Abstract

The highly convergent x-ray beam focused by multilayer Laue lenses with large numerical apertures is used as a three-dimensional (3D) probe to image layered structures with an axial separation larger than the depth of focus. Instead of collecting weakly scattered high-spatial-frequency signals, the depth-resolving power is provided purely by the intense central cone diverged from the focused beam. Using the multi-slice ptychography method combined with the on-the-fly scan scheme, two layers of nanoparticles separated by 10 μm are successfully reconstructed with 8.1 nm lateral resolution and with a dwell time as low as 0.05 s per scan point. This approach obtains high-resolution images with extended depth of field, which paves the way for multi-slice ptychography as a high throughput technique for high-resolution 3D imaging of thick samples.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (3)

F. Pfeiffer, “X-ray ptychography,” Nat. Photonics 12, 9–17 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Bajt, M. Prasciolu, H. Fleckenstein, M. Domaracký, H. Chapman, A. Morgan, O. Yefanov, M. Messerschmidt, Y. Du, K. Murray, V. Mariani, M. Kuhn, S. Aplin, K. Pande, P. Villanueva-Perez, K. Stachnik, J. Chen, A. Andrejczuk, A. Meents, A. Burkhardt, D. Pennicard, X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, Y. Chu, and C. Hamm, “X-ray focusing with efficient high-NA multilayer Laue lenses,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7, 17162 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Shimomura, M. Hirose, and Y. Takahashi, “Multislice imaging of integrated circuits by precession x-ray ptychography,” Acta Crystallogr. Sec. A 74, 66–70 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (11)

E. Nazaretski, H. Yan, K. Lauer, N. Bouet, X. Huang, W. Xu, J. Zhou, D. Shu, Y. Hwu, and Y. Chu, “Design and performance of an x-ray scanning microscope at the Hard X-ray Nanoprobe beamline of NSLS-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 24, 1113–1119 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Feng, Y. Qian, J. Cochran, Q. Zhu, W. Hu, H. Yan, L. Li, X. Huang, Y. Chu, H. Liu, S. Yoo, and C. Liu, “Nanoscale measurement of trace element distributions in Spartina alterni ora root tissue during dormancy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40420 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Gao, P. Wang, F. Zhang, G. Martinez, P. Nellist, X. Pan, and A. Kirkland, “Electron ptychographic microscopy for three-dimensional imaging,” Nat. Commun. 8, 163 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Deng, D. Vine, S. Chen, Q. Jin, Y. Nashed, T. Peterka, S. Vogt, and C. Jacobsen, “X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of frozen-hydrated cells using continuous scanning,” Sci. Rep. 7, 445 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Muller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three- dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543, 402–406 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Jacobsen, J. Deng, and Y. Nashed, “Strategies for high-throughput focused-beam ptychography,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 24, 1078–1081 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. Robinson and X. Huang, “Reaching the third dimension,” Nat. Mater. 16, 160–161 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, H. Yan, M. Ge, H. Ozturk, E. Nazaretski, I. Robinson, and Y. Chu, “Artifact mitigation of ptychography integrated with on-the-fly scanning probe microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 023103 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, W. Xu, E. Nazaretski, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, Y. Chu, and H. Yan, “Hard x-ray scanning imaging achieved with bonded multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 25, 8698–8704 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. D. Silva, A. Pacureanu, Y. Yang, S. Bohic, C. Morawe, R. Barrett, and P. Cloetens, “Efficient concentration of high-energy x-rays for diffraction-limited imaging resolution,” Optica 4, 492–495 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, X. Huang, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, E. Nazaretski, and Y. Chu, “Achieving diffraction-limited nanometer-scale x-ray point focus with two crossed multilayer Laue lenses: alignment challenges,” Opt. Express 25, 25234–25242 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

E. Tsai, I. Usov, A. Diaz, A. Menzel, and M. Guizar-Sicairos, “X-ray ptychography with extended depth of field,” Opt. Express 24, 29089–29108 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Marchesini, H. Krishnan, B. Daurer, D. Shapiro, T. Perciano, J. Sethiana, and F. Maiab, “SHARP: a distributed GPU-based ptychographic solver,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 49, 1245–1252 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Enders and P. Thibault, “A computational framework for ptychographic reconstructions,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 472, 20160640 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Li, D. Batey, T. Edo, A. Parsons, C. Rau, and J. Rodenburg, “Multiple mode x-ray ptychography using a lens and a fixed diffuser optic,” J. Opt. 18, 054008 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, X. Huang, U. Wagner, C. Rau, M. Yusuf, I. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, L. Li, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, and Y. Chu, “Multimodality hard-x-ray imaging of a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution,” Sci. Rep. 6, 20112 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (10)

X. Huang, K. Lauer, J. Clark, W. Xu, E. Nazaretski, R. Harder, I. Robinson, and Y. Chu, “Fly-scan ptychography,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9074 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Shimomura, A. Suzuki, M. Hirose, and Y. Takahashi, “Precession x-ray ptychography with multislice approach,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 214114 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Jones, K. Elgass, M. Junker, M. Luu, M. Ryan, A. Peele, and G. van Riessen, “Mapping biological composition through quantitative phase and absorption x-ray ptychography,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9892 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Deng, D. Vine, S. Chen, Y. Nashed, Q. Jin, N. Phillips, T. Peterka, R. Ross, S. Vogt, and C. Jacobsen, “Simultaneous cryo x-ray ptychography and fluorescence microscopy of green algae,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, 2314–2319 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9892 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Li, D. Batey, T. Edo, and J. Rodenburg, “Separation of three-dimensional scattering effects in tilt-series Fourier ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 158, 1–7 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard x-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22, 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Tian and L. Waller, “3D intensity and phase imaging from light field measurements in an LED array microscope,” Optica 2, 104–111 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Deng, Y. Nashed, S. Chen, N. Phillips, T. Peterka, R. Ross, S. Vogt, C. Jacobsen, and D. Vine, “Continuous motion scan ptychography: characterization for increased speed in coherent x-ray imaging,” Opt. Express 23, 5438–5451 (2015).
[Crossref]

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2014 (9)

T. Godden, R. Suman, M. Humphry, J. Rodenburg, and A. Maiden, “Ptychographic microscope for three-dimensional imaging,” Opt. Express 22, 12513–12523 (2014).
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2013 (5)

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 739–745 (2013).
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X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. Robinson, and Y. Chu, “11 nm hard x-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
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A. Maiden, G. Morrison, B. Kaulich, A. Gianoncelli, and J. Rodenburg, “Soft x-ray spectromicroscopy using ptychography with randomly phased illumination,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1669 (2013).
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2012 (2)

M. Guizar-Sicairos, M. Holler, A. Diaz, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “Role of the illumination spatial-frequency spectrum for ptychography,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 100103 (2012).
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A. Maiden, M. Humphry, and J. Rodenburg, “Ptychographic transmission microscopy in three dimensions using a multi-slice approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 1606–1614 (2012).
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2011 (3)

2010 (3)

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-x-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
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A. Maiden, J. Rodenburg, and M. Humphry, “Optical ptychography: a practical implementation with useful resolution,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2585–2587 (2010).
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Y. Takahashi, Y. Nishino, R. Tsutsumi, N. Zettsu, E. Matsubara, K. Yamauchi, and T. Ishikawa, “High-resolution projection image reconstruction of thick objects by hard x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 214102 (2010).
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2009 (1)

2008 (4)

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2007 (3)

J. Rodenburg, A. Hurst, A. Cullis, B. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
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2006 (3)

H. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1179–1200 (2006).
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2005 (1)

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2004 (1)

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2002 (2)

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1999 (1)

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1967 (1)

1957 (1)

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M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Muller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three- dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543, 402–406 (2017).
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Anderson, E.

Andrejczuk, A.

S. Bajt, M. Prasciolu, H. Fleckenstein, M. Domaracký, H. Chapman, A. Morgan, O. Yefanov, M. Messerschmidt, Y. Du, K. Murray, V. Mariani, M. Kuhn, S. Aplin, K. Pande, P. Villanueva-Perez, K. Stachnik, J. Chen, A. Andrejczuk, A. Meents, A. Burkhardt, D. Pennicard, X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, Y. Chu, and C. Hamm, “X-ray focusing with efficient high-NA multilayer Laue lenses,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7, 17162 (2018).
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A. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9892 (2015).
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Aplin, S.

S. Bajt, M. Prasciolu, H. Fleckenstein, M. Domaracký, H. Chapman, A. Morgan, O. Yefanov, M. Messerschmidt, Y. Du, K. Murray, V. Mariani, M. Kuhn, S. Aplin, K. Pande, P. Villanueva-Perez, K. Stachnik, J. Chen, A. Andrejczuk, A. Meents, A. Burkhardt, D. Pennicard, X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, Y. Chu, and C. Hamm, “X-ray focusing with efficient high-NA multilayer Laue lenses,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7, 17162 (2018).
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A. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9892 (2015).
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S. Bajt, M. Prasciolu, H. Fleckenstein, M. Domaracký, H. Chapman, A. Morgan, O. Yefanov, M. Messerschmidt, Y. Du, K. Murray, V. Mariani, M. Kuhn, S. Aplin, K. Pande, P. Villanueva-Perez, K. Stachnik, J. Chen, A. Andrejczuk, A. Meents, A. Burkhardt, D. Pennicard, X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, Y. Chu, and C. Hamm, “X-ray focusing with efficient high-NA multilayer Laue lenses,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7, 17162 (2018).
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A. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9892 (2015).
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Barrett, R.

Barthelmess, M.

A. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9892 (2015).
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Barty, A.

A. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9892 (2015).
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H. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1179–1200 (2006).
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P. Li, D. Batey, T. Edo, A. Parsons, C. Rau, and J. Rodenburg, “Multiple mode x-ray ptychography using a lens and a fixed diffuser optic,” J. Opt. 18, 054008 (2016).
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P. Li, D. Batey, T. Edo, and J. Rodenburg, “Separation of three-dimensional scattering effects in tilt-series Fourier ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 158, 1–7 (2015).
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Q. Shen, I. Bazarov, and P. Thibault, “Diffractive imaging of nonperiodic materials with future coherent x-ray sources,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 11, 432–438 (2004).
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Bean, R.

A. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9892 (2015).
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Beetz, T.

Bohic, S.

Bouet, N.

H. Yan, X. Huang, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, E. Nazaretski, and Y. Chu, “Achieving diffraction-limited nanometer-scale x-ray point focus with two crossed multilayer Laue lenses: alignment challenges,” Opt. Express 25, 25234–25242 (2017).
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X. Huang, W. Xu, E. Nazaretski, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, Y. Chu, and H. Yan, “Hard x-ray scanning imaging achieved with bonded multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 25, 8698–8704 (2017).
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E. Nazaretski, H. Yan, K. Lauer, N. Bouet, X. Huang, W. Xu, J. Zhou, D. Shu, Y. Hwu, and Y. Chu, “Design and performance of an x-ray scanning microscope at the Hard X-ray Nanoprobe beamline of NSLS-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 24, 1113–1119 (2017).
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H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, X. Huang, U. Wagner, C. Rau, M. Yusuf, I. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, L. Li, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, and Y. Chu, “Multimodality hard-x-ray imaging of a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution,” Sci. Rep. 6, 20112 (2016).
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E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard x-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22, 336–341 (2015).
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X. Huang, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, A. Macrander, J. Maser, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, R. Harder, I. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, and Y. Chu, “Achieving hard x-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Opt. Express 23, 12496–12507 (2015).
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H. Yan, R. Conley, N. Bouet, and Y. Chu, “Hard x-ray nanofocusing by multilayer Laue lenses,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47, 263001 (2014).
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X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. Robinson, and Y. Chu, “11 nm hard x-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
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Bunk, O.

M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Muller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three- dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543, 402–406 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, E. Farm, E. Harkonen, M. Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, and O. Bunk, “X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16  nm isotropic 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3857 (2014).
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M. Guizar-Sicairos, M. Holler, A. Diaz, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “Role of the illumination spatial-frequency spectrum for ptychography,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 100103 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, S. Kynde, I. Johnson, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, “Influence of the overlap parameter on the convergence of the ptychographical iterative engine,” Ultramicroscopy 108, 481–487 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Rodenburg, A. Hurst, A. Cullis, B. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[Crossref]

Burkhardt, A.

S. Bajt, M. Prasciolu, H. Fleckenstein, M. Domaracký, H. Chapman, A. Morgan, O. Yefanov, M. Messerschmidt, Y. Du, K. Murray, V. Mariani, M. Kuhn, S. Aplin, K. Pande, P. Villanueva-Perez, K. Stachnik, J. Chen, A. Andrejczuk, A. Meents, A. Burkhardt, D. Pennicard, X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, Y. Chu, and C. Hamm, “X-ray focusing with efficient high-NA multilayer Laue lenses,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7, 17162 (2018).
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Cabana, J.

D. Shapiro, Y. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, A. Kilcoyne, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. Meng, T. Warwick, L. Yang, and H. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft x-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 8, 765–769 (2014).
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Celestre, R.

D. Shapiro, Y. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, A. Kilcoyne, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. Meng, T. Warwick, L. Yang, and H. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft x-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 8, 765–769 (2014).
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D. Shapiro, Y. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, A. Kilcoyne, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. Meng, T. Warwick, L. Yang, and H. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft x-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 8, 765–769 (2014).
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W. Chao, J. Kim, S. Rekawa, P. Fischer, and E. Anderson, “Demonstration of 12 nm resolution Fresnel zone plate lens based soft x-ray microscopy,” Opt. Express 17, 17669–17677 (2009).
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Chapman, H.

S. Bajt, M. Prasciolu, H. Fleckenstein, M. Domaracký, H. Chapman, A. Morgan, O. Yefanov, M. Messerschmidt, Y. Du, K. Murray, V. Mariani, M. Kuhn, S. Aplin, K. Pande, P. Villanueva-Perez, K. Stachnik, J. Chen, A. Andrejczuk, A. Meents, A. Burkhardt, D. Pennicard, X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, Y. Chu, and C. Hamm, “X-ray focusing with efficient high-NA multilayer Laue lenses,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7, 17162 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9892 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1179–1200 (2006).
[Crossref]

Charalambous, P.

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “An extension of the methods of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micron-size non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342–344 (1999).
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Chen, J.

S. Bajt, M. Prasciolu, H. Fleckenstein, M. Domaracký, H. Chapman, A. Morgan, O. Yefanov, M. Messerschmidt, Y. Du, K. Murray, V. Mariani, M. Kuhn, S. Aplin, K. Pande, P. Villanueva-Perez, K. Stachnik, J. Chen, A. Andrejczuk, A. Meents, A. Burkhardt, D. Pennicard, X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, Y. Chu, and C. Hamm, “X-ray focusing with efficient high-NA multilayer Laue lenses,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7, 17162 (2018).
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Chen, S.

J. Deng, D. Vine, S. Chen, Q. Jin, Y. Nashed, T. Peterka, S. Vogt, and C. Jacobsen, “X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of frozen-hydrated cells using continuous scanning,” Sci. Rep. 7, 445 (2017).
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J. Deng, D. Vine, S. Chen, Y. Nashed, Q. Jin, N. Phillips, T. Peterka, R. Ross, S. Vogt, and C. Jacobsen, “Simultaneous cryo x-ray ptychography and fluorescence microscopy of green algae,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, 2314–2319 (2015).
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J. Deng, Y. Nashed, S. Chen, N. Phillips, T. Peterka, R. Ross, S. Vogt, C. Jacobsen, and D. Vine, “Continuous motion scan ptychography: characterization for increased speed in coherent x-ray imaging,” Opt. Express 23, 5438–5451 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chu, Y.

S. Bajt, M. Prasciolu, H. Fleckenstein, M. Domaracký, H. Chapman, A. Morgan, O. Yefanov, M. Messerschmidt, Y. Du, K. Murray, V. Mariani, M. Kuhn, S. Aplin, K. Pande, P. Villanueva-Perez, K. Stachnik, J. Chen, A. Andrejczuk, A. Meents, A. Burkhardt, D. Pennicard, X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, Y. Chu, and C. Hamm, “X-ray focusing with efficient high-NA multilayer Laue lenses,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7, 17162 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Nazaretski, H. Yan, K. Lauer, N. Bouet, X. Huang, W. Xu, J. Zhou, D. Shu, Y. Hwu, and Y. Chu, “Design and performance of an x-ray scanning microscope at the Hard X-ray Nanoprobe beamline of NSLS-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 24, 1113–1119 (2017).
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H. Feng, Y. Qian, J. Cochran, Q. Zhu, W. Hu, H. Yan, L. Li, X. Huang, Y. Chu, H. Liu, S. Yoo, and C. Liu, “Nanoscale measurement of trace element distributions in Spartina alterni ora root tissue during dormancy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40420 (2017).
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X. Huang, W. Xu, E. Nazaretski, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, Y. Chu, and H. Yan, “Hard x-ray scanning imaging achieved with bonded multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 25, 8698–8704 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, X. Huang, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, E. Nazaretski, and Y. Chu, “Achieving diffraction-limited nanometer-scale x-ray point focus with two crossed multilayer Laue lenses: alignment challenges,” Opt. Express 25, 25234–25242 (2017).
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X. Huang, H. Yan, M. Ge, H. Ozturk, E. Nazaretski, I. Robinson, and Y. Chu, “Artifact mitigation of ptychography integrated with on-the-fly scanning probe microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 023103 (2017).
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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Illustration of the experimental setup for the multi-slice ptychography measurement. Incident 12 keV x-rays are focused by a pair of crossed MLLs and illuminate the sample consisting of two layers of nanoparticles, with the front surface placed 20 μm downstream of the focal plane. The diffraction patterns are collected by a pixelated detector placed 0.5 m from the sample plane. A typical 128×128 pixel array with 0.05 s dwell time is shown. The inset SEM pictures show the gold and nickel oxide nanoparticles on the front and rear surfaces, respectively.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Highly convergent x-ray beam focused by MLLs. (a) and (b) are the propagation series of the focused wavefront. (c) Beam size is 12.5×11.8  nm at the focal plane. The undisturbed wavefronts on the front and rear surfaces of the 10 μm thick sample are shown in (d) and (e), respectively.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Reconstructed phase images using the conventional and multi-slice ptychography. Top row and bottom row are the results from dataset 1 and dataset 2, respectively. (a)/(d) and (b)/(e) are the reconstructed images with conventional ptychography using the probe wavefronts at the front and rear surfaces, respectively. (c)/(f) Combined phase images with extended depth of field using two recovered planes from multi-slice ptychography reconstructions.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Multi-slice ptychography and fluorescence images of the layered nanoparticles. (a)/(c) and (b)/(d) are the reconstructed phase images on the front and rear surfaces from dataset 1/dataset 2, respectively. (e)/(g) and (f)/(h) are the Au Lα and Ni Kα fluorescence maps for dataset 1/dataset 2. Fluorescence maps for dataset 1 were interpolated onto Cartesian coordinates. The measurements were conducted at a defocal plane, so that the fluorescence maps are blurry.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Reconstruction resolution estimated by the phase retrieval transfer functions and the Fourier shell correlation. The PRTF shows that dataset 1 with 0.5 s dwell time was faithfully reconstructed to the edge of the cropped 128×128 data array, which corresponds to a half-period resolution of 7.3 nm. For dataset 2 with 0.05 s dwell time, the PRTF curve starts to fall down dramatically outside the holographic area, and the estimated resolution is about 8.1 nm using 0.5 threshold. The inset plots the FSC curves with the 1-bit threshold. The FSC curve of dataset 1 stays above the 1-bit threshold, while the intersection between the FSC of dataset 2 and the 1-bit threshold gives a 9.2 nm half-period resolution.

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