Abstract

The “quantum vampire” effect introduced in Optica 2, 112 (2015) [CrossRef]   is discussed to understand whether it is really quantum, i.e., based on entanglement and “nonlocality,” or whether photon number correlations are enough. For this purpose, the effect was demonstrated with the classical thermal state of light. We have shown, both theoretically and experimentally, that if a thermal state is distributed among several optical modes, and photon annihilation takes place in one of them, it leads to photon annihilation in the rest of the modes as well. Thus, we conclude, that quantum vampire is actually a classical effect, based on photon number correlations like ghost imaging, Hong-Ou-Mandel interference, and so on.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (2)

Y. S. Ra, C. Jacquard, A. Dufour, C. Fabre, and N. Treps, Phys. Rev. X 7, 031012 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yu. I. Bogdanov, K. G. Katamadze, G. V. Avosopiants, L. V. Belinsky, N. A. Bogdanova, A. A. Kalinkin, and S. P. Kulik, Phys. Rev. A 96, 63803 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

V. Averchenko, C. Jacquard, V. Thiel, C. Fabre, and N. Treps, New J. Phys. 18, 083042 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yu. I. Bogdanov, N. A. Bogdanova, K. G. Katamadze, G. V. Avosopyants, and V. F. Lukichev, Optoelectron. Instrum. Data Process. 52, 475 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Classen, F. Waldmann, S. Giebel, R. Schneider, D. Bhatti, T. Mehringer, and J. von Zanthier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 253601 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (2)

A. Avella, M. Gramegna, A. Shurupov, G. Brida, M. Chekhova, and M. Genovese, Phys. Rev. A 89, 23808 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. A. Averchenko, V. Thiel, and N. Treps, Phys. Rev. A 89, 1 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

2012 (1)

F. M. Miatto, H. Di Lorenzo Pires, S. M. Barnett, and M. P. Van Exter, Eur. Phys. J. D 66, 263 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

S. S. Straupe, D. P. Ivanov, A. A. Kalinkin, I. B. Bobrov, and S. P. Kulik, Phys. Rev. A 83, 60302 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

A. Allevi, A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, M. G. Genoni, and S. Olivares, Phys. Rev. A 82, 13816 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

A. Zavatta, V. Parigi, M. S. Kim, and M. Bellini, New J. Phys. 10, 123006 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

V. Parigi, A. Zavatta, M. Kim, and M. Bellini, Science 317, 1890 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 1 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (5)

A. Muthukrishnan, M. O. Scully, and M. S. Zubairy, J. Opt. B 6, S575 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 93602 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. Law and J. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 1 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Wenger, R. Tualle-Brouri, and P. Grangier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 153601 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. I. Lvovsky, J. Opt. B 6, S556 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

M. D’Angelo, M. V. Chekhova, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 13602 (2001).
[Crossref]

1995 (3)

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. V. Strekalov, A. V. Sergienko, D. N. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3600 (1995).
[Crossref]

U. Leonhardt and H. Paul, Prog. Quantum Electron. 19, 89 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (3)

D. N. Klyshko, Uspekhi Fiz. Nauk 164, 1187 (1994).
[Crossref]

P. H. S. Ribeiro, S. Pádua, J. C. MacHado Da Silva, and G. A. Barbosa, Phys. Rev. A 49, 4176 (1994).
[Crossref]

A. V. Belinskii and D. N. Klyshko, J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 78, 259 (1994).

1987 (1)

C. K. C. Hong, Z. Y. Z. Ou, and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044 (1987).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

F. T. Arecchi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 912 (1965).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

W. Martienssen, Am. J. Phys. 32, 919 (1964).
[Crossref]

1956 (1)

R. H. Brown and R. Q. Twiss, Nature 177, 27 (1956).
[Crossref]

Allevi, A.

A. Allevi, A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, M. G. Genoni, and S. Olivares, Phys. Rev. A 82, 13816 (2010).
[Crossref]

Andreoni, A.

A. Allevi, A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, M. G. Genoni, and S. Olivares, Phys. Rev. A 82, 13816 (2010).
[Crossref]

Arecchi, F. T.

F. T. Arecchi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 912 (1965).
[Crossref]

Avella, A.

A. Avella, M. Gramegna, A. Shurupov, G. Brida, M. Chekhova, and M. Genovese, Phys. Rev. A 89, 23808 (2014).
[Crossref]

Averchenko, V.

V. Averchenko, C. Jacquard, V. Thiel, C. Fabre, and N. Treps, New J. Phys. 18, 083042 (2016).
[Crossref]

Averchenko, V. A.

V. A. Averchenko, V. Thiel, and N. Treps, Phys. Rev. A 89, 1 (2014).
[Crossref]

Avosopiants, G. V.

Yu. I. Bogdanov, K. G. Katamadze, G. V. Avosopiants, L. V. Belinsky, N. A. Bogdanova, A. A. Kalinkin, and S. P. Kulik, Phys. Rev. A 96, 63803 (2017).
[Crossref]

Avosopyants, G. V.

Yu. I. Bogdanov, N. A. Bogdanova, K. G. Katamadze, G. V. Avosopyants, and V. F. Lukichev, Optoelectron. Instrum. Data Process. 52, 475 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bache, M.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 93602 (2004).
[Crossref]

Barbosa, G. A.

P. H. S. Ribeiro, S. Pádua, J. C. MacHado Da Silva, and G. A. Barbosa, Phys. Rev. A 49, 4176 (1994).
[Crossref]

Barnett, S. M.

F. M. Miatto, H. Di Lorenzo Pires, S. M. Barnett, and M. P. Van Exter, Eur. Phys. J. D 66, 263 (2012).
[Crossref]

Becerra, F. E.

Belinskii, A. V.

A. V. Belinskii and D. N. Klyshko, J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 78, 259 (1994).

Belinsky, L. V.

Yu. I. Bogdanov, K. G. Katamadze, G. V. Avosopiants, L. V. Belinsky, N. A. Bogdanova, A. A. Kalinkin, and S. P. Kulik, Phys. Rev. A 96, 63803 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bellini, M.

A. Zavatta, V. Parigi, M. S. Kim, and M. Bellini, New J. Phys. 10, 123006 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. Parigi, A. Zavatta, M. Kim, and M. Bellini, Science 317, 1890 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bhatti, D.

A. Classen, F. Waldmann, S. Giebel, R. Schneider, D. Bhatti, T. Mehringer, and J. von Zanthier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 253601 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bobrov, I. B.

I. B. Bobrov, S. S. Straupe, E. V. Kovlakov, and S. P. Kulik, New J. Phys. 15, 73016 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. S. Straupe, D. P. Ivanov, A. A. Kalinkin, I. B. Bobrov, and S. P. Kulik, Phys. Rev. A 83, 60302 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bogdanov, Yu. I.

Yu. I. Bogdanov, K. G. Katamadze, G. V. Avosopiants, L. V. Belinsky, N. A. Bogdanova, A. A. Kalinkin, and S. P. Kulik, Phys. Rev. A 96, 63803 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yu. I. Bogdanov, N. A. Bogdanova, K. G. Katamadze, G. V. Avosopyants, and V. F. Lukichev, Optoelectron. Instrum. Data Process. 52, 475 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bogdanova, N. A.

Yu. I. Bogdanov, K. G. Katamadze, G. V. Avosopiants, L. V. Belinsky, N. A. Bogdanova, A. A. Kalinkin, and S. P. Kulik, Phys. Rev. A 96, 63803 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yu. I. Bogdanov, N. A. Bogdanova, K. G. Katamadze, G. V. Avosopyants, and V. F. Lukichev, Optoelectron. Instrum. Data Process. 52, 475 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bondani, M.

A. Allevi, A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, M. G. Genoni, and S. Olivares, Phys. Rev. A 82, 13816 (2010).
[Crossref]

Brambilla, E.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 93602 (2004).
[Crossref]

Brida, G.

A. Avella, M. Gramegna, A. Shurupov, G. Brida, M. Chekhova, and M. Genovese, Phys. Rev. A 89, 23808 (2014).
[Crossref]

Brougham, T.

F. M. Miatto, T. Brougham, and A. M. Yao, Eur. Phys. J. D66, 183 (2012).
[Crossref]

Brown, R. H.

R. H. Brown and R. Q. Twiss, Nature 177, 27 (1956).
[Crossref]

Calkins, B.

Chekhova, M.

A. Avella, M. Gramegna, A. Shurupov, G. Brida, M. Chekhova, and M. Genovese, Phys. Rev. A 89, 23808 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chekhova, M. V.

M. D’Angelo, M. V. Chekhova, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 13602 (2001).
[Crossref]

Classen, A.

A. Classen, F. Waldmann, S. Giebel, R. Schneider, D. Bhatti, T. Mehringer, and J. von Zanthier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 253601 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cramér, H.

H. Cramér, Mathematical Methods of Statistics (Princeton University, 1946).

D’Angelo, M.

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 1 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. D’Angelo, M. V. Chekhova, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 13602 (2001).
[Crossref]

Di Lorenzo Pires, H.

F. M. Miatto, H. Di Lorenzo Pires, S. M. Barnett, and M. P. Van Exter, Eur. Phys. J. D 66, 263 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dufour, A.

Y. S. Ra, C. Jacquard, A. Dufour, C. Fabre, and N. Treps, Phys. Rev. X 7, 031012 (2017).
[Crossref]

Eberly, J.

C. Law and J. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 1 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fabre, C.

Y. S. Ra, C. Jacquard, A. Dufour, C. Fabre, and N. Treps, Phys. Rev. X 7, 031012 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. Averchenko, C. Jacquard, V. Thiel, C. Fabre, and N. Treps, New J. Phys. 18, 083042 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fan, J.

Fedorov, I. A.

Ferri, F.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gatti, A.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 93602 (2004).
[Crossref]

Genoni, M. G.

A. Allevi, A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, M. G. Genoni, and S. Olivares, Phys. Rev. A 82, 13816 (2010).
[Crossref]

Genovese, M.

A. Avella, M. Gramegna, A. Shurupov, G. Brida, M. Chekhova, and M. Genovese, Phys. Rev. A 89, 23808 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gerrits, T.

Giebel, S.

A. Classen, F. Waldmann, S. Giebel, R. Schneider, D. Bhatti, T. Mehringer, and J. von Zanthier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 253601 (2016).
[Crossref]

Glebov, B. L.

Gramegna, M.

A. Avella, M. Gramegna, A. Shurupov, G. Brida, M. Chekhova, and M. Genovese, Phys. Rev. A 89, 23808 (2014).
[Crossref]

Grangier, P.

J. Wenger, R. Tualle-Brouri, and P. Grangier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 153601 (2004).
[Crossref]

He, K.

Hong, C. K. C.

C. K. C. Hong, Z. Y. Z. Ou, and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044 (1987).
[Crossref]

Ivanov, D. P.

S. S. Straupe, D. P. Ivanov, A. A. Kalinkin, I. B. Bobrov, and S. P. Kulik, Phys. Rev. A 83, 60302 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jacquard, C.

Y. S. Ra, C. Jacquard, A. Dufour, C. Fabre, and N. Treps, Phys. Rev. X 7, 031012 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. Averchenko, C. Jacquard, V. Thiel, C. Fabre, and N. Treps, New J. Phys. 18, 083042 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kalinkin, A. A.

Yu. I. Bogdanov, K. G. Katamadze, G. V. Avosopiants, L. V. Belinsky, N. A. Bogdanova, A. A. Kalinkin, and S. P. Kulik, Phys. Rev. A 96, 63803 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. S. Straupe, D. P. Ivanov, A. A. Kalinkin, I. B. Bobrov, and S. P. Kulik, Phys. Rev. A 83, 60302 (2011).
[Crossref]

Katamadze, K. G.

Yu. I. Bogdanov, K. G. Katamadze, G. V. Avosopiants, L. V. Belinsky, N. A. Bogdanova, A. A. Kalinkin, and S. P. Kulik, Phys. Rev. A 96, 63803 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yu. I. Bogdanov, N. A. Bogdanova, K. G. Katamadze, G. V. Avosopyants, and V. F. Lukichev, Optoelectron. Instrum. Data Process. 52, 475 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kim, M.

V. Parigi, A. Zavatta, M. Kim, and M. Bellini, Science 317, 1890 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, M. S.

A. Zavatta, V. Parigi, M. S. Kim, and M. Bellini, New J. Phys. 10, 123006 (2008).
[Crossref]

Klyshko, D. N.

D. V. Strekalov, A. V. Sergienko, D. N. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3600 (1995).
[Crossref]

A. V. Belinskii and D. N. Klyshko, J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 78, 259 (1994).

D. N. Klyshko, Uspekhi Fiz. Nauk 164, 1187 (1994).
[Crossref]

D. N. Klyshko, Photons and Nonlinear Optics (Gordon and Breach, 1988).

Kovlakov, E. V.

I. B. Bobrov, S. S. Straupe, E. V. Kovlakov, and S. P. Kulik, New J. Phys. 15, 73016 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kulik, S. P.

Yu. I. Bogdanov, K. G. Katamadze, G. V. Avosopiants, L. V. Belinsky, N. A. Bogdanova, A. A. Kalinkin, and S. P. Kulik, Phys. Rev. A 96, 63803 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. B. Bobrov, S. S. Straupe, E. V. Kovlakov, and S. P. Kulik, New J. Phys. 15, 73016 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. S. Straupe, D. P. Ivanov, A. A. Kalinkin, I. B. Bobrov, and S. P. Kulik, Phys. Rev. A 83, 60302 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kurochkin, Y. V.

Law, C.

C. Law and J. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 1 (2004).
[Crossref]

Leonhardt, U.

U. Leonhardt and H. Paul, Prog. Quantum Electron. 19, 89 (1995).
[Crossref]

Li, F.

Lita, A. E.

Liu, J.

Liu, R.

Lugiato, L. A.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 93602 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lukichev, V. F.

Yu. I. Bogdanov, N. A. Bogdanova, K. G. Katamadze, G. V. Avosopyants, and V. F. Lukichev, Optoelectron. Instrum. Data Process. 52, 475 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lvovsky, A. I.

MacHado Da Silva, J. C.

P. H. S. Ribeiro, S. Pádua, J. C. MacHado Da Silva, and G. A. Barbosa, Phys. Rev. A 49, 4176 (1994).
[Crossref]

Magatti, D.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mandel, L.

C. K. C. Hong, Z. Y. Z. Ou, and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044 (1987).
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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Supplement 1       Exact mathematical description of the photon annihilation and beam splitter action

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Quantum vampire effect, exploiting (a) Fock states [21] and (b) thermal states. Initial quantum state in the mode 1 is exposed to the annihilation operator in the mode A. Due to the direct proportionality between photon annihilation operators in the modes A and 1 (2), the photon subtraction in the mode A leads to the photon subtraction in the mode 1 and therefore in the mode B.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Experimental setup. The He–Ne cw laser radiation is asymmetrically distributed by the FBS between the local oscillator and the state preparation modes. The thermal state is prepared with use of GGD [35,36]. BS1 splits the input mode to the modes A and B. Conditional photon subtraction is realized by a low-reflective BS2 combined with a single-photon detector (D). The FM selects the mode (A or B) to be measured by the homodyne detection technique [37].
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Photon number distributions and quadrature distributions for the initial thermal state and states with one- and two-photon subtraction. Experimental data are plotted as histograms; theoretical distributions are figured as lines.

Equations (7)

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a^A=ta^0+ra^1,
a^A|ψ1|vac0=(ta^0+ra^1)|ψ1|vac0=ra^1|ψ1|vac0.
ρ^th(μ0)=n=0PBE(n|μ0)|nn|,where  PBE(n|μ0)=μ0n(1+μ0)n+1.
ρ^th(μ0)a^kρ^th(μ0,k)=n=0PcP(n|μ0,k)|nn|,where  PcP(n|μ0,k)=(k+n)!k!n!μ0n(1+μ0)n+k+1.
ρ^th(μ0,k)photon subtractiona^ρ^th(μ0,k+1),ρ^th(μ0,k)linear losstρ^th(|t|2μ0,k).
R=μ0|tr|(μ0|t|2+1)(μ0|r|2+1).
F(ρ^th,ρ^exp)=(Tr[ρ^thρ^expρ^th])2.