Abstract

Recent advances in computational wavefront shaping have made optical focusing through scattering media a reality. However, most current techniques are too slow to focus, much less image through dynamically changing living biological tissue, such as blood-perfused neural networks, which can decorrelate in milliseconds. We introduce a phase control technique using programmable acoustic optic deflectors (AODs) that is orders of magnitude faster than existing wavefront shaping methods. It is based on sending an array of RF-encoded beams through the medium and measuring the phases of all scattered beams simultaneously with a fast single-pixel detector in just 10 μs. Using the AODs, we then phase conjugate the beams to form a spatio-temporal focus. We also demonstrate two-dimensional scanning of the focus on a sub-millisecond time scale.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (2)

2016 (3)

2015 (4)

2012 (2)

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, Nat. Photonics 6, 283 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. B. Conkey, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, and R. Piestun, Opt. Express 20, 1733 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

M. Cui, Opt. Lett. 36, 870 (2011).
[Crossref]

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, Nat. Photonics 5, 372 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

D. Feldkhun and K. H. Wagner, Appl. Opt. 49, H47 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Nat. Commun. 1, 81 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, Nat. Photonics 2, 110 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

K. C. Vermeulen, J. Van Mameren, G. J. M. Stienen, E. J. G. Peterman, G. J. L. Wuite, and C. F. Schmidt, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 013704 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

G. D. Reddy and P. Saggau, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064038 (2005).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

Acevedo, M.

M. Garrido, M. Acevedo, A. Ehliar, and O. Gustafsson, in International Symposium on Integrated Circuits (ISIC), Singapore, Singapore, December10–12, 2014 (IEEE, 2014), pp. 172–175.

Akemann, W.

Birkholz, S.

S. Birkholz, C. Brée, I. Veselic, A. Demircan, and G. Steinmeyer, Sci. Rep. 6, 4 (2016).
[Crossref]

Blochet, B.

Boccara, A. C.

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Nat. Commun. 1, 81 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bourdieu, L.

Brake, J.

Brée, C.

S. Birkholz, C. Brée, I. Veselic, A. Demircan, and G. Steinmeyer, Sci. Rep. 6, 4 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bromberg, Y.

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, Nat. Photonics 5, 372 (2011).
[Crossref]

Caravaca-Aguirre, A. M.

Conkey, D. B.

Cui, M.

Demircan, A.

S. Birkholz, C. Brée, I. Veselic, A. Demircan, and G. Steinmeyer, Sci. Rep. 6, 4 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dieudonné, S.

Ehliar, A.

M. Garrido, M. Acevedo, A. Ehliar, and O. Gustafsson, in International Symposium on Integrated Circuits (ISIC), Singapore, Singapore, December10–12, 2014 (IEEE, 2014), pp. 172–175.

Feld, M. S.

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, Nat. Photonics 2, 110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Feldkhun, D.

Fink, M.

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, Nat. Photonics 6, 283 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Nat. Commun. 1, 81 (2010).
[Crossref]

Garrido, M.

M. Garrido, M. Acevedo, A. Ehliar, and O. Gustafsson, in International Symposium on Integrated Circuits (ISIC), Singapore, Singapore, December10–12, 2014 (IEEE, 2014), pp. 172–175.

Gigan, S.

B. Blochet, L. Bourdieu, and S. Gigan, Opt. Lett. 42, 4994 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Nat. Commun. 1, 81 (2010).
[Crossref]

Goodman, J. W.

Gustafsson, O.

M. Garrido, M. Acevedo, A. Ehliar, and O. Gustafsson, in International Symposium on Integrated Circuits (ISIC), Singapore, Singapore, December10–12, 2014 (IEEE, 2014), pp. 172–175.

Horstmeyer, R.

B. Judkewitz, R. Horstmeyer, I. M. Vellekoop, I. N. Papadopoulos, and C. Yang, Nat. Phys. 11, 684 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jang, M.

Judkewitz, B.

B. Judkewitz, R. Horstmeyer, I. M. Vellekoop, I. N. Papadopoulos, and C. Yang, Nat. Phys. 11, 684 (2015).
[Crossref]

Katz, O.

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, Nat. Photonics 5, 372 (2011).
[Crossref]

Labouesse, S.

O. Tzang, E. Niv, S. Singh, S. Labouesse, G. Myatt, and R. Piestun, “Wavefront shaping in complex media at 350  KHz with a 1D-to-2D transform,” arXiv:1808.09025 (2018).

Lagendijk, A.

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, Nat. Photonics 6, 283 (2012).
[Crossref]

Léger, J.-F.

Lerosey, G.

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, Nat. Photonics 6, 283 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Nat. Commun. 1, 81 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Ma, C.

Mathieu, B.

Mosk, A. P.

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, Nat. Photonics 6, 283 (2012).
[Crossref]

Myatt, G.

O. Tzang, E. Niv, S. Singh, S. Labouesse, G. Myatt, and R. Piestun, “Wavefront shaping in complex media at 350  KHz with a 1D-to-2D transform,” arXiv:1808.09025 (2018).

Niv, E.

O. Tzang, E. Niv, S. Singh, S. Labouesse, G. Myatt, and R. Piestun, “Wavefront shaping in complex media at 350  KHz with a 1D-to-2D transform,” arXiv:1808.09025 (2018).

Papadopoulos, I. N.

B. Judkewitz, R. Horstmeyer, I. M. Vellekoop, I. N. Papadopoulos, and C. Yang, Nat. Phys. 11, 684 (2015).
[Crossref]

Peterman, E. J. G.

K. C. Vermeulen, J. Van Mameren, G. J. M. Stienen, E. J. G. Peterman, G. J. L. Wuite, and C. F. Schmidt, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 013704 (2006).
[Crossref]

Piestun, R.

D. B. Conkey, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, and R. Piestun, Opt. Express 20, 1733 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. Tzang, E. Niv, S. Singh, S. Labouesse, G. Myatt, and R. Piestun, “Wavefront shaping in complex media at 350  KHz with a 1D-to-2D transform,” arXiv:1808.09025 (2018).

Popoff, S.

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Nat. Commun. 1, 81 (2010).
[Crossref]

Psaltis, D.

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, Nat. Photonics 2, 110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Reddy, G. D.

G. D. Reddy and P. Saggau, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064038 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ruan, H.

Saggau, P.

G. D. Reddy and P. Saggau, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064038 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, C. F.

K. C. Vermeulen, J. Van Mameren, G. J. M. Stienen, E. J. G. Peterman, G. J. L. Wuite, and C. F. Schmidt, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 013704 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y.

Shi, J.

Silberberg, Y.

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, Nat. Photonics 5, 372 (2011).
[Crossref]

Singh, S.

O. Tzang, E. Niv, S. Singh, S. Labouesse, G. Myatt, and R. Piestun, “Wavefront shaping in complex media at 350  KHz with a 1D-to-2D transform,” arXiv:1808.09025 (2018).

Small, E.

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, Nat. Photonics 5, 372 (2011).
[Crossref]

Steinmeyer, G.

S. Birkholz, C. Brée, I. Veselic, A. Demircan, and G. Steinmeyer, Sci. Rep. 6, 4 (2016).
[Crossref]

Stienen, G. J. M.

K. C. Vermeulen, J. Van Mameren, G. J. M. Stienen, E. J. G. Peterman, G. J. L. Wuite, and C. F. Schmidt, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 013704 (2006).
[Crossref]

Stroud, R.

J. Xu and R. Stroud, Acousto-Optic Devices: Principles, Design, and Applications (Wiley, 1992).

Tzang, O.

O. Tzang, E. Niv, S. Singh, S. Labouesse, G. Myatt, and R. Piestun, “Wavefront shaping in complex media at 350  KHz with a 1D-to-2D transform,” arXiv:1808.09025 (2018).

Van Mameren, J.

K. C. Vermeulen, J. Van Mameren, G. J. M. Stienen, E. J. G. Peterman, G. J. L. Wuite, and C. F. Schmidt, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 013704 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vellekoop, I. M.

B. Judkewitz, R. Horstmeyer, I. M. Vellekoop, I. N. Papadopoulos, and C. Yang, Nat. Phys. 11, 684 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. M. Vellekoop, Opt. Express 23, 12189 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ventalon, C.

Vermeulen, K. C.

K. C. Vermeulen, J. Van Mameren, G. J. M. Stienen, E. J. G. Peterman, G. J. L. Wuite, and C. F. Schmidt, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 013704 (2006).
[Crossref]

Veselic, I.

S. Birkholz, C. Brée, I. Veselic, A. Demircan, and G. Steinmeyer, Sci. Rep. 6, 4 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wagner, K. H.

Wang, D.

Wang, L. V.

Wuite, G. J. L.

K. C. Vermeulen, J. Van Mameren, G. J. M. Stienen, E. J. G. Peterman, G. J. L. Wuite, and C. F. Schmidt, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 013704 (2006).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

J. Xu and R. Stroud, Acousto-Optic Devices: Principles, Design, and Applications (Wiley, 1992).

Yang, C.

J. Brake, M. Jang, and C. Yang, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 33, 270 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Wang, E. H. Zhou, J. Brake, H. Ruan, M. Jang, and C. Yang, Optica 2, 728 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Judkewitz, R. Horstmeyer, I. M. Vellekoop, I. N. Papadopoulos, and C. Yang, Nat. Phys. 11, 684 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, Nat. Photonics 2, 110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yaqoob, Z.

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, Nat. Photonics 2, 110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhou, E. H.

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

G. D. Reddy and P. Saggau, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064038 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nat. Commun. (1)

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Nat. Commun. 1, 81 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (3)

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, Nat. Photonics 6, 283 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, Nat. Photonics 5, 372 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, Nat. Photonics 2, 110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

B. Judkewitz, R. Horstmeyer, I. M. Vellekoop, I. N. Papadopoulos, and C. Yang, Nat. Phys. 11, 684 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Optica (2)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

K. C. Vermeulen, J. Van Mameren, G. J. M. Stienen, E. J. G. Peterman, G. J. L. Wuite, and C. F. Schmidt, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 013704 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

S. Birkholz, C. Brée, I. Veselic, A. Demircan, and G. Steinmeyer, Sci. Rep. 6, 4 (2016).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

J. Xu and R. Stroud, Acousto-Optic Devices: Principles, Design, and Applications (Wiley, 1992).

O. Tzang, E. Niv, S. Singh, S. Labouesse, G. Myatt, and R. Piestun, “Wavefront shaping in complex media at 350  KHz with a 1D-to-2D transform,” arXiv:1808.09025 (2018).

M. Garrido, M. Acevedo, A. Ehliar, and O. Gustafsson, in International Symposium on Integrated Circuits (ISIC), Singapore, Singapore, December10–12, 2014 (IEEE, 2014), pp. 172–175.

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Phase-conjugated focal spot acousto-optically scanned in 2D through 100 locations behind a diffuser using the memory effect. Each spot can be randomly addressed in 10 µs.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. DEEPC concept. A laser-illuminated AOD driven with a multi-frequency signal diffracts a frequency-mapped array of probe beams and a reference beam, which recombine in a conjugate plane to illuminate a scattering object from varying angles. The temporal signal from a pinhole detector in the far-field speckle pattern is Fourier-transformed to decode the local probe beam phases. A focus is formed by turning off the reference beam, acousto-optically conjugating the phases, and pulsing the laser during the spatio-temporal alignment of the local component speckle phasors.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. DEEPC experiment (only two array beams shown for clarity).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Focusing and scanning results. (a) Filtered Fourier transform of detector signal showing frequency comb corresponding to probe beams. (b) Detector signal before phase conjugation. (c) Detector signal after phase conjugation showing temporal focusing (blue). The laser is pulsed for 50 ns during focus events (red). Signal between the temporal foci is reduced w.r.t. (b) due to energy conservation. (d) Image of reference beam speckle showing pinhole locations within bright and dark speckle regions. (e-f) Corresponding foci obtained with 100 beams and a 10 μs measurement. (g) 80 μs wide-field 2D scan of the focus in (e) repeated multiple times during camera exposure, dwelling 10 μs at each of eight focal spots.

Equations (3)

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i d ( t ) | E p ( t ) | 2 = | n = 0 N | a n | e j ( ω 0 t Ω n t ϕ n ) | 2 ,
F { i d ( t ) } H ( Ω ) = n = 1 N | α n | e j φ n , 0 δ ( Ω Ω n , 0 ) * sinc ( Ω T M ) ,
| E p ( t = 0 ) | 2 = | n = 1 N | α n | e j ( ϕ n , 0 φ n , 0 ) | 2 n = 1 N | a n | 2 .

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