Abstract

Chip-integrated whispering-gallery resonators (WGRs) enable compact and wavelength-agile nonlinear optical frequency synthesizers. So far, the most flexible phase-matching technique, i.e., quasi-phase matching, has not been applied in this configuration. The reason is the lack of suitable thin films with alternating crystal structure on a low-refractive-index substrate. Here, we demonstrate an innovative method of realizing thin film substrates suitable for quasi-phase matching by field-assisted domain engineering of lithium niobate, and subsequent direct bonding and polishing. We are able to fabricate high-Q on-chip WGRs with these substrates by using standard semiconductor manufacturing techniques. The Q-factors of the resonators are up to one million, which allows us to demonstrate quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in on-chip WGRs for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The normalized conversion efficiency is 9×104  mW1. This method can also be transferred to other material systems.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2015 (2)

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2014 (3)

2013 (1)

G. Lin, J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, and N. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 181107 (2013).
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2012 (1)

2011 (2)

T. Beckmann, H. Linnenbank, H. Steigerwald, B. Sturman, D. Haertle, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 143903 (2011).
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C. Xiong, W. Pernice, K. K. Ryu, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, T. Palacios, and H. X. Tang, Opt. Express 19, 10462 (2011).
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2010 (2)

J. U. FÜrst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 153901 (2010).
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2007 (1)

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2006 (1)

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1999 (1)

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1997 (1)

1994 (1)

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Beckmann, T.

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Biermann, U. K.

Bohatý, L.

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Buse, K.

Cheng, Y.

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M. Wang, J.-T. Lin, Y.-X. Xu, Z.-W. Fang, L.-L. Qiao, Z.-M. Liu, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Opt. Commun. 395, 249 (2017).
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Favero, I.

Fink, J. M.

Fong, K. Y.

Fürst, J. U.

S.-K. Meisenheimer, J. U. Fürst, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, Optica 4, 189 (2017).
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J. U. Fürst, K. Buse, I. Breunig, P. Becker, J. Liebertz, and L. Bohatý, Opt. Lett. 40, 1932 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Lin, J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, and N. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 181107 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. U. FÜrst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 153901 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263904 (2010).
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Guarino, A.

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, Nat. Photonics 1, 407 (2007).
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Günter, P.

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, Nat. Photonics 1, 407 (2007).
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Guo, X.

Haertle, D.

T. Beckmann, H. Linnenbank, H. Steigerwald, B. Sturman, D. Haertle, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 143903 (2011).
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Haisma, J.

He, Y.

Herr, S. J.

C. S. Werner, S. J. Herr, K. Buse, B. Sturman, E. Soergel, C. Razzaghi, and I. Breunig, Sci. Rep. 7, 9862 (2017).
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Huang, I.-C.

Huang, Y.-P.

D. V. Strekalov, A. S. Kowligy, Y.-P. Huang, and P. Kumar, New J. Phys. 16, 053025 (2014).
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Ilchenko, V. S.

V. S. Ilchenko and A. B. Matsko, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 15 (2006).
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Ito, R.

Jiang, H.

Kitamoto, A.

Kondo, T.

Kowligy, A. S.

D. V. Strekalov, A. S. Kowligy, Y.-P. Huang, and P. Kumar, New J. Phys. 16, 053025 (2014).
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Kumar, P.

D. V. Strekalov, A. S. Kowligy, Y.-P. Huang, and P. Kumar, New J. Phys. 16, 053025 (2014).
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Lassen, M.

J. U. FÜrst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 153901 (2010).
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Lemaître, A.

Leo, G.

Leuchs, G.

A. Rueda, F. Sedlmeir, M. C. Collodo, U. Vogl, B. Stiller, G. Schunk, D. V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, J. M. Fink, O. Painter, G. Leuchs, and H. G. L. Schwefel, Optica 3, 597 (2016).
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D. V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, A. B. Matsko, H. G. L. Schwefel, and G. Leuchs, J. Opt. 18, 123002 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263904 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. U. FÜrst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 153901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liang, H.

Liao, Y.

Liebertz, J.

Lin, G.

G. Lin, J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, and N. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 181107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, J.

M. Wang, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, Y. Liao, P. Wang, W. Chu, L. Qiao, J. Lin, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Opt. Express 25, 124 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Ni, M. Wang, Z. Fang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 6, 014002 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 58, 114209 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, J.-T.

M. Wang, J.-T. Lin, Y.-X. Xu, Z.-W. Fang, L.-L. Qiao, Z.-M. Liu, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Opt. Commun. 395, 249 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lin, Q.

Lin, Z.

Linnenbank, H.

T. Beckmann, H. Linnenbank, H. Steigerwald, B. Sturman, D. Haertle, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 143903 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.-M.

M. Wang, J.-T. Lin, Y.-X. Xu, Z.-W. Fang, L.-L. Qiao, Z.-M. Liu, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Opt. Commun. 395, 249 (2017).
[Crossref]

Loncar, M.

Luo, R.

Mariani, S.

Marquardt, C.

A. Rueda, F. Sedlmeir, M. C. Collodo, U. Vogl, B. Stiller, G. Schunk, D. V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, J. M. Fink, O. Painter, G. Leuchs, and H. G. L. Schwefel, Optica 3, 597 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, A. B. Matsko, H. G. L. Schwefel, and G. Leuchs, J. Opt. 18, 123002 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263904 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. U. FÜrst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 153901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Matsko, A. B.

D. V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, A. B. Matsko, H. G. L. Schwefel, and G. Leuchs, J. Opt. 18, 123002 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. S. Ilchenko and A. B. Matsko, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 15 (2006).
[Crossref]

Meisenheimer, S.-K.

Ni, J.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Ni, M. Wang, Z. Fang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 6, 014002 (2016).
[Crossref]

Painter, O.

Palacios, T.

Pernice, W.

Plößl, A.

A. Plößl, Mater. Sci. Eng. R 25, 1 (1999).
[Crossref]

Poberaj, G.

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, Nat. Photonics 1, 407 (2007).
[Crossref]

Qiao, L.

M. Wang, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, Y. Liao, P. Wang, W. Chu, L. Qiao, J. Lin, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Opt. Express 25, 124 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Ni, M. Wang, Z. Fang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 6, 014002 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 58, 114209 (2015).
[Crossref]

Qiao, L.-L.

M. Wang, J.-T. Lin, Y.-X. Xu, Z.-W. Fang, L.-L. Qiao, Z.-M. Liu, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Opt. Commun. 395, 249 (2017).
[Crossref]

Razzaghi, C.

C. S. Werner, S. J. Herr, K. Buse, B. Sturman, E. Soergel, C. Razzaghi, and I. Breunig, Sci. Rep. 7, 9862 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rezzonico, D.

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, Nat. Photonics 1, 407 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rogers, S.

Rueda, A.

Ryu, K. K.

Schuck, C.

Schunk, G.

Schwefel, H. G. L.

Sedlmeir, F.

Shirane, M.

Shoji, I.

Soergel, E.

C. S. Werner, S. J. Herr, K. Buse, B. Sturman, E. Soergel, C. Razzaghi, and I. Breunig, Sci. Rep. 7, 9862 (2017).
[Crossref]

Spierings, B. A.

Stark, P.

Steigerwald, H.

T. Beckmann, H. Linnenbank, H. Steigerwald, B. Sturman, D. Haertle, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 143903 (2011).
[Crossref]

Stiller, B.

Strekalov, D. V.

A. Rueda, F. Sedlmeir, M. C. Collodo, U. Vogl, B. Stiller, G. Schunk, D. V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, J. M. Fink, O. Painter, G. Leuchs, and H. G. L. Schwefel, Optica 3, 597 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, A. B. Matsko, H. G. L. Schwefel, and G. Leuchs, J. Opt. 18, 123002 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. V. Strekalov, A. S. Kowligy, Y.-P. Huang, and P. Kumar, New J. Phys. 16, 053025 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Lin, J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, and N. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 181107 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. U. FÜrst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 153901 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263904 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sturman, B.

C. S. Werner, S. J. Herr, K. Buse, B. Sturman, E. Soergel, C. Razzaghi, and I. Breunig, Sci. Rep. 7, 9862 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Beckmann, H. Linnenbank, H. Steigerwald, B. Sturman, D. Haertle, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 143903 (2011).
[Crossref]

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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Supplement 1       Additional information about the fabrication and calculation of the effective nonlinear optical coefficient

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Process flow for the fabrication of periodically poled lithium-niobate-on-quartz (pp-LNoQ) substrates: (a) Domain inversion; (b) cleaning, surface functionalization; (c) thermal bonding; and (d) lapping and polishing.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. False-color SEM images of (a) a pp-LNoQ on-chip WGR with a diameter of 216 μm and (b) zoomed view. Dark blue: LN with z axis pointing up. Light blue: LN with z axis pointing down. Brown: quartz substrate.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Schematic of the setup for Q -factor measurement and investigation of second-harmonic generation.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Measured conversion efficiency of SHG (blue dots) and theoretical curve fitted by the analytical model. Inset: Image of the WGR while second-harmonic light is generated and coupled out into the coupling waveguide.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Mode cross section of (a) pump light and (b) second-harmonic light. (c) Fourier coefficients of a theoretical domain pattern with 23 μm periodicity and 5 μm domain width for type 0 phase matching, resulting in d ( ϕ ) .

Equations (5)

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η P sh P p = 4 r sh 1 + r sh r p 1 + r p X ( 1 + X ) 2
X ( 1 + X ) 2 = r p 1 + r p P p P 0 ,
P 0 = ν p π ε 0 n p 4 n sh 2 8 d eff 2 1 Q i , p 2 Q i , sh V eff ( 1 + r p ) 2 ( 1 + r sh ) .
2 m p m sh ± M = 0 ,
η ( P p ) 4 ( r p 1 + r p ) 2 r sh 1 + r sh 1 P 0 P p .

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