Abstract

Efficient electro-optic (EO) modulators crucially rely on advanced materials that exhibit strong electro-optic activity and that can be integrated into high-speed and efficient phase shifter structures. In this paper, we demonstrate ultra-high in-device EO figures of merit of up to n3r33=2300  pm/V achieved in a silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) Mach–Zehnder modulator (MZM) using the EO chromophore JRD1. This is the highest material-related in-device EO figure of merit hitherto achieved in a high-speed modulator at any operating wavelength. The π-voltage of the 1.5-mm-long device amounts to 210 mV, leading to a voltage-length product of UπL=320  Vμm—the lowest value reported for MZM that are based on low-loss dielectric waveguides. The viability of the devices is demonstrated by generating high-quality on-off-keying signals at 40 Gbit/s with Q factors in excess of 8 at a drive voltage as low as 140  mVpp. We expect that efficient high-speed EO modulators will not only have a major impact in the field of optical communications, but will also open new avenues towards ultrafast photonic-electronic signal processing.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (2)

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder modulators for 100  Gbit/s on-off keying,” Sci. Rep. 8, 2598 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, M. Lauermann, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, W. Freude, S. Randel, and C. Koos, “Coherent modulation up to 100  GBd 16QAM using silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) devices,” Opt. Express 26, 220–232 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (9)

H. Sato, H. Miura, F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, T. Kashino, T. Kikuchi, M. Ozawa, H. Nawata, K. Odoi, and S. Yokoyama, “Low driving voltage Mach-Zehnder interference modulator constructed from an electro-optic polymer on ultra-thin silicon with a broadband operation,” Opt. Express 25, 768–775 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with >170  GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100  GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25, 1762–1768 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, A. F. Tillack, Y. Fedoryshyn, R. Cottier, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, U. Koch, B. Cheng, B. Robinson, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Nonlinearities of organic electro-optic materials in nanoscale slots and implications for the optimum modulator design,” Opt. Express 25, 2627–2653 (2017).
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Y. Ogiso, J. Ozaki, Y. Ueda, N. Kashio, N. Kikuchi, E. Yamada, H. Tanobe, S. Kanazawa, H. Yamazaki, Y. Ohiso, T. Fujii, and M. Kohtoku, “Over 67  GHz bandwidth and 1.5  V Vπ InP-based optical IQ modulator with n-i-p-n heterostructure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 1450–1455 (2017).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, Y. Fedoryshyn, N. Đorđević, D. Chelladurai, U. Koch, K. Portner, M. Burla, B. Robinson, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Harnessing nonlinearities near material absorption resonances for reducing losses in plasmonic modulators,” Opt. Mater. Express 7, 2168–2181 (2017).
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H. Zwickel, S. Wolf, C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, M. Lauermann, T. De Keulenaer, A. Vyncke, R. Vaernewyck, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. Freude, J. Bauwelinck, S. Randel, and C. Koos, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for intensity-modulation/direct-detection links with line rates of up to 120  Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 25, 23784–23800 (2017).
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W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon-organic and plasmonic-organic hybrid photonics,” ACS Photon. 4, 1576–1590 (2017).
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T. Hiraki, T. Aihara, K. Hasebe, K. Takeda, T. Fujii, T. Kakitsuka, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Fukuda, and S. Matsuo, “Heterogeneously integrated III–V/Si MOS capacitor Mach–Zehnder modulator,” Nat. Photonics 11, 482–485 (2017).
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J.-H. Han, F. Boeuf, J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, S. Takagi, and M. Takenaka, “Efficient low-loss InGaAsP/Si hybrid MOS optical modulator,” Nat. Photonics 11, 486–490 (2017).
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2016 (9)

F. Eltes, D. Caimi, F. Fallegger, M. Sousa, E. O’Connor, M. D. Rossell, B. Offrein, J. Fompeyrine, and S. Abel, “Low-loss BaTiO3–Si waveguides for nonlinear integrated photonics,” ACS Photon. 3, 1698–1703 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Jin, P. V. Johnston, D. L. Elder, K. T. Manner, K. E. Garrett, W. Kaminsky, R. Xu, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Structure-function relationship exploration for enhanced thermal stability and electro-optic activity in monolithic organic NLO chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. C 4, 3119–3124 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Katopodis, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, R. Dinu, E. Miller, A. Konczykowska, J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, G. Cangini, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H.-G. Bach, N. Grote, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Polymer enabled 100  Gbaud connectivity for datacom applications,” Opt. Commun. 362, 13–21 (2016).
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P. O. Weigel, M. Savanier, C. T. DeRose, A. T. Pomerene, A. L. Starbuck, A. L. Lentine, V. Stenger, and S. Mookherjea, “Lightwave circuits in lithium niobate through hybrid waveguides with silicon photonics,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22301 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) and plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 256–268 (2016).
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S. Abel, T. Stöferle, C. Marchiori, D. Caimi, L. Czornomaz, M. Stuckelberger, M. Sousa, B. J. Offrein, and J. Fompeyrine, “A hybrid barium titanate-silicon photonics platform for ultraefficient electro-optic tuning,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 1688–1693 (2016).
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M. Lauermann, C. Weimann, A. Knopf, W. Heni, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, W. Bogaerts, J. Leuthold, L. R. Dalton, C. Rembe, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Integrated optical frequency shifter in silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) technology,” Opt. Express 24, 11694–11707 (2016).
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C. Xiong, D. M. Gill, J. E. Proesel, J. S. Orcutt, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “Monolithic 56  Gb/s silicon photonic pulse-amplitude modulation transmitter,” Optica 3, 1060–1065 (2016).
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A. F. Tillack and B. H. Robinson, “Toward optimal EO response from ONLO chromophores: a statistical mechanics study of optimizing shape,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33, E121–E129 (2016).
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2015 (7)

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40  GBd 16QAM signaling at 160  Gb/s in a silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 1210–1216 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, P. Schindler, G. Ronniger, K. Geistert, R. Palmer, S. Kober, W. Bogaerts, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “DAC-Less amplifier-less generation and transmission of QAM signals using sub-volt silicon-organic hybrid modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 1425–1432 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40  Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23, 9938–9946 (2015).
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A. Rao, A. Patil, J. Chiles, M. Malinowski, S. Novak, K. Richardson, P. Rabiei, and S. Fathpour, “Heterogeneous microring and Mach-Zehnder modulators based on lithium niobate and chalcogenide glasses on silicon,” Opt. Express 23, 22746–22752 (2015).
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S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e255 (2015).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9, 525–528 (2015).
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D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100  Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 2433–2436 (2015).
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2014 (7)

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 229–233 (2014).
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C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, J. H. Ngai, J. W. Reiner, D. Kumah, F. J. Walker, C. H. Ahn, and H. X. Tang, “Active silicon integrated nanophotonics: ferroelectric BaTiO3 devices,” Nano Lett. 14, 1419–1425 (2014).
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L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100  GHz silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Jin, P. V. Johnston, D. L. Elder, A. F. Tillack, B. C. Olbricht, J. Song, P. J. Reid, R. Xu, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Benzocyclobutene barrier layer for suppressing conductance in nonlinear optical devices during electric field poling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 243304 (2014).
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P. C. Schindler, D. Korn, C. Stamatiadis, M. F. OKeefe, L. Stampoulidis, R. Schmogrow, P. Zakynthinos, R. Palmer, N. Cameron, Y. Zhou, R. G. Walker, E. Kehayas, S. Ben-Ezra, I. Tomkos, L. Zimmermann, K. Petermann, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Monolithic GaAs electro-optic IQ modulator demonstrated at 150  Gbit/s with 64QAM,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 760–765 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 2726–2734 (2014).
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M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, P. C. Schindler, D. Korn, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Low-power silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for advanced modulation formats,” Opt. Express 22, 29927–29936 (2014).
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2013 (2)

2012 (4)

2011 (4)

X. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Effective in-device r33 of 735  pm/V on electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36, 882–884 (2011).
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D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40  Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19, 11507–11516 (2011).
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R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 233303 (2011).
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J. Luo, S. Huang, Z. Shi, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, and A. K. Jen, “Tailored organic electro-optic materials and their hybrid systems for device applications†,” Chem. Mater. 23, 544–553 (2011).
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2010 (4)

L. R. Dalton, P. A. Sullivan, and D. H. Bale, “Electric field poled organic electro-optic materials: state of the art and future prospects,” Chem. Rev. 110, 25–55 (2010).
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L. R. Dalton, D. Lao, B. C. Olbricht, S. Benight, D. H. Bale, J. A. Davies, T. Ewy, S. R. Hammond, and P. A. Sullivan, “Theory-inspired development of new nonlinear optical materials and their integration into silicon photonic circuits and devices,” Opt. Mater. 32, 658–668 (2010).
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S. Huang, T.-D. Kim, J. Luo, S. K. Hau, Z. Shi, X.-H. Zhou, H.-L. Yip, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Highly efficient electro-optic polymers through improved poling using a thin TiO2-modified transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 243311 (2010).
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R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, J. Witzens, S. Huang, J. Luo, S. Benight, P. Sullivan, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, L. Dalton, A. Jen, and M. Hochberg, “Demonstration of a low VπL modulator with GHz bandwidth based on electro-optic polymer-clad silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 18, 15618–15623 (2010).
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2009 (1)

2007 (1)

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, K.-Y. Jen, and A. N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol–gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro–optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180–185 (2007).
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2002 (1)

H. Kim and A. H. Gnauck, “Chirp characteristics of dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator with a finite DC extinction ratio,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 298–300 (2002).
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2001 (1)

M.-C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, “Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophore,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826–835 (2001).
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2000 (1)

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69–82 (2000).
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1998 (1)

1996 (1)

M. Sprave, R. Blum, and M. Eich, “High electric field conduction mechanisms in electrode poling of electro-optic polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2962–2964 (1996).
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Abel, S.

F. Eltes, D. Caimi, F. Fallegger, M. Sousa, E. O’Connor, M. D. Rossell, B. Offrein, J. Fompeyrine, and S. Abel, “Low-loss BaTiO3–Si waveguides for nonlinear integrated photonics,” ACS Photon. 3, 1698–1703 (2016).
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S. Abel, T. Stöferle, C. Marchiori, D. Caimi, L. Czornomaz, M. Stuckelberger, M. Sousa, B. J. Offrein, and J. Fompeyrine, “A hybrid barium titanate-silicon photonics platform for ultraefficient electro-optic tuning,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 1688–1693 (2016).
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Adamiecki, A.

G. Raybon, J. Cho, A. Adamiecki, P. Winzer, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, J.-Y. Dupuy, M. Riet, B. Duval, K. Kim, S. Randel, D. Pilori, B. Guan, N. K. Fontaine, and E. Burrows, “Single carrier high symbol rate transmitter for data rates up to 1.0  Tb/s,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, 2016), paper Th3A.2.

Ahn, C. H.

C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, J. H. Ngai, J. W. Reiner, D. Kumah, F. J. Walker, C. H. Ahn, and H. X. Tang, “Active silicon integrated nanophotonics: ferroelectric BaTiO3 devices,” Nano Lett. 14, 1419–1425 (2014).
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Aihara, T.

T. Hiraki, T. Aihara, K. Hasebe, K. Takeda, T. Fujii, T. Kakitsuka, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Fukuda, and S. Matsuo, “Heterogeneously integrated III–V/Si MOS capacitor Mach–Zehnder modulator,” Nat. Photonics 11, 482–485 (2017).
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Alloatti, L.

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) and plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 256–268 (2016).
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S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e255 (2015).
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M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40  GBd 16QAM signaling at 160  Gb/s in a silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 1210–1216 (2015).
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L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100  GHz silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e173 (2014).
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A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 229–233 (2014).
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R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2200409 (2013).
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Altenhain, L.

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder modulators for 100  Gbit/s on-off keying,” Sci. Rep. 8, 2598 (2018).
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Attanasio, D. V.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Avramopoulos, H.

V. Katopodis, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, R. Dinu, E. Miller, A. Konczykowska, J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, G. Cangini, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H.-G. Bach, N. Grote, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Polymer enabled 100  Gbaud connectivity for datacom applications,” Opt. Commun. 362, 13–21 (2016).
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Bach, H.-G.

V. Katopodis, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, R. Dinu, E. Miller, A. Konczykowska, J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, G. Cangini, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H.-G. Bach, N. Grote, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Polymer enabled 100  Gbaud connectivity for datacom applications,” Opt. Commun. 362, 13–21 (2016).
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Baehr-Jones, T.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 233303 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, J. Witzens, S. Huang, J. Luo, S. Benight, P. Sullivan, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, L. Dalton, A. Jen, and M. Hochberg, “Demonstration of a low VπL modulator with GHz bandwidth based on electro-optic polymer-clad silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 18, 15618–15623 (2010).
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Baeuerle, B.

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with >170  GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100  GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25, 1762–1768 (2017).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9, 525–528 (2015).
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B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, C. Haffner, T. Watanabe, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Driver-less sub 1 Vpp operation of a plasmonic-organic hybrid modulator at 100 GBd NRZ,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, 2018), paper M2I.1.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, C. Hoessbacher, A. Emboras, D. L. Elder, P. Leuchtmann, D. Hillerkuss, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Ultra-compact plasmonic IQ-modulator,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–3.

Bahrami, H.

Z. Yong, W. D. Sacher, Y. Huang, J. C. Mikkelsen, Y. Yang, X. Luo, P. Dumais, D. Goodwill, H. Bahrami, G.-Q. Lo, E. Bernier, and J. K. Poon, “Efficient single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators with U-shaped PN junctions for the O-band,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, 2017), paper Tu2H.2.

Bale, D. H.

L. R. Dalton, P. A. Sullivan, and D. H. Bale, “Electric field poled organic electro-optic materials: state of the art and future prospects,” Chem. Rev. 110, 25–55 (2010).
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L. R. Dalton, D. Lao, B. C. Olbricht, S. Benight, D. H. Bale, J. A. Davies, T. Ewy, S. R. Hammond, and P. A. Sullivan, “Theory-inspired development of new nonlinear optical materials and their integration into silicon photonic circuits and devices,” Opt. Mater. 32, 658–668 (2010).
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Barklund, A.

Baudot, C.

Bauwelinck, J.

Becker, J.

W. Freude, R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, and J. Leuthold, “Quality metrics for optical signals: eye diagram, Q-factor, OSNR, EVM and BER,” in 14th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–4.

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M. Lauermann, C. Weimann, A. Knopf, W. Heni, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, W. Bogaerts, J. Leuthold, L. R. Dalton, C. Rembe, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Integrated optical frequency shifter in silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) technology,” Opt. Express 24, 11694–11707 (2016).
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C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) and plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 256–268 (2016).
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W. Jin, P. V. Johnston, D. L. Elder, K. T. Manner, K. E. Garrett, W. Kaminsky, R. Xu, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Structure-function relationship exploration for enhanced thermal stability and electro-optic activity in monolithic organic NLO chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. C 4, 3119–3124 (2016).
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S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e255 (2015).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9, 525–528 (2015).
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M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40  GBd 16QAM signaling at 160  Gb/s in a silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 1210–1216 (2015).
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A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40  Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23, 9938–9946 (2015).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, C. Hoessbacher, A. Emboras, D. L. Elder, P. Leuchtmann, D. Hillerkuss, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Ultra-compact plasmonic IQ-modulator,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–3.

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M.-C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, “Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophore,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826–835 (2001).
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S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder modulators for 100  Gbit/s on-off keying,” Sci. Rep. 8, 2598 (2018).
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M. Lauermann, C. Weimann, A. Knopf, W. Heni, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, W. Bogaerts, J. Leuthold, L. R. Dalton, C. Rembe, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Integrated optical frequency shifter in silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) technology,” Opt. Express 24, 11694–11707 (2016).
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A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40  Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23, 9938–9946 (2015).
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S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, P. Schindler, G. Ronniger, K. Geistert, R. Palmer, S. Kober, W. Bogaerts, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “DAC-Less amplifier-less generation and transmission of QAM signals using sub-volt silicon-organic hybrid modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 1425–1432 (2015).
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Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, K.-Y. Jen, and A. N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol–gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro–optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180–185 (2007).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9, 525–528 (2015).
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Hill, C.

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M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, P. C. Schindler, D. Korn, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Low-power silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for advanced modulation formats,” Opt. Express 22, 29927–29936 (2014).
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Koos, C.

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder modulators for 100  Gbit/s on-off keying,” Sci. Rep. 8, 2598 (2018).
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S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, M. Lauermann, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, W. Freude, S. Randel, and C. Koos, “Coherent modulation up to 100  GBd 16QAM using silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) devices,” Opt. Express 26, 220–232 (2018).
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H. Zwickel, S. Wolf, C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, M. Lauermann, T. De Keulenaer, A. Vyncke, R. Vaernewyck, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. Freude, J. Bauwelinck, S. Randel, and C. Koos, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for intensity-modulation/direct-detection links with line rates of up to 120  Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 25, 23784–23800 (2017).
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W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon-organic and plasmonic-organic hybrid photonics,” ACS Photon. 4, 1576–1590 (2017).
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M. Lauermann, C. Weimann, A. Knopf, W. Heni, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, W. Bogaerts, J. Leuthold, L. R. Dalton, C. Rembe, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Integrated optical frequency shifter in silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) technology,” Opt. Express 24, 11694–11707 (2016).
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A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40  Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23, 9938–9946 (2015).
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M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40  GBd 16QAM signaling at 160  Gb/s in a silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 1210–1216 (2015).
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S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, P. Schindler, G. Ronniger, K. Geistert, R. Palmer, S. Kober, W. Bogaerts, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “DAC-Less amplifier-less generation and transmission of QAM signals using sub-volt silicon-organic hybrid modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 1425–1432 (2015).
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S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e255 (2015).
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L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100  GHz silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e173 (2014).
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A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 229–233 (2014).
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R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2200409 (2013).
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C. Koos, J. Brosi, M. Waldow, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-on-insulator modulators for next-generation 100  Gbit/s-Ethernet,” in 33rd European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication—ECOC (IEE, 2007), Vol. 2007, paper P056.

Korn, D.

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) and plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 256–268 (2016).
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S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e255 (2015).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Concept of a silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) phase shifter. (a) Device principle. The phase shifter comprises a Si slot waveguide formed by a pair of Si rails. The slot is filled with an organic electro-optic (OEO) material. The rails are electrically connected to an aluminum (Al) transmission line via doped Si slabs and Al vias, such that an externally applied voltage U d drops entirely across the narrow slot. At the same time, the optical mode is tightly confined to the OEO material in the slot, resulting in highly efficient phase modulation. (b) Molecular structure of the employed OEO material JRD1 and of the previously used [26] material YLD124. Compared to YLD124, JRD1 features bulky phenyl side groups denoted as R1, which decrease inter-molecular interactions and thus increase molecular mobility during electric-field poling. This is instrumental for achieving ultra-high in-device EO activity.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Schematic of an SOH MZM and measurement of U π . (a) Top view. Light is coupled to and from the device via grating couplers (GC). The coplanar transmission line is arranged in a ground-signal-ground (GSG) configuration. A pair of multi-mode interference (MMI) couplers is used to split and recombine the light of the two MZM arms. (b) Cross section of the two arms of the SOH MZM at the position defined by the dash-dotted line A - A in (a). Each arm comprises an SOH phase shifter. A one-time poling process is required to achieve a macroscopic in-device r 33 after deposition of the EO chromophores from solution. To this end, a poling voltage U pol is applied across the floating ground electrodes at elevated temperature close to T g = 82 ° C , thereby inducing an electric poling field (green arrows) in the slot regions. The dipoles of the EO material align along the poling field in acentric order. After cooling the device down to room temperature, U pol is removed, and the acentric order of the chromophores is conserved. For modulation, a radio-frequency (RF) signal voltage U d induces electric fields in the slots (red arrows) that are antiparallel (parallel) to the aligned chromophores in the left (right) arm of the MZM, thereby realizing push-pull operation. The bandwidth of the modulator can be increased by decreasing the resistance of the silicon slab. This is achieved by applying a gate voltage U gate between the silicon substrate and the ground electrodes. (c) Low-speed triangular drive signal for the static U π measurement as a function of time. (d) Over-modulated optical signal as a function of time when the modulator is fed by the waveform depicted in (c). The MZM is biased in its quadrature point, and the π -voltage U π can be directly read from the voltage increment needed to drive the device from minimum to maximum transmission. For the depicted measurements, we extract a π -voltage of 210 mV, corresponding to a π -voltage-length product of U π L = 0.32    Vmm .
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Electro-optic characterization and benchmarking of the SOH MZM. (a) Measured U π L -product as a function of the poling field E pol . Two sets of devices are investigated: red crosses correspond to samples with slot widths of 190 nm, and blue circles indicate slot widths of 150 nm. The U π L -product decreases for an increasing poling field, levels off, and rises again. The rise is attributed to the onset of conductance, possibly in combination with dielectric breakdown, which may cause permanent damage of the affected chromophores. This is confirmed by the fact that the samples indicated by the large red ellipse do not recover typical EO activity when re-poling at moderate fields of 200 V/μm is attempted. The minimum U π L -product amounts to 0.32 Vmm for both sample geometries. (b) Calculated n 3 r 33 as a function of E pol . Red crosses (blue circles) indicate samples with slot widths of 190 nm (150 nm). For both data sets, n 3 r 33 increases linearly with the poling field and features a steep increase in slope once a certain threshold poling field is exceeded. The behavior below (above) the threshold poling field is visualized by the red and blue solid (dashed) lines obtained from least squares fits to linear functions. The drop of n 3 r 33 at even higher poling fields is attributed to the onset of conductance in the OEO material, possibly in combination with dielectric breakdown. The threshold effect may be explained by surface-chromophore interactions leading to alignment of chromophores along the slot sidewalls—this aspect is subject to theoretical investigations. The maximum n 3 r 33 amounts to 2300 pm/V and is obtained for a slot width of 190 nm. Devices with 150-nm-wide slots feature systematically lower values of n 3 r 33 , which is attributed to a stronger influence of surface effects in narrower slots. (c) Measured a U π L -product as a function of the U π L -product for various modulator concepts. The abscissa exhibits a linear scale for U π L < 1    Vmm and a logarithmic scale for U π L 1    Vmm . Indicated by the proximity to the origin of the figure, SOH MZMs combine low voltage-length products with low losses, and hence compare favorably with competing modulator concepts. The device presented in this work shows a U π L of 0.32 Vmm and an a U π L of 1.2 VdB. Only POH modulators offer a lower U π L -product of 0.05 Vmm, which comes, however, at the price of an increased a U π L -product of 25 VdB. (d) In-device EO figure of merit n 3 r as a function of U π L for competing material platforms for integrated EO modulators. The abscissa exhibits a linear scale for U π L < 1    Vmm and a logarithmic scale for U π L 1    Vmm . It can be seen that slot waveguide modulators based on organic EO materials offer the highest efficiency: although the in-device EO figures of merit achieved in the SOH and POH devices are lower compared to BaTiO 3 modulators, the achieved U π L -products are almost two orders of magnitude smaller. Note that for all depicted devices except the BaTiO 3 modulator, the coefficient r in n 3 r refers to the r 33 element of the corresponding EO tensor. For the BaTiO 3 device an effective EO coefficient, which neglects that the tensor nature is used since individual tensor components could not be measured. All values given in (d) refer to an operating wavelength of 1550 nm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Data transmission experiments. (a) Schematic of the experimental setup. Signals obtained from an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) are fed to the MZM via microwave probes. The optical carrier provided by an external-cavity laser (ECL) is coupled to and from the chip by grating couplers (GC). The modulated light is amplified by an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA), filtered using a bandpass filter (BP), and detected by a high-speed photodiode (PD) connected to a real-time oscilloscope for recording eye diagrams. (b) Measured eye diagram at 40 Gbit/s for a drive voltage of 140    mV pp without equalization. The measured Q factor amounts to 5.8, and the extinction ratio (ER) amounts to 5.0 dB. (c) Measured eye diagram at 40 Gbit/s for a drive voltage of 260    mV pp without equalization. Both the Q factor and the ER are increased and amount to 7.0 and 8.2 dB, respectively. (d) Measured eye diagram at 40 Gbit/s for a drive voltage of 140    mV pp after equalization. From the measured Q factor of 8.2 we estimate a bit error ratio (BER) of 1 × 10 16 . (e) Measured eye diagram at 40 Gbit/s for a drive voltage of 260    mV pp after equalization. We measure a high Q factor of 11.

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