

O. Asvany, K. Yamada, S. Brünken, A. Potapov, and S. Schlemmer, “Experimental ground-state combination differences of CH5+,” Science 347, 1346–1349 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bryan Changala, P.

B. Spaun, P. Bryan Changala, D. Patterson, B. J. Bjork, O. H. Heckl, J. M. Doyle, and J. Ye, “Continuous probing of cold complex molecules with infrared frequency comb spectroscopy,” Nature 533, 517–520 (2016).
[Crossref]

Budker, D.

M. S. Safronova, D. Budker, D. DeMille, D. F. Jackson Kimball, A. Derevianko, and C. W. Clark, “Search for new physics with atoms and molecules,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 90, 025008 (2018).
[Crossref]

Burchesky, S.

L. Anderegg, B. L. Augenbraun, Y. Bao, S. Burchesky, L. W. Cheuk, W. Ketterle, and J. M. Doyle, “Laser cooling of optically trapped molecules,” Nat. Phys. 14, 890–893 (2018).
[Crossref]

Burkart, J.

J. Burkart, T. Sala, D. Romanini, M. Marangoni, A. Campargue, and S. Kassi, “Communication: Saturated CO2 absorption near 1.6  μm for kilohertz-accuracy transition frequencies,” J. Chem. Phys. 142, 191103(2015).
[Crossref]

Burrows, A. S.

A. S. Burrows, “Spectra as windows into exoplanet atmospheres,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 12601–12609 (2014).
[Crossref]

Butcher, R. J.

A. Shelkovnikov, R. J. Butcher, C. Chardonnet, and A. Amy-Klein, “Stability of the proton-to-electron mass ratio,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 150801 (2008).
[Crossref]

Caldwell, L.

H. J. Williams, L. Caldwell, N. J. Fitch, S. Truppe, J. Rodewald, E. A. Hinds, B. E. Sauer, and M. R. Tarbutt, “Magnetic trapping and coherent control of laser-cooled molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 163201 (2018).
[Crossref]

Calonico, D.

L. Santamaria, V. Di Sarno, P. De Natale, M. De Rosa, M. Inguscio, S. Mosca, I. Ricciardi, D. Calonico, F. Levi, and P. Maddaloni, “Comb-assisted cavity ring-down spectroscopy of a buffer-gas-cooled molecular beam,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18, 16715–16720 (2016).
[Crossref]

Campargue, A.

J. Burkart, T. Sala, D. Romanini, M. Marangoni, A. Campargue, and S. Kassi, “Communication: Saturated CO2 absorption near 1.6  μm for kilohertz-accuracy transition frequencies,” J. Chem. Phys. 142, 191103(2015).
[Crossref]

Campbell, W. C.

J. Baron, W. C. Campbell, D. DeMille, J. M. Doyle, G. Gabrielse, Y. V. Gurevich, P. W. Hess, N. R. Hutzler, E. Kirilov, I. Kozyryev, B. R. O’Leary, C. D. Panda, M. F. Parsons, E. S. Petrik, B. Spaun, A. C. Vutha, and A. D. West, “Order of magnitude smaller limit on the electric dipole moment of the electron,” Science 343, 269–272 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cancio, P.

Cané, E.

V. Di Sarno, P. De Natale, J. Tasseva, L. Santamaria, E. Cané, F. Tamassia, and P. Maddaloni, “Frequency-comb-assisted absolute calibration and linestrength of H12C13CH ro-vibrational transitions in the 2ν3 band,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 206, 31–35 (2018).
[Crossref]

Carugno, G.

C. Braggio, G. Carugno, F. Chiossi, A. Di Lieto, M. Guarise, P. Maddaloni, A. Ortolan, G. Ruoso, L. Santamaria, J. Tasseva, and M. Tonelli, “Axion dark matter detection by laser induced fluorescence in rare-earth doped materials,” Sci. Rep. 7, 15168 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Santamaria, C. Braggio, G. Carugno, V. Di Sarno, P. Maddaloni, and G. Ruoso, “Axion dark matter detection by laser spectroscopy of ultracold molecular oxygen: a proposal,” New J. Phys. 17, 113025 (2015).
[Crossref]

Changala, P. B.

P. B. Changala, M. L. Weichman, K. F. Lee, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Rovibrational quantum state resolution of the C60 fullerene,” Science 363, 49–54 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chardonnet, C.

S. K. Tokunaga, C. Stoeffler, F. Auguste, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, and B. Darquié, “Probing weak force-induced parity violation by high-resolution mid-infrared molecular spectroscopy,” Mol. Phys. 111, 2363–2373 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Shelkovnikov, R. J. Butcher, C. Chardonnet, and A. Amy-Klein, “Stability of the proton-to-electron mass ratio,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 150801 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chepurov, S.

Cheuk, L. W.

L. Anderegg, B. L. Augenbraun, Y. Bao, S. Burchesky, L. W. Cheuk, W. Ketterle, and J. M. Doyle, “Laser cooling of optically trapped molecules,” Nat. Phys. 14, 890–893 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chiossi, F.

C. Braggio, G. Carugno, F. Chiossi, A. Di Lieto, M. Guarise, P. Maddaloni, A. Ortolan, G. Ruoso, L. Santamaria, J. Tasseva, and M. Tonelli, “Axion dark matter detection by laser induced fluorescence in rare-earth doped materials,” Sci. Rep. 7, 15168 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ciurylo, R.

A. Cygan, D. Lisak, P. Maslowski, K. Bielska, S. Wojtewicz, J. Domyslawska, R. S. Trawinski, R. Ciurylo, H. Abe, and J. T. Hodges, “Pound-Drever-Hall-locked, frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 063107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Clark, C. W.

M. S. Safronova, D. Budker, D. DeMille, D. F. Jackson Kimball, A. Derevianko, and C. W. Clark, “Search for new physics with atoms and molecules,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 90, 025008 (2018).
[Crossref]

Collet, R.

P. S. Barklem and R. Collet, “Partition functions and equilibrium constants for diatomic molecules and atoms of astrophysical interest,” Astron. Astrophys. 588, A96 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cozijn, F. M. J.

F. M. J. Cozijn, P. Dupre, E. J. Salumbides, K. S. E. Eikema, and W. Ubachs, “Sub-Doppler frequency metrology in HD for test of fundamental physics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 153002 (2018).
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Cygan, A.

A. Cygan, D. Lisak, P. Maslowski, K. Bielska, S. Wojtewicz, J. Domyslawska, R. S. Trawinski, R. Ciurylo, H. Abe, and J. T. Hodges, “Pound-Drever-Hall-locked, frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 063107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Czajkowski, A.

A. A. Madej, A. J. Alcock, A. Czajkowski, J. E. Bernard, and S. Chepurov, “Accurate absolute reference frequencies from 1511 to 1545  nm of the ν1 + ν3 band of 12C2H2 determined with laser frequency comb interval measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 2200–2208 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Czajkowski, A. A. Madej, and P. Dubé, “Development and study of a 1.5 μm optical frequency standard referenced to the P(16) saturated absorption line in the ν1 + ν3 overtone band of 12C2H2,” Opt. Commun. 234, 259–268 (2004).
[Crossref]

Darquié, B.

S. K. Tokunaga, R. J. Hendricks, M. R. Tarbut, and B. Darquié, “High-resolution mid-infrared spectroscopy of buffer-gas-cooled methyltrioxorhenium molecules,” New J. Phys. 19, 053006 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. K. Tokunaga, C. Stoeffler, F. Auguste, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, and B. Darquié, “Probing weak force-induced parity violation by high-resolution mid-infrared molecular spectroscopy,” Mol. Phys. 111, 2363–2373 (2013).
[Crossref]

Daussy, C.

S. K. Tokunaga, C. Stoeffler, F. Auguste, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, and B. Darquié, “Probing weak force-induced parity violation by high-resolution mid-infrared molecular spectroscopy,” Mol. Phys. 111, 2363–2373 (2013).
[Crossref]

de Labachelerie, M.

De Lucia, F. C.

J. K. Messer and F. C. De Lucia, “Measurement of pressure-broadening parameters for the CO-He system at 4  K,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2555–2558 (1984).
[Crossref]

De Natale, P.

V. Di Sarno, P. De Natale, J. Tasseva, L. Santamaria, E. Cané, F. Tamassia, and P. Maddaloni, “Frequency-comb-assisted absolute calibration and linestrength of H12C13CH ro-vibrational transitions in the 2ν3 band,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 206, 31–35 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Santamaria, V. Di Sarno, P. De Natale, M. De Rosa, M. Inguscio, S. Mosca, I. Ricciardi, D. Calonico, F. Levi, and P. Maddaloni, “Comb-assisted cavity ring-down spectroscopy of a buffer-gas-cooled molecular beam,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18, 16715–16720 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Galli, S. Bartalini, R. Ballerini, M. Barucci, P. Cancio, M. De Pas, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, N. Akikusa, and P. De Natale, “Spectroscopic detection of radiocarbon dioxide at parts-per-quadrillion sensitivity,” Optica 3, 385–388 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Santamaria, V. Di Sarno, I. Ricciardi, S. Mosca, M. De Rosa, G. Santambrogio, P. Maddaloni, and P. De Natale, “Assessing the time constancy of the proton-to-electron mass ratio by precision ro-vibrational spectroscopy of a cold molecular beam,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 300, 116–123 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Santamaria, V. Di Sarno, I. Ricciardi, M. De Rosa, S. Mosca, G. Santambrogio, P. Maddaloni, and P. De Natale, “Low-temperature spectroscopy of the 12C2H2(ν1 + ν3) band in a helium buffer gas,” Astrophys. J. 801, 50 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Giusfredi, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, and P. De Natale, “Theory of saturated-absorption cavity ring-down: radiocarbon dioxide detection, a case study,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32, 2223–2237 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Giusfredi, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Saturated-absorption cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 110801 (2010).
[Crossref]

De Pas, M.

De Rosa, M.

L. Santamaria, V. Di Sarno, P. De Natale, M. De Rosa, M. Inguscio, S. Mosca, I. Ricciardi, D. Calonico, F. Levi, and P. Maddaloni, “Comb-assisted cavity ring-down spectroscopy of a buffer-gas-cooled molecular beam,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18, 16715–16720 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Santamaria, V. Di Sarno, I. Ricciardi, S. Mosca, M. De Rosa, G. Santambrogio, P. Maddaloni, and P. De Natale, “Assessing the time constancy of the proton-to-electron mass ratio by precision ro-vibrational spectroscopy of a cold molecular beam,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 300, 116–123 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Santamaria, V. Di Sarno, I. Ricciardi, M. De Rosa, S. Mosca, G. Santambrogio, P. Maddaloni, and P. De Natale, “Low-temperature spectroscopy of the 12C2H2(ν1 + ν3) band in a helium buffer gas,” Astrophys. J. 801, 50 (2015).
[Crossref]

deCarvalho, R.

S. E. Maxwell, N. Brahms, R. deCarvalho, D. R. Glenn, J. S. Helton, S. V. Nguyen, D. Patterson, J. Petricka, D. DeMille, and J. M. Doyle, “High-flux beam source for cold, slow atoms or molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 173201 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, K. Amar, A. Boca, B. C. Odom, B. Friedrich, and J. M. Doyle, “Spectroscopy of buffer-gas cooled vanadium monoxide in a magnetic trapping field,” J. Chem. Phys. 109, 2656–2661 (1998).
[Crossref]

DeMille, D.

M. S. Safronova, D. Budker, D. DeMille, D. F. Jackson Kimball, A. Derevianko, and C. W. Clark, “Search for new physics with atoms and molecules,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 90, 025008 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Baron, W. C. Campbell, D. DeMille, J. M. Doyle, G. Gabrielse, Y. V. Gurevich, P. W. Hess, N. R. Hutzler, E. Kirilov, I. Kozyryev, B. R. O’Leary, C. D. Panda, M. F. Parsons, E. S. Petrik, B. Spaun, A. C. Vutha, and A. D. West, “Order of magnitude smaller limit on the electric dipole moment of the electron,” Science 343, 269–272 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. E. Maxwell, N. Brahms, R. deCarvalho, D. R. Glenn, J. S. Helton, S. V. Nguyen, D. Patterson, J. Petricka, D. DeMille, and J. M. Doyle, “High-flux beam source for cold, slow atoms or molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 173201 (2005).
[Crossref]

Demtröder, W.

W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy, Experimental Techniques (Springer, 2008), Vol. 2.

Derevianko, A.

M. S. Safronova, D. Budker, D. DeMille, D. F. Jackson Kimball, A. Derevianko, and C. W. Clark, “Search for new physics with atoms and molecules,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 90, 025008 (2018).
[Crossref]

Di Lieto, A.

C. Braggio, G. Carugno, F. Chiossi, A. Di Lieto, M. Guarise, P. Maddaloni, A. Ortolan, G. Ruoso, L. Santamaria, J. Tasseva, and M. Tonelli, “Axion dark matter detection by laser induced fluorescence in rare-earth doped materials,” Sci. Rep. 7, 15168 (2017).
[Crossref]

Di Sarno, V.

V. Di Sarno, P. De Natale, J. Tasseva, L. Santamaria, E. Cané, F. Tamassia, and P. Maddaloni, “Frequency-comb-assisted absolute calibration and linestrength of H12C13CH ro-vibrational transitions in the 2ν3 band,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 206, 31–35 (2018).
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Galtier, S.

R. K. Altmann, S. Galtier, L. S. Dreissen, and K. S. E. Eikema, “High-precision Ramsey-comb spectroscopy at deep ultraviolet wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 173201 (2016).
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Glenn, D. R.

S. E. Maxwell, N. Brahms, R. deCarvalho, D. R. Glenn, J. S. Helton, S. V. Nguyen, D. Patterson, J. Petricka, D. DeMille, and J. M. Doyle, “High-flux beam source for cold, slow atoms or molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 173201 (2005).
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D. Gatti, R. Gotti, A. Gambetta, M. Belmonte, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, and M. Marangoni, “Comb-locked Lamb-dip spectrometer,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27183 (2016).
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J. Baron, W. C. Campbell, D. DeMille, J. M. Doyle, G. Gabrielse, Y. V. Gurevich, P. W. Hess, N. R. Hutzler, E. Kirilov, I. Kozyryev, B. R. O’Leary, C. D. Panda, M. F. Parsons, E. S. Petrik, B. Spaun, A. C. Vutha, and A. D. West, “Order of magnitude smaller limit on the electric dipole moment of the electron,” Science 343, 269–272 (2013).
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Halonen, L.

Hänsch, T. W.

S. A. Meek, A. Hipke, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Doppler-free Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 43, 162–165 (2018).
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S. Alighanbari, M. G. Hansen, V. I. Koroborov, and S. Schiller, “Rotational spectroscopy of cold and trapped molecular ions in the Lamb-Dicke regime,” Nat. Phys. 14, 555–559 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hauser, D.

S. Lee, D. Hauser, O. Lakhmanskaya, S. Spieler, E. Endres, K. Geistlinger, S. Kumar, and R. Wester, “Terahertz-visible two-photon rotational spectroscopy of cold OD-,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 032513 (2016).
[Crossref]

Heckl, O. H.

B. Spaun, P. Bryan Changala, D. Patterson, B. J. Bjork, O. H. Heckl, J. M. Doyle, and J. Ye, “Continuous probing of cold complex molecules with infrared frequency comb spectroscopy,” Nature 533, 517–520 (2016).
[Crossref]

Helton, J. S.

S. E. Maxwell, N. Brahms, R. deCarvalho, D. R. Glenn, J. S. Helton, S. V. Nguyen, D. Patterson, J. Petricka, D. DeMille, and J. M. Doyle, “High-flux beam source for cold, slow atoms or molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 173201 (2005).
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J. Baron, W. C. Campbell, D. DeMille, J. M. Doyle, G. Gabrielse, Y. V. Gurevich, P. W. Hess, N. R. Hutzler, E. Kirilov, I. Kozyryev, B. R. O’Leary, C. D. Panda, M. F. Parsons, E. S. Petrik, B. Spaun, A. C. Vutha, and A. D. West, “Order of magnitude smaller limit on the electric dipole moment of the electron,” Science 343, 269–272 (2013).
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H. J. Williams, L. Caldwell, N. J. Fitch, S. Truppe, J. Rodewald, E. A. Hinds, B. E. Sauer, and M. R. Tarbutt, “Magnetic trapping and coherent control of laser-cooled molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 163201 (2018).
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Hodges, J. T.

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[Crossref]

D. Lisak and J. T. Hodges, “High-resolution cavity ring-down spectroscopy measurements of blended H2O transitions,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 317–325 (2007).
[Crossref]

Holzwarth, R.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4, 55–57 (2009).
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T.-P. Hua, Y. R. Sun, J. Wang, C.-L. Hu, L.-G. Tao, A.-W. Liu, and S.-M. Hu, “Cavity-enhanced saturation spectroscopy of molecules with sub-kHz accuracy,” Chin. J. Chem. Phys. 32, 1 (2019).

Hu, S.-M.

T.-P. Hua, Y. R. Sun, J. Wang, C.-L. Hu, L.-G. Tao, A.-W. Liu, and S.-M. Hu, “Cavity-enhanced saturation spectroscopy of molecules with sub-kHz accuracy,” Chin. J. Chem. Phys. 32, 1 (2019).

L.-G. Tao, T.-P. Hua, Y. R. Sun, J. Wang, A.-W. Liu, and S.-M. Hu, “Frequency metrology of the acetylene lines near 789  nm from Lamb-dip measurements,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 210, 111–115 (2018).
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L.-G. Tao, A.-W. Liu, K. Pachucki, J. Komasa, Y. R. Sun, J. Wang, and S.-M. Hu, “Toward a determination of the proton-electron mass ratio from the Lamb-dip measurement of HD,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 153001(2018).
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T.-P. Hua, Y. R. Sun, J. Wang, C.-L. Hu, L.-G. Tao, A.-W. Liu, and S.-M. Hu, “Cavity-enhanced saturation spectroscopy of molecules with sub-kHz accuracy,” Chin. J. Chem. Phys. 32, 1 (2019).

L.-G. Tao, T.-P. Hua, Y. R. Sun, J. Wang, A.-W. Liu, and S.-M. Hu, “Frequency metrology of the acetylene lines near 789  nm from Lamb-dip measurements,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 210, 111–115 (2018).
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S. M. Skoff, R. J. Hendricks, C. D. J. Sinclair, M. R. Tarbutt, J. J. Hudson, D. M. Segal, B. E. Sauer, and E. A. Hinds, “Doppler-free laser spectroscopy of buffer-gas-cooled molecular radicals,” New J. Phys. 11, 123026 (2009).
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J. Baron, W. C. Campbell, D. DeMille, J. M. Doyle, G. Gabrielse, Y. V. Gurevich, P. W. Hess, N. R. Hutzler, E. Kirilov, I. Kozyryev, B. R. O’Leary, C. D. Panda, M. F. Parsons, E. S. Petrik, B. Spaun, A. C. Vutha, and A. D. West, “Order of magnitude smaller limit on the electric dipole moment of the electron,” Science 343, 269–272 (2013).
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L. Santamaria, V. Di Sarno, P. De Natale, M. De Rosa, M. Inguscio, S. Mosca, I. Ricciardi, D. Calonico, F. Levi, and P. Maddaloni, “Comb-assisted cavity ring-down spectroscopy of a buffer-gas-cooled molecular beam,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18, 16715–16720 (2016).
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G. Z. Iwata, R. L. McNally, and T. Zelevinsky, “High-resolution optical spectroscopy with a buffer-gas-cooled beam of BaH molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 022509 (2017).
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B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4, 55–57 (2009).
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B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4, 55–57 (2009).
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Jansen, P.

P. Jansen, L. Semeria, L. Esteban Hofer, S. Scheidegger, J. A. Agner, H. Schmutz, and F. Merkt, “Precision spectroscopy in cold molecules: the lowest rotational interval of He2+ and metastable He2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133202 (2015).
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D. S. N. Parker, F. Zhang, Y. S. Kim, R. I. Kaiser, A. Landera, V. V. Kislov, A. M. Mebel, and A. G. G. M. Tielens, “Low temperature formation of naphthalene and its role in the synthesis of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the interstellar medium,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 53–58 (2012).
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Karhu, J.

Kassi, S.

J. Burkart, T. Sala, D. Romanini, M. Marangoni, A. Campargue, and S. Kassi, “Communication: Saturated CO2 absorption near 1.6  μm for kilohertz-accuracy transition frequencies,” J. Chem. Phys. 142, 191103(2015).
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Ketterle, W.

L. Anderegg, B. L. Augenbraun, Y. Bao, S. Burchesky, L. W. Cheuk, W. Ketterle, and J. M. Doyle, “Laser cooling of optically trapped molecules,” Nat. Phys. 14, 890–893 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. S.

D. S. N. Parker, F. Zhang, Y. S. Kim, R. I. Kaiser, A. Landera, V. V. Kislov, A. M. Mebel, and A. G. G. M. Tielens, “Low temperature formation of naphthalene and its role in the synthesis of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the interstellar medium,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 53–58 (2012).
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Kirilov, E.

J. Baron, W. C. Campbell, D. DeMille, J. M. Doyle, G. Gabrielse, Y. V. Gurevich, P. W. Hess, N. R. Hutzler, E. Kirilov, I. Kozyryev, B. R. O’Leary, C. D. Panda, M. F. Parsons, E. S. Petrik, B. Spaun, A. C. Vutha, and A. D. West, “Order of magnitude smaller limit on the electric dipole moment of the electron,” Science 343, 269–272 (2013).
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Kislov, V. V.

D. S. N. Parker, F. Zhang, Y. S. Kim, R. I. Kaiser, A. Landera, V. V. Kislov, A. M. Mebel, and A. G. G. M. Tielens, “Low temperature formation of naphthalene and its role in the synthesis of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the interstellar medium,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 53–58 (2012).
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Kobayashi, Y.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4, 55–57 (2009).
[Crossref]

Komasa, J.

L.-G. Tao, A.-W. Liu, K. Pachucki, J. Komasa, Y. R. Sun, J. Wang, and S.-M. Hu, “Toward a determination of the proton-electron mass ratio from the Lamb-dip measurement of HD,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 153001(2018).
[Crossref]

Koroborov, V. I.

S. Alighanbari, M. G. Hansen, V. I. Koroborov, and S. Schiller, “Rotational spectroscopy of cold and trapped molecular ions in the Lamb-Dicke regime,” Nat. Phys. 14, 555–559 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kozyryev, I.

J. Baron, W. C. Campbell, D. DeMille, J. M. Doyle, G. Gabrielse, Y. V. Gurevich, P. W. Hess, N. R. Hutzler, E. Kirilov, I. Kozyryev, B. R. O’Leary, C. D. Panda, M. F. Parsons, E. S. Petrik, B. Spaun, A. C. Vutha, and A. D. West, “Order of magnitude smaller limit on the electric dipole moment of the electron,” Science 343, 269–272 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kumar, S.

S. Lee, D. Hauser, O. Lakhmanskaya, S. Spieler, E. Endres, K. Geistlinger, S. Kumar, and R. Wester, “Terahertz-visible two-photon rotational spectroscopy of cold OD-,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 032513 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lakhmanskaya, O.

S. Lee, D. Hauser, O. Lakhmanskaya, S. Spieler, E. Endres, K. Geistlinger, S. Kumar, and R. Wester, “Terahertz-visible two-photon rotational spectroscopy of cold OD-,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 032513 (2016).
[Crossref]

Landera, A.

D. S. N. Parker, F. Zhang, Y. S. Kim, R. I. Kaiser, A. Landera, V. V. Kislov, A. M. Mebel, and A. G. G. M. Tielens, “Low temperature formation of naphthalene and its role in the synthesis of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the interstellar medium,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 53–58 (2012).
[Crossref]

Laporta, P.

D. Gatti, R. Gotti, A. Gambetta, M. Belmonte, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, and M. Marangoni, “Comb-locked Lamb-dip spectrometer,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27183 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. F.

P. B. Changala, M. L. Weichman, K. F. Lee, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Rovibrational quantum state resolution of the C60 fullerene,” Science 363, 49–54 (2019).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

S. Lee, D. Hauser, O. Lakhmanskaya, S. Spieler, E. Endres, K. Geistlinger, S. Kumar, and R. Wester, “Terahertz-visible two-photon rotational spectroscopy of cold OD-,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 032513 (2016).
[Crossref]

Levi, F.

L. Santamaria, V. Di Sarno, P. De Natale, M. De Rosa, M. Inguscio, S. Mosca, I. Ricciardi, D. Calonico, F. Levi, and P. Maddaloni, “Comb-assisted cavity ring-down spectroscopy of a buffer-gas-cooled molecular beam,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18, 16715–16720 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lisak, D.

A. Cygan, D. Lisak, P. Maslowski, K. Bielska, S. Wojtewicz, J. Domyslawska, R. S. Trawinski, R. Ciurylo, H. Abe, and J. T. Hodges, “Pound-Drever-Hall-locked, frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 063107 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Lisak and J. T. Hodges, “High-resolution cavity ring-down spectroscopy measurements of blended H2O transitions,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 317–325 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liu, A.-W.

T.-P. Hua, Y. R. Sun, J. Wang, C.-L. Hu, L.-G. Tao, A.-W. Liu, and S.-M. Hu, “Cavity-enhanced saturation spectroscopy of molecules with sub-kHz accuracy,” Chin. J. Chem. Phys. 32, 1 (2019).

L.-G. Tao, T.-P. Hua, Y. R. Sun, J. Wang, A.-W. Liu, and S.-M. Hu, “Frequency metrology of the acetylene lines near 789  nm from Lamb-dip measurements,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 210, 111–115 (2018).
[Crossref]

L.-G. Tao, A.-W. Liu, K. Pachucki, J. Komasa, Y. R. Sun, J. Wang, and S.-M. Hu, “Toward a determination of the proton-electron mass ratio from the Lamb-dip measurement of HD,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 153001(2018).
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Tarbut, M. R.

S. K. Tokunaga, R. J. Hendricks, M. R. Tarbut, and B. Darquié, “High-resolution mid-infrared spectroscopy of buffer-gas-cooled methyltrioxorhenium molecules,” New J. Phys. 19, 053006 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tarbutt, M. R.

H. J. Williams, L. Caldwell, N. J. Fitch, S. Truppe, J. Rodewald, E. A. Hinds, B. E. Sauer, and M. R. Tarbutt, “Magnetic trapping and coherent control of laser-cooled molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 163201 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. M. Skoff, R. J. Hendricks, C. D. J. Sinclair, M. R. Tarbutt, J. J. Hudson, D. M. Segal, B. E. Sauer, and E. A. Hinds, “Doppler-free laser spectroscopy of buffer-gas-cooled molecular radicals,” New J. Phys. 11, 123026 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tasseva, J.

V. Di Sarno, P. De Natale, J. Tasseva, L. Santamaria, E. Cané, F. Tamassia, and P. Maddaloni, “Frequency-comb-assisted absolute calibration and linestrength of H12C13CH ro-vibrational transitions in the 2ν3 band,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 206, 31–35 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Braggio, G. Carugno, F. Chiossi, A. Di Lieto, M. Guarise, P. Maddaloni, A. Ortolan, G. Ruoso, L. Santamaria, J. Tasseva, and M. Tonelli, “Axion dark matter detection by laser induced fluorescence in rare-earth doped materials,” Sci. Rep. 7, 15168 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tielens, A. G. G. M.

D. S. N. Parker, F. Zhang, Y. S. Kim, R. I. Kaiser, A. Landera, V. V. Kislov, A. M. Mebel, and A. G. G. M. Tielens, “Low temperature formation of naphthalene and its role in the synthesis of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the interstellar medium,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 53–58 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tokunaga, S. K.

S. K. Tokunaga, R. J. Hendricks, M. R. Tarbut, and B. Darquié, “High-resolution mid-infrared spectroscopy of buffer-gas-cooled methyltrioxorhenium molecules,” New J. Phys. 19, 053006 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. K. Tokunaga, C. Stoeffler, F. Auguste, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, and B. Darquié, “Probing weak force-induced parity violation by high-resolution mid-infrared molecular spectroscopy,” Mol. Phys. 111, 2363–2373 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tonelli, M.

C. Braggio, G. Carugno, F. Chiossi, A. Di Lieto, M. Guarise, P. Maddaloni, A. Ortolan, G. Ruoso, L. Santamaria, J. Tasseva, and M. Tonelli, “Axion dark matter detection by laser induced fluorescence in rare-earth doped materials,” Sci. Rep. 7, 15168 (2017).
[Crossref]

Trawinski, R. S.

A. Cygan, D. Lisak, P. Maslowski, K. Bielska, S. Wojtewicz, J. Domyslawska, R. S. Trawinski, R. Ciurylo, H. Abe, and J. T. Hodges, “Pound-Drever-Hall-locked, frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 063107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Truppe, S.

H. J. Williams, L. Caldwell, N. J. Fitch, S. Truppe, J. Rodewald, E. A. Hinds, B. E. Sauer, and M. R. Tarbutt, “Magnetic trapping and coherent control of laser-cooled molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 163201 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ubachs, W.

F. M. J. Cozijn, P. Dupre, E. J. Salumbides, K. S. E. Eikema, and W. Ubachs, “Sub-Doppler frequency metrology in HD for test of fundamental physics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 153002 (2018).
[Crossref]

Udem, T.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4, 55–57 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vainio, M.

van Helden, J.-P. H.

S. Reuter, J. S. Sousa, G. D. Stancu, and J.-P. H. van Helden, “Review on VUV to MIR absorption spectroscopy of atmospheric pressure plasma jets,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 24, 054001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Vutha, A. C.

J. Baron, W. C. Campbell, D. DeMille, J. M. Doyle, G. Gabrielse, Y. V. Gurevich, P. W. Hess, N. R. Hutzler, E. Kirilov, I. Kozyryev, B. R. O’Leary, C. D. Panda, M. F. Parsons, E. S. Petrik, B. Spaun, A. C. Vutha, and A. D. West, “Order of magnitude smaller limit on the electric dipole moment of the electron,” Science 343, 269–272 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wall, T. E.

T. E. Wall, “Preparation of cold molecules for high-precision measurements,” J. Phys. B 49, 243001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

T.-P. Hua, Y. R. Sun, J. Wang, C.-L. Hu, L.-G. Tao, A.-W. Liu, and S.-M. Hu, “Cavity-enhanced saturation spectroscopy of molecules with sub-kHz accuracy,” Chin. J. Chem. Phys. 32, 1 (2019).

L.-G. Tao, T.-P. Hua, Y. R. Sun, J. Wang, A.-W. Liu, and S.-M. Hu, “Frequency metrology of the acetylene lines near 789  nm from Lamb-dip measurements,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 210, 111–115 (2018).
[Crossref]

L.-G. Tao, A.-W. Liu, K. Pachucki, J. Komasa, Y. R. Sun, J. Wang, and S.-M. Hu, “Toward a determination of the proton-electron mass ratio from the Lamb-dip measurement of HD,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 153001(2018).
[Crossref]

Weichman, M. L.

P. B. Changala, M. L. Weichman, K. F. Lee, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Rovibrational quantum state resolution of the C60 fullerene,” Science 363, 49–54 (2019).
[Crossref]

Weinstein, J. D.

J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, K. Amar, A. Boca, B. C. Odom, B. Friedrich, and J. M. Doyle, “Spectroscopy of buffer-gas cooled vanadium monoxide in a magnetic trapping field,” J. Chem. Phys. 109, 2656–2661 (1998).
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West, A. D.

J. Baron, W. C. Campbell, D. DeMille, J. M. Doyle, G. Gabrielse, Y. V. Gurevich, P. W. Hess, N. R. Hutzler, E. Kirilov, I. Kozyryev, B. R. O’Leary, C. D. Panda, M. F. Parsons, E. S. Petrik, B. Spaun, A. C. Vutha, and A. D. West, “Order of magnitude smaller limit on the electric dipole moment of the electron,” Science 343, 269–272 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wester, R.

S. Lee, D. Hauser, O. Lakhmanskaya, S. Spieler, E. Endres, K. Geistlinger, S. Kumar, and R. Wester, “Terahertz-visible two-photon rotational spectroscopy of cold OD-,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 032513 (2016).
[Crossref]

Williams, H. J.

H. J. Williams, L. Caldwell, N. J. Fitch, S. Truppe, J. Rodewald, E. A. Hinds, B. E. Sauer, and M. R. Tarbutt, “Magnetic trapping and coherent control of laser-cooled molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 163201 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wojtewicz, S.

A. Cygan, D. Lisak, P. Maslowski, K. Bielska, S. Wojtewicz, J. Domyslawska, R. S. Trawinski, R. Ciurylo, H. Abe, and J. T. Hodges, “Pound-Drever-Hall-locked, frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 063107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yamada, K.

O. Asvany, K. Yamada, S. Brünken, A. Potapov, and S. Schlemmer, “Experimental ground-state combination differences of CH5+,” Science 347, 1346–1349 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ye, J.

P. B. Changala, M. L. Weichman, K. F. Lee, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Rovibrational quantum state resolution of the C60 fullerene,” Science 363, 49–54 (2019).
[Crossref]

B. Spaun, P. Bryan Changala, D. Patterson, B. J. Bjork, O. H. Heckl, J. M. Doyle, and J. Ye, “Continuous probing of cold complex molecules with infrared frequency comb spectroscopy,” Nature 533, 517–520 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, J. Ye, E. Peik, and P. O. Schmidt, “Optical atomic clocks,” Rev. Modern Phys. 87, 637–701 (2015).
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Zelevinsky, T.

G. Z. Iwata, R. L. McNally, and T. Zelevinsky, “High-resolution optical spectroscopy with a buffer-gas-cooled beam of BaH molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 022509 (2017).
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Zhang, F.

D. S. N. Parker, F. Zhang, Y. S. Kim, R. I. Kaiser, A. Landera, V. V. Kislov, A. M. Mebel, and A. G. G. M. Tielens, “Low temperature formation of naphthalene and its role in the synthesis of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the interstellar medium,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 53–58 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. Lisak and J. T. Hodges, “High-resolution cavity ring-down spectroscopy measurements of blended H2O transitions,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 317–325 (2007).
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Astron. Astrophys. (1)

P. S. Barklem and R. Collet, “Partition functions and equilibrium constants for diatomic molecules and atoms of astrophysical interest,” Astron. Astrophys. 588, A96 (2016).
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Astrophys. J. (1)

L. Santamaria, V. Di Sarno, I. Ricciardi, M. De Rosa, S. Mosca, G. Santambrogio, P. Maddaloni, and P. De Natale, “Low-temperature spectroscopy of the 12C2H2(ν1 + ν3) band in a helium buffer gas,” Astrophys. J. 801, 50 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chin. J. Chem. Phys. (1)

T.-P. Hua, Y. R. Sun, J. Wang, C.-L. Hu, L.-G. Tao, A.-W. Liu, and S.-M. Hu, “Cavity-enhanced saturation spectroscopy of molecules with sub-kHz accuracy,” Chin. J. Chem. Phys. 32, 1 (2019).

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

J. Burkart, T. Sala, D. Romanini, M. Marangoni, A. Campargue, and S. Kassi, “Communication: Saturated CO2 absorption near 1.6  μm for kilohertz-accuracy transition frequencies,” J. Chem. Phys. 142, 191103(2015).
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J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, K. Amar, A. Boca, B. C. Odom, B. Friedrich, and J. M. Doyle, “Spectroscopy of buffer-gas cooled vanadium monoxide in a magnetic trapping field,” J. Chem. Phys. 109, 2656–2661 (1998).
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J. Mol. Spectrosc. (1)

L. Santamaria, V. Di Sarno, I. Ricciardi, S. Mosca, M. De Rosa, G. Santambrogio, P. Maddaloni, and P. De Natale, “Assessing the time constancy of the proton-to-electron mass ratio by precision ro-vibrational spectroscopy of a cold molecular beam,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 300, 116–123 (2015).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Phys. B (1)

T. E. Wall, “Preparation of cold molecules for high-precision measurements,” J. Phys. B 49, 243001 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (2)

V. Di Sarno, P. De Natale, J. Tasseva, L. Santamaria, E. Cané, F. Tamassia, and P. Maddaloni, “Frequency-comb-assisted absolute calibration and linestrength of H12C13CH ro-vibrational transitions in the 2ν3 band,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 206, 31–35 (2018).
[Crossref]

L.-G. Tao, T.-P. Hua, Y. R. Sun, J. Wang, A.-W. Liu, and S.-M. Hu, “Frequency metrology of the acetylene lines near 789  nm from Lamb-dip measurements,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 210, 111–115 (2018).
[Crossref]

Mol. Phys. (2)

S. K. Tokunaga, C. Stoeffler, F. Auguste, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, and B. Darquié, “Probing weak force-induced parity violation by high-resolution mid-infrared molecular spectroscopy,” Mol. Phys. 111, 2363–2373 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Patterson and J. M. Doyle, “Cooling molecules in a cell for FTMW spectroscopy,” Mol. Phys. 110, 1757–1766 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (3)

L. Anderegg, B. L. Augenbraun, Y. Bao, S. Burchesky, L. W. Cheuk, W. Ketterle, and J. M. Doyle, “Laser cooling of optically trapped molecules,” Nat. Phys. 14, 890–893 (2018).
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S. Alighanbari, M. G. Hansen, V. I. Koroborov, and S. Schiller, “Rotational spectroscopy of cold and trapped molecular ions in the Lamb-Dicke regime,” Nat. Phys. 14, 555–559 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4, 55–57 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

B. Spaun, P. Bryan Changala, D. Patterson, B. J. Bjork, O. H. Heckl, J. M. Doyle, and J. Ye, “Continuous probing of cold complex molecules with infrared frequency comb spectroscopy,” Nature 533, 517–520 (2016).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (3)

S. K. Tokunaga, R. J. Hendricks, M. R. Tarbut, and B. Darquié, “High-resolution mid-infrared spectroscopy of buffer-gas-cooled methyltrioxorhenium molecules,” New J. Phys. 19, 053006 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Santamaria, C. Braggio, G. Carugno, V. Di Sarno, P. Maddaloni, and G. Ruoso, “Axion dark matter detection by laser spectroscopy of ultracold molecular oxygen: a proposal,” New J. Phys. 17, 113025 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. M. Skoff, R. J. Hendricks, C. D. J. Sinclair, M. R. Tarbutt, J. J. Hudson, D. M. Segal, B. E. Sauer, and E. A. Hinds, “Doppler-free laser spectroscopy of buffer-gas-cooled molecular radicals,” New J. Phys. 11, 123026 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Czajkowski, A. A. Madej, and P. Dubé, “Development and study of a 1.5 μm optical frequency standard referenced to the P(16) saturated absorption line in the ν1 + ν3 overtone band of 12C2H2,” Opt. Commun. 234, 259–268 (2004).
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Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Optica (1)

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (2)

I. Sadiek and G. Friedrichs, “Saturation dynamics and working limits of saturated absorption cavity ringdown spectroscopy,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18, 22978–22989 (2016).
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L. Santamaria, V. Di Sarno, P. De Natale, M. De Rosa, M. Inguscio, S. Mosca, I. Ricciardi, D. Calonico, F. Levi, and P. Maddaloni, “Comb-assisted cavity ring-down spectroscopy of a buffer-gas-cooled molecular beam,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18, 16715–16720 (2016).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

G. Z. Iwata, R. L. McNally, and T. Zelevinsky, “High-resolution optical spectroscopy with a buffer-gas-cooled beam of BaH molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 022509 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Lee, D. Hauser, O. Lakhmanskaya, S. Spieler, E. Endres, K. Geistlinger, S. Kumar, and R. Wester, “Terahertz-visible two-photon rotational spectroscopy of cold OD-,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 032513 (2016).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (9)

G. Giusfredi, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Saturated-absorption cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 110801 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Shelkovnikov, R. J. Butcher, C. Chardonnet, and A. Amy-Klein, “Stability of the proton-to-electron mass ratio,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 150801 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. J. Williams, L. Caldwell, N. J. Fitch, S. Truppe, J. Rodewald, E. A. Hinds, B. E. Sauer, and M. R. Tarbutt, “Magnetic trapping and coherent control of laser-cooled molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 163201 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. E. Maxwell, N. Brahms, R. deCarvalho, D. R. Glenn, J. S. Helton, S. V. Nguyen, D. Patterson, J. Petricka, D. DeMille, and J. M. Doyle, “High-flux beam source for cold, slow atoms or molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 173201 (2005).
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R. K. Altmann, S. Galtier, L. S. Dreissen, and K. S. E. Eikema, “High-precision Ramsey-comb spectroscopy at deep ultraviolet wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 173201 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. M. J. Cozijn, P. Dupre, E. J. Salumbides, K. S. E. Eikema, and W. Ubachs, “Sub-Doppler frequency metrology in HD for test of fundamental physics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 153002 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Jansen, L. Semeria, L. Esteban Hofer, S. Scheidegger, J. A. Agner, H. Schmutz, and F. Merkt, “Precision spectroscopy in cold molecules: the lowest rotational interval of He2+ and metastable He2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133202 (2015).
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L.-G. Tao, A.-W. Liu, K. Pachucki, J. Komasa, Y. R. Sun, J. Wang, and S.-M. Hu, “Toward a determination of the proton-electron mass ratio from the Lamb-dip measurement of HD,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 153001(2018).
[Crossref]

Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. (1)

S. Reuter, J. S. Sousa, G. D. Stancu, and J.-P. H. van Helden, “Review on VUV to MIR absorption spectroscopy of atmospheric pressure plasma jets,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 24, 054001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2)

A. S. Burrows, “Spectra as windows into exoplanet atmospheres,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 12601–12609 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. S. N. Parker, F. Zhang, Y. S. Kim, R. I. Kaiser, A. Landera, V. V. Kislov, A. M. Mebel, and A. G. G. M. Tielens, “Low temperature formation of naphthalene and its role in the synthesis of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the interstellar medium,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 53–58 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

M. S. Safronova, D. Budker, D. DeMille, D. F. Jackson Kimball, A. Derevianko, and C. W. Clark, “Search for new physics with atoms and molecules,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 90, 025008 (2018).
[Crossref]

Rev. Modern Phys. (1)

A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, J. Ye, E. Peik, and P. O. Schmidt, “Optical atomic clocks,” Rev. Modern Phys. 87, 637–701 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. Cygan, D. Lisak, P. Maslowski, K. Bielska, S. Wojtewicz, J. Domyslawska, R. S. Trawinski, R. Ciurylo, H. Abe, and J. T. Hodges, “Pound-Drever-Hall-locked, frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 063107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (2)

C. Braggio, G. Carugno, F. Chiossi, A. Di Lieto, M. Guarise, P. Maddaloni, A. Ortolan, G. Ruoso, L. Santamaria, J. Tasseva, and M. Tonelli, “Axion dark matter detection by laser induced fluorescence in rare-earth doped materials,” Sci. Rep. 7, 15168 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Gatti, R. Gotti, A. Gambetta, M. Belmonte, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, and M. Marangoni, “Comb-locked Lamb-dip spectrometer,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27183 (2016).
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Science (3)

P. B. Changala, M. L. Weichman, K. F. Lee, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Rovibrational quantum state resolution of the C60 fullerene,” Science 363, 49–54 (2019).
[Crossref]

O. Asvany, K. Yamada, S. Brünken, A. Potapov, and S. Schlemmer, “Experimental ground-state combination differences of CH5+,” Science 347, 1346–1349 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Baron, W. C. Campbell, D. DeMille, J. M. Doyle, G. Gabrielse, Y. V. Gurevich, P. W. Hess, N. R. Hutzler, E. Kirilov, I. Kozyryev, B. R. O’Leary, C. D. Panda, M. F. Parsons, E. S. Petrik, B. Spaun, A. C. Vutha, and A. D. West, “Order of magnitude smaller limit on the electric dipole moment of the electron,” Science 343, 269–272 (2013).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic layout (not to scale) of the experimental apparatus consisting of two main blocks: the BGC source and the OFCS-referenced probe laser. To keep the pressure inside the radiation shields below 10 7 mbar , the internal surface of the inner shield (roughly 1500 cm 2 ) is covered with a layer of activated charcoal that, at cryogenic temperatures, acts as a pump (with a speed of a few thousands dm 3 / s [15]) for helium and non-guided molecules. The gas adsorbed by the charcoal is released during the warm-up of the cryogenic system and then pumped out of the vessel by a turbomolecular pump (not shown). Relevant dimensions of the enhancement cavity and the buffer cell are given in the inset.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Exploded sketch of the specially designed cavity mirror mount.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Doppler-limited spectrum of the ( ν 1 + ν 3 ) R(1) ro-vibrational transition of acetylene, obtained for F mol = F He = 6 SCCM . Fitting with a Gaussian profile yields a temperature of ( 20 ± 3 ) K for the C 2 H 2 sample. To make the abscissa axis easy to read, rather than ν , the absolute frequency detuning ν ν 0 is reported, where ν 0 is the center-frequency value previously measured in [38].
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Lamb-dip line shape corresponding to the Doppler-limited spectrum of Fig. 3 ( T 20 K ) with a saturation contrast around 8%. The spectral feature is the average over 30 single Lamb-dip acquisitions. Then, a Lorentzian fit (continuous line) is carried out to extract the line-center frequency and the FWHM. In the lower panel, fit residuals are also shown, from which a SNR 30 is estimated for the Lamb-dip feature.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. FWHM of the observed Lamb-dip spectra as a function of the C 2 H 2 flux injected into the BGC cell (for a given He flux, F He = 8 SCCM ). A linear fit to the data points extracts the self-collisional broadening coefficient: γ self = ( 60 ± 20 ) kHz / SCCM . As mentioned in the text, the corresponding self-collisional shift coefficient δ self could not be significantly estimated (by the slope of a linear fit to the ν 0 values against F mol ): δ self = ( 4 ± 5 ) kHz / SCCM .
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. FWHM of the observed Lamb-dip spectra versus the He flux injected into the BGC cell (for a given C 2 H 2 flux, F mol = 6 SCCM ). A linear fit to the data points yields the foreign collisional broadening coefficient: γ foreign = ( 66 ± 9 ) kHz / SCCM . Also, in this case, the corresponding foreign collisional shift coefficient δ foreign could not be estimated with sufficient accuracy: δ foreign = ( 1 ± 3 ) kHz / SCCM .

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Summary of Estimated Systematic Uncertainties Associated with the Absolute Determination of the Center Frequency of the ( ν 1 + ν 3 ) R(1) Ro-vibrational Line

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ν = ν ceo + N ν r + ν LO + ν AOM ,
α ( ν ) = 1 c [ 1 τ ( ν ) 1 τ 0 ] D d ,

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