Abstract

Many disease states are associated with cellular biomechanical changes as markers. Label-free phase microscopes are used to quantify thermally driven interface fluctuations, which allow the deduction of important cellular rheological properties. Here, the spatio-temporal coherence of light was used to implement a high-speed reflection phase microscope with superior depth selectivity and higher phase sensitivity. Nanometric scale motion of cytoplasmic structures can be visualized with fine details and three-dimensional resolution. Specifically, the spontaneous fluctuation occurring on the nuclear membrane of a living cell was observed at video rate. By converting the reflection phase into displacement, the sensitivity in quantifying nuclear membrane fluctuation was found to be about one nanometer. A reflection phase microscope can potentially elucidate biomechanical mechanisms of pathological and physiological processes.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (2)

2016 (4)

Y. Nakamura, T. Nagaya, K. Sato, T. Harada, S. Okuyama, P. L. Choyke, T. Yamauchi, and H. Kobayashi, “Alterations of filopodia by near infrared photoimmunotherapy: evaluation with 3D low-coherent quantitative phase microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7, 2738–2748 (2016).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

P. Hosseini, S. Z. Abidi, E. Du, D. P. Papageorgiou, Y. Choi, Y. Park, J. M. Higgins, G. J. Kato, S. Suresh, M. Dao, Z. Yaqoob, and P. T. C. So, “Cellular normoxic biophysical markers of hydroxyurea treatment in sickle cell disease,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 9527–9532 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (4)

2013 (1)

Y. J. Sung, A. Tzur, S. Oh, W. Choi, V. Li, R. R. Dasari, Z. Yaqoob, and M. W. Kirschner, “Size homeostasis in adherent cells studied by synthetic phase microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 16687–16692 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

Y. Sung, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and Z. Yaqoob, “Stain-free quantification of chromosomes in live cells using regularized tomographic phase microscopy,” Plos One 7, e49502 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

2010 (2)

N. T. Shaked, L. L. Satterwhite, N. Bursac, and A. Wax, “Whole-cell-analysis of live cardiomyocytes using wide-field interferometric phase microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 706–719 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 6731–6736 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (4)

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. S. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 13730–13735 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. 295, C538–C544 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy,” Blood Cells, Mol., Dis. 41, 10–16 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Yamauchi, H. Iwai, M. Miwa, and Y. Yamashita, “Low-coherent quantitative phase microscope for nanometer-scale measurement of living cells morphology,” Opt. Express 16, 12227–12238 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4, 717–719 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

M. G. Somekh, C. W. See, and J. Goh, “Wide field amplitude and phase confocal microscope with speckle illumination,” Opt. Commun. 174, 75–80 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1415–1417 (2000).
[Crossref]

Abidi, S. Z.

P. Hosseini, S. Z. Abidi, E. Du, D. P. Papageorgiou, Y. Choi, Y. Park, J. M. Higgins, G. J. Kato, S. Suresh, M. Dao, Z. Yaqoob, and P. T. C. So, “Cellular normoxic biophysical markers of hydroxyurea treatment in sickle cell disease,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 9527–9532 (2016).
[Crossref]

Aguirre, A. D.

Alfano, R. R.

R. R. Alfano, The Supercontinuum Laser Source: Fundamentals with Updated References, 2nd ed. (Springer, 2006).

Babacan, S. D.

T. Kim, R. J. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabeled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8, 256–263 (2014).
[Crossref]

Badizadegan, K.

Y. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 6731–6736 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Yaqoob, W. Choi, S. Oh, N. Lue, Y. Park, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Improved phase sensitivity in spectral domain phase microscopy using line-field illumination and self phase-referencing,” Opt. Express 17, 10681–10687 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. 295, C538–C544 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy,” Blood Cells, Mol., Dis. 41, 10–16 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4, 717–719 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Iwai, C. Fang-Yen, G. Popescu, A. Wax, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Quantitative phase imaging using actively stabilized phase-shifting low-coherence interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2399–2401 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bashir, R.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref]

Beaurepaire, E.

Bednarz, M.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref]

Best, C. A.

Y. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 6731–6736 (2010).
[Crossref]

Best-Popescu, C.

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. 295, C538–C544 (2008).
[Crossref]

Birks, T. A.

Boccara, A.-C.

Boppart, S. A.

Bromberg, Y.

Bursac, N.

Cao, H.

Carney, P. S.

T. Kim, R. J. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabeled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8, 256–263 (2014).
[Crossref]

Charrière, F.

Chau, A. H. L.

Choi, W.

Y. Choi, P. Hosseini, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, P. T. C. So, and Z. Yaqoob, “Dynamic speckle illumination wide-field reflection phase microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6062–6065 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Sung, A. Tzur, S. Oh, W. Choi, V. Li, R. R. Dasari, Z. Yaqoob, and M. W. Kirschner, “Size homeostasis in adherent cells studied by synthetic phase microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 16687–16692 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Sung, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and Z. Yaqoob, “Stain-free quantification of chromosomes in live cells using regularized tomographic phase microscopy,” Plos One 7, e49502 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Yaqoob, T. Yamauchi, W. Choi, D. Fu, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single-shot full-field reflection phase microscopy,” Opt. Express 19, 7587–7595 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Yaqoob, W. Choi, S. Oh, N. Lue, Y. Park, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Improved phase sensitivity in spectral domain phase microscopy using line-field illumination and self phase-referencing,” Opt. Express 17, 10681–10687 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy,” Blood Cells, Mol., Dis. 41, 10–16 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4, 717–719 (2007).
[Crossref]

Choi, W. S.

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. S. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 13730–13735 (2008).
[Crossref]

Choi, Y.

P. Hosseini, S. Z. Abidi, E. Du, D. P. Papageorgiou, Y. Choi, Y. Park, J. M. Higgins, G. J. Kato, S. Suresh, M. Dao, Z. Yaqoob, and P. T. C. So, “Cellular normoxic biophysical markers of hydroxyurea treatment in sickle cell disease,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 9527–9532 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. D. Yang, K. Park, Y. G. Kang, K. J. Lee, B. M. Kim, and Y. Choi, “Single-shot digital holographic microscopy for quantifying a spatially-resolved Jones matrix of biological specimens,” Opt. Express 24, 29303–29312 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Hosseini, Y. J. Sung, Y. Choi, N. Lue, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Scanning color optical tomography (SCOT),” Opt. Express 23, 19752–19762 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Choi, P. Hosseini, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, P. T. C. So, and Z. Yaqoob, “Dynamic speckle illumination wide-field reflection phase microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6062–6065 (2014).
[Crossref]

Choma, M. A.

Choyke, P. L.

Coen, S.

Colomb, T.

Creazzo, T. L.

Cuche, E.

Dao, M.

P. Hosseini, S. Z. Abidi, E. Du, D. P. Papageorgiou, Y. Choi, Y. Park, J. M. Higgins, G. J. Kato, S. Suresh, M. Dao, Z. Yaqoob, and P. T. C. So, “Cellular normoxic biophysical markers of hydroxyurea treatment in sickle cell disease,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 9527–9532 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dasari, R. R.

R. Zhou, D. Jin, P. Hosseini, V. R. Singh, Y.-H. Kim, C. Kuang, R. R. Dasari, Z. Yaqoob, and P. T. C. So, “Modeling the depth-sectioning effect in reflection-mode dynamic speckle-field interferometric microscopy,” Opt. Express 25, 130–143 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Choi, P. Hosseini, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, P. T. C. So, and Z. Yaqoob, “Dynamic speckle illumination wide-field reflection phase microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6062–6065 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Sung, A. Tzur, S. Oh, W. Choi, V. Li, R. R. Dasari, Z. Yaqoob, and M. W. Kirschner, “Size homeostasis in adherent cells studied by synthetic phase microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 16687–16692 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Sung, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and Z. Yaqoob, “Stain-free quantification of chromosomes in live cells using regularized tomographic phase microscopy,” Plos One 7, e49502 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Yaqoob, T. Yamauchi, W. Choi, D. Fu, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single-shot full-field reflection phase microscopy,” Opt. Express 19, 7587–7595 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 6731–6736 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Yaqoob, W. Choi, S. Oh, N. Lue, Y. Park, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Improved phase sensitivity in spectral domain phase microscopy using line-field illumination and self phase-referencing,” Opt. Express 17, 10681–10687 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy,” Blood Cells, Mol., Dis. 41, 10–16 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. 295, C538–C544 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4, 717–719 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase microscopy for quantifying cell structure and dynamics,” Opt. Lett. 31, 775–777 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Iwai, C. Fang-Yen, G. Popescu, A. Wax, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Quantitative phase imaging using actively stabilized phase-shifting low-coherence interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2399–2401 (2004).
[Crossref]

Deflores, L.

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. 295, C538–C544 (2008).
[Crossref]

Depeursinge, C.

Depeursinge, C. D.

Diez-Silva, M.

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. S. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 13730–13735 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ding, H. F.

Du, E.

P. Hosseini, S. Z. Abidi, E. Du, D. P. Papageorgiou, Y. Choi, Y. Park, J. M. Higgins, G. J. Kato, S. Suresh, M. Dao, Z. Yaqoob, and P. T. C. So, “Cellular normoxic biophysical markers of hydroxyurea treatment in sickle cell disease,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 9527–9532 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dubois, A.

Dudley, J. M.

Ellerbee, A. K.

Fang-Yen, C.

Feld, M. S.

Z. Yaqoob, T. Yamauchi, W. Choi, D. Fu, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single-shot full-field reflection phase microscopy,” Opt. Express 19, 7587–7595 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 6731–6736 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Yaqoob, W. Choi, S. Oh, N. Lue, Y. Park, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Improved phase sensitivity in spectral domain phase microscopy using line-field illumination and self phase-referencing,” Opt. Express 17, 10681–10687 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. S. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 13730–13735 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. 295, C538–C544 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy,” Blood Cells, Mol., Dis. 41, 10–16 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4, 717–719 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase microscopy for quantifying cell structure and dynamics,” Opt. Lett. 31, 775–777 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Iwai, C. Fang-Yen, G. Popescu, A. Wax, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Quantitative phase imaging using actively stabilized phase-shifting low-coherence interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2399–2401 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fu, D.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Goddard, L. L.

R. Zhou, T. Kim, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “Inverse scattering solutions using low-coherence light,” Opt. Lett. 39, 4494–4497 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Kim, R. J. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabeled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8, 256–263 (2014).
[Crossref]

Goh, J.

M. G. Somekh, C. W. See, and J. Goh, “Wide field amplitude and phase confocal microscope with speckle illumination,” Opt. Commun. 174, 75–80 (2000).
[Crossref]

Golding, I.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref]

Harada, T.

Hartl, I.

Harvey, J. D.

Henle, M. L.

Y. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 6731–6736 (2010).
[Crossref]

Higgins, J. M.

P. Hosseini, S. Z. Abidi, E. Du, D. P. Papageorgiou, Y. Choi, Y. Park, J. M. Higgins, G. J. Kato, S. Suresh, M. Dao, Z. Yaqoob, and P. T. C. So, “Cellular normoxic biophysical markers of hydroxyurea treatment in sickle cell disease,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 9527–9532 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hiruma, T.

Hosseini, P.

Hsiung, P.

Ikeda, T.

Iwai, H.

Izatt, J. A.

Jeong, Y.

M. Lee, E. Lee, J. Jung, H. Yu, K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Lee, Y. Jeong, and Y. Park, “Label-free optical quantification of structural alterations in Alzheimer’s disease,” Sci. Rep. 6, 31034 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jin, D.

Jung, J.

M. Lee, E. Lee, J. Jung, H. Yu, K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Lee, Y. Jeong, and Y. Park, “Label-free optical quantification of structural alterations in Alzheimer’s disease,” Sci. Rep. 6, 31034 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kang, Y. G.

T. D. Yang, K. Park, Y. G. Kang, K. J. Lee, B. M. Kim, and Y. Choi, “Single-shot digital holographic microscopy for quantifying a spatially-resolved Jones matrix of biological specimens,” Opt. Express 24, 29303–29312 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kato, G. J.

P. Hosseini, S. Z. Abidi, E. Du, D. P. Papageorgiou, Y. Choi, Y. Park, J. M. Higgins, G. J. Kato, S. Suresh, M. Dao, Z. Yaqoob, and P. T. C. So, “Cellular normoxic biophysical markers of hydroxyurea treatment in sickle cell disease,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 9527–9532 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kim, B. M.

T. D. Yang, K. Park, Y. G. Kang, K. J. Lee, B. M. Kim, and Y. Choi, “Single-shot digital holographic microscopy for quantifying a spatially-resolved Jones matrix of biological specimens,” Opt. Express 24, 29303–29312 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.

M. Lee, E. Lee, J. Jung, H. Yu, K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Lee, Y. Jeong, and Y. Park, “Label-free optical quantification of structural alterations in Alzheimer’s disease,” Sci. Rep. 6, 31034 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kim, T.

T. Kim, R. J. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabeled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8, 256–263 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Zhou, T. Kim, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “Inverse scattering solutions using low-coherence light,” Opt. Lett. 39, 4494–4497 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.-H.

Kirschner, M. W.

Y. J. Sung, A. Tzur, S. Oh, W. Choi, V. Li, R. R. Dasari, Z. Yaqoob, and M. W. Kirschner, “Size homeostasis in adherent cells studied by synthetic phase microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 16687–16692 (2013).
[Crossref]

Knight, J. C.

Ko, T. H.

Kobayashi, H.

Kuang, C.

Kuehn, J.

Kuriabova, T.

Y. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 6731–6736 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, E.

M. Lee, E. Lee, J. Jung, H. Yu, K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Lee, Y. Jeong, and Y. Park, “Label-free optical quantification of structural alterations in Alzheimer’s disease,” Sci. Rep. 6, 31034 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. J.

T. D. Yang, K. Park, Y. G. Kang, K. J. Lee, B. M. Kim, and Y. Choi, “Single-shot digital holographic microscopy for quantifying a spatially-resolved Jones matrix of biological specimens,” Opt. Express 24, 29303–29312 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, M.

M. Lee, E. Lee, J. Jung, H. Yu, K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Lee, Y. Jeong, and Y. Park, “Label-free optical quantification of structural alterations in Alzheimer’s disease,” Sci. Rep. 6, 31034 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

M. Lee, E. Lee, J. Jung, H. Yu, K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Lee, Y. Jeong, and Y. Park, “Label-free optical quantification of structural alterations in Alzheimer’s disease,” Sci. Rep. 6, 31034 (2016).
[Crossref]

Leonhardt, R.

Levine, A. J.

Y. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 6731–6736 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, V.

Y. J. Sung, A. Tzur, S. Oh, W. Choi, V. Li, R. R. Dasari, Z. Yaqoob, and M. W. Kirschner, “Size homeostasis in adherent cells studied by synthetic phase microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 16687–16692 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, X. H.

Liang, X.

Lue, N.

P. Hosseini, Y. J. Sung, Y. Choi, N. Lue, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Scanning color optical tomography (SCOT),” Opt. Express 23, 19752–19762 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Sung, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and Z. Yaqoob, “Stain-free quantification of chromosomes in live cells using regularized tomographic phase microscopy,” Plos One 7, e49502 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Yaqoob, W. Choi, S. Oh, N. Lue, Y. Park, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Improved phase sensitivity in spectral domain phase microscopy using line-field illumination and self phase-referencing,” Opt. Express 17, 10681–10687 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. 295, C538–C544 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4, 717–719 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lykotrafitis, G.

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. S. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 13730–13735 (2008).
[Crossref]

Marian, A.

Marquet, P.

Massatsch, P.

Mir, M.

T. Kim, R. J. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabeled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8, 256–263 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref]

Miwa, M.

Montfort, F.

Nagaya, T.

Nakamura, Y.

Oh, S.

Y. J. Sung, A. Tzur, S. Oh, W. Choi, V. Li, R. R. Dasari, Z. Yaqoob, and M. W. Kirschner, “Size homeostasis in adherent cells studied by synthetic phase microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 16687–16692 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Yaqoob, W. Choi, S. Oh, N. Lue, Y. Park, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Improved phase sensitivity in spectral domain phase microscopy using line-field illumination and self phase-referencing,” Opt. Express 17, 10681–10687 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4, 717–719 (2007).
[Crossref]

Okuyama, S.

Papageorgiou, D. P.

P. Hosseini, S. Z. Abidi, E. Du, D. P. Papageorgiou, Y. Choi, Y. Park, J. M. Higgins, G. J. Kato, S. Suresh, M. Dao, Z. Yaqoob, and P. T. C. So, “Cellular normoxic biophysical markers of hydroxyurea treatment in sickle cell disease,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 9527–9532 (2016).
[Crossref]

Park, K.

T. D. Yang, K. Park, Y. G. Kang, K. J. Lee, B. M. Kim, and Y. Choi, “Single-shot digital holographic microscopy for quantifying a spatially-resolved Jones matrix of biological specimens,” Opt. Express 24, 29303–29312 (2016).
[Crossref]

Park, Y.

M. Lee, E. Lee, J. Jung, H. Yu, K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Lee, Y. Jeong, and Y. Park, “Label-free optical quantification of structural alterations in Alzheimer’s disease,” Sci. Rep. 6, 31034 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Hosseini, S. Z. Abidi, E. Du, D. P. Papageorgiou, Y. Choi, Y. Park, J. M. Higgins, G. J. Kato, S. Suresh, M. Dao, Z. Yaqoob, and P. T. C. So, “Cellular normoxic biophysical markers of hydroxyurea treatment in sickle cell disease,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 9527–9532 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 6731–6736 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Yaqoob, W. Choi, S. Oh, N. Lue, Y. Park, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Improved phase sensitivity in spectral domain phase microscopy using line-field illumination and self phase-referencing,” Opt. Express 17, 10681–10687 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy,” Blood Cells, Mol., Dis. 41, 10–16 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. 295, C538–C544 (2008).
[Crossref]

Park, Y. K.

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. S. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 13730–13735 (2008).
[Crossref]

Popescu, G.

T. Kim, R. J. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabeled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8, 256–263 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Zhou, T. Kim, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “Inverse scattering solutions using low-coherence light,” Opt. Lett. 39, 4494–4497 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. F. Ding, Z. Wang, X. Liang, S. A. Boppart, K. Tangella, and G. Popescu, “Measuring the scattering parameters of tissues from quantitative phase imaging of thin slices,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2281–2283 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 6731–6736 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. S. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 13730–13735 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. 295, C538–C544 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy,” Blood Cells, Mol., Dis. 41, 10–16 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase microscopy for quantifying cell structure and dynamics,” Opt. Lett. 31, 775–777 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Iwai, C. Fang-Yen, G. Popescu, A. Wax, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Quantitative phase imaging using actively stabilized phase-shifting low-coherence interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2399–2401 (2004).
[Crossref]

Prasanth, S. G.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref]

Redding, B.

Russell, P. St. J.

Sarunic, M. V.

Sato, K.

Satterwhite, L. L.

See, C. W.

M. G. Somekh, C. W. See, and J. Goh, “Wide field amplitude and phase confocal microscope with speckle illumination,” Opt. Commun. 174, 75–80 (2000).
[Crossref]

Shaked, N. T.

Shen, Z.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref]

Singh, V. R.

So, P.

So, P. T. C.

Somekh, M. G.

M. G. Somekh, C. W. See, and J. Goh, “Wide field amplitude and phase confocal microscope with speckle illumination,” Opt. Commun. 174, 75–80 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sung, Y.

Y. Sung, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and Z. Yaqoob, “Stain-free quantification of chromosomes in live cells using regularized tomographic phase microscopy,” Plos One 7, e49502 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sung, Y. J.

P. Hosseini, Y. J. Sung, Y. Choi, N. Lue, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Scanning color optical tomography (SCOT),” Opt. Express 23, 19752–19762 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Sung, A. Tzur, S. Oh, W. Choi, V. Li, R. R. Dasari, Z. Yaqoob, and M. W. Kirschner, “Size homeostasis in adherent cells studied by synthetic phase microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 16687–16692 (2013).
[Crossref]

Suresh, S.

P. Hosseini, S. Z. Abidi, E. Du, D. P. Papageorgiou, Y. Choi, Y. Park, J. M. Higgins, G. J. Kato, S. Suresh, M. Dao, Z. Yaqoob, and P. T. C. So, “Cellular normoxic biophysical markers of hydroxyurea treatment in sickle cell disease,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 9527–9532 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. S. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 13730–13735 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tangella, K.

Tzur, A.

Y. J. Sung, A. Tzur, S. Oh, W. Choi, V. Li, R. R. Dasari, Z. Yaqoob, and M. W. Kirschner, “Size homeostasis in adherent cells studied by synthetic phase microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 16687–16692 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vabre, L.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wang, Z.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. F. Ding, Z. Wang, X. Liang, S. A. Boppart, K. Tangella, and G. Popescu, “Measuring the scattering parameters of tissues from quantitative phase imaging of thin slices,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2281–2283 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wax, A.

Weinberg, S.

Yamashita, Y.

Yamauchi, T.

Yang, C.

Yang, T. D.

T. D. Yang, K. Park, Y. G. Kang, K. J. Lee, B. M. Kim, and Y. Choi, “Single-shot digital holographic microscopy for quantifying a spatially-resolved Jones matrix of biological specimens,” Opt. Express 24, 29303–29312 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yaqoob, Z.

D. Jin, R. Zhou, Z. Yaqoob, and P. T. C. So, “Tomographic phase microscopy: principles and applications in bioimaging [Invited],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34, B64–B77 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Zhou, D. Jin, P. Hosseini, V. R. Singh, Y.-H. Kim, C. Kuang, R. R. Dasari, Z. Yaqoob, and P. T. C. So, “Modeling the depth-sectioning effect in reflection-mode dynamic speckle-field interferometric microscopy,” Opt. Express 25, 130–143 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Hosseini, S. Z. Abidi, E. Du, D. P. Papageorgiou, Y. Choi, Y. Park, J. M. Higgins, G. J. Kato, S. Suresh, M. Dao, Z. Yaqoob, and P. T. C. So, “Cellular normoxic biophysical markers of hydroxyurea treatment in sickle cell disease,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 9527–9532 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Hosseini, Y. J. Sung, Y. Choi, N. Lue, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Scanning color optical tomography (SCOT),” Opt. Express 23, 19752–19762 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Choi, P. Hosseini, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, P. T. C. So, and Z. Yaqoob, “Dynamic speckle illumination wide-field reflection phase microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6062–6065 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Sung, A. Tzur, S. Oh, W. Choi, V. Li, R. R. Dasari, Z. Yaqoob, and M. W. Kirschner, “Size homeostasis in adherent cells studied by synthetic phase microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 16687–16692 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Sung, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and Z. Yaqoob, “Stain-free quantification of chromosomes in live cells using regularized tomographic phase microscopy,” Plos One 7, e49502 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Yaqoob, T. Yamauchi, W. Choi, D. Fu, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single-shot full-field reflection phase microscopy,” Opt. Express 19, 7587–7595 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Yaqoob, W. Choi, S. Oh, N. Lue, Y. Park, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Improved phase sensitivity in spectral domain phase microscopy using line-field illumination and self phase-referencing,” Opt. Express 17, 10681–10687 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yoon, J.

M. Lee, E. Lee, J. Jung, H. Yu, K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Lee, Y. Jeong, and Y. Park, “Label-free optical quantification of structural alterations in Alzheimer’s disease,” Sci. Rep. 6, 31034 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

M. Lee, E. Lee, J. Jung, H. Yu, K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Lee, Y. Jeong, and Y. Park, “Label-free optical quantification of structural alterations in Alzheimer’s disease,” Sci. Rep. 6, 31034 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H. J.

Zhou, R.

Zhou, R. J.

T. Kim, R. J. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabeled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8, 256–263 (2014).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (1)

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. 295, C538–C544 (2008).
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Appl. Opt. (2)

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

Blood Cells, Mol., Dis. (1)

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy,” Blood Cells, Mol., Dis. 41, 10–16 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Methods (1)

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4, 717–719 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

T. Kim, R. J. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabeled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8, 256–263 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. G. Somekh, C. W. See, and J. Goh, “Wide field amplitude and phase confocal microscope with speckle illumination,” Opt. Commun. 174, 75–80 (2000).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

R. Zhou, D. Jin, P. Hosseini, V. R. Singh, Y.-H. Kim, C. Kuang, R. R. Dasari, Z. Yaqoob, and P. T. C. So, “Modeling the depth-sectioning effect in reflection-mode dynamic speckle-field interferometric microscopy,” Opt. Express 25, 130–143 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. D. Yang, K. Park, Y. G. Kang, K. J. Lee, B. M. Kim, and Y. Choi, “Single-shot digital holographic microscopy for quantifying a spatially-resolved Jones matrix of biological specimens,” Opt. Express 24, 29303–29312 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Yamauchi, H. Iwai, and Y. Yamashita, “Label-free imaging of intracellular motility by low-coherent quantitative phase microscopy,” Opt. Express 19, 5536–5550 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Yaqoob, T. Yamauchi, W. Choi, D. Fu, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single-shot full-field reflection phase microscopy,” Opt. Express 19, 7587–7595 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Yamauchi, H. Iwai, M. Miwa, and Y. Yamashita, “Low-coherent quantitative phase microscope for nanometer-scale measurement of living cells morphology,” Opt. Express 16, 12227–12238 (2008).
[Crossref]

Z. Yaqoob, W. Choi, S. Oh, N. Lue, Y. Park, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Improved phase sensitivity in spectral domain phase microscopy using line-field illumination and self phase-referencing,” Opt. Express 17, 10681–10687 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Hosseini, Y. J. Sung, Y. Choi, N. Lue, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Scanning color optical tomography (SCOT),” Opt. Express 23, 19752–19762 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (14)

H. Iwai, C. Fang-Yen, G. Popescu, A. Wax, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Quantitative phase imaging using actively stabilized phase-shifting low-coherence interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2399–2401 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Zhou, T. Kim, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “Inverse scattering solutions using low-coherence light,” Opt. Lett. 39, 4494–4497 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Choi, P. Hosseini, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, P. T. C. So, and Z. Yaqoob, “Dynamic speckle illumination wide-field reflection phase microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6062–6065 (2014).
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T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1415–1417 (2000).
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S. Coen, A. H. L. Chau, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “White-light supercontinuum generation with 60-ps pump pulses in a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1356–1358 (2001).
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M. V. Sarunic, S. Weinberg, and J. A. Izatt, “Full-field swept-source phase microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1462–1464 (2006).
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B. Redding, Y. Bromberg, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Full-field interferometric confocal microscopy using a VCSEL array,” Opt. Lett. 39, 4446–4449 (2014).
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G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase microscopy for quantifying cell structure and dynamics,” Opt. Lett. 31, 775–777 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. H. Li, T. Yamauchi, H. Iwai, Y. Yamashita, H. J. Zhang, and T. Hiruma, “Full-field quantitative phase imaging by white-light interferometry with active phase stabilization and its application to biological samples,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1830–1832 (2006).
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J. M. Dudley and S. Coen, “Coherence properties of supercontinuum spectra generated in photonic crystal and tapered optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1180–1182 (2002).
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A. D. Aguirre, P. Hsiung, T. H. Ko, I. Hartl, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution optical coherence microscopy for high-speed, in vivo cellular imaging,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2064–2066 (2003).
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M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, C. Yang, T. L. Creazzo, and J. A. Izatt, “Spectral-domain phase microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1162–1164 (2005).
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F. Charrière, A. Marian, F. Montfort, J. Kuehn, T. Colomb, E. Cuche, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Cell refractive index tomography by digital holographic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31, 178–180 (2006).
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H. F. Ding, Z. Wang, X. Liang, S. A. Boppart, K. Tangella, and G. Popescu, “Measuring the scattering parameters of tissues from quantitative phase imaging of thin slices,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2281–2283 (2011).
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Plos One (1)

Y. Sung, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and Z. Yaqoob, “Stain-free quantification of chromosomes in live cells using regularized tomographic phase microscopy,” Plos One 7, e49502 (2012).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (5)

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Sung, A. Tzur, S. Oh, W. Choi, V. Li, R. R. Dasari, Z. Yaqoob, and M. W. Kirschner, “Size homeostasis in adherent cells studied by synthetic phase microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 16687–16692 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 6731–6736 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Hosseini, S. Z. Abidi, E. Du, D. P. Papageorgiou, Y. Choi, Y. Park, J. M. Higgins, G. J. Kato, S. Suresh, M. Dao, Z. Yaqoob, and P. T. C. So, “Cellular normoxic biophysical markers of hydroxyurea treatment in sickle cell disease,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 9527–9532 (2016).
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Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. S. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 13730–13735 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

M. Lee, E. Lee, J. Jung, H. Yu, K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Lee, Y. Jeong, and Y. Park, “Label-free optical quantification of structural alterations in Alzheimer’s disease,” Sci. Rep. 6, 31034 (2016).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

R. R. Alfano, The Supercontinuum Laser Source: Fundamentals with Updated References, 2nd ed. (Springer, 2006).

Supplementary Material (4)

NameDescription
» Supplement 1       Supplemental document
» Visualization 1       3-D reflectance image of living cancer cells taken by reflection phase microscopy
» Visualization 2       Time laps image of living cancer cells taken by a reflection phase microscope. 20 fps.
» Visualization 3       Reflection phase fluctuation observed at a nuclear membrane of a living cancer cell. Taken at 100 fps.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the spatio-temporal reflection phase microscope. (a) D: diffuser; L1-L4: lenses; P α : polarizer with α -deg rotation angle; LT: tube lens; PBS: polarizing beam splitter; λ / 4 α : quarter-wave plate with α -deg rotation angle; OL R and OL S : objective lenses for the reference arm and the sample arm; G: diffraction grating (the 0th diffraction order is omitted for simplicity); IP: image plane; and FP: Fourier plane; E 0 R : reference beam with s-pol.; E 90 S : sample beam with p-pol.; E + R , S : reference and sample beams with the same circular-pol. (b) Speckle distribution on the sample arm. (c) Interference fringe pattern on the camera.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Spatio-temporal coherence of the supercontinuum laser combined with the dynamic speckle illumination. (a) Intact axial response of the supercontinuum laser. The FWHMs of the three mains peaks are 1.06 μm, 1.05 μm, and 0.77 μm (from left to right). (b) Axial response after combination with the dynamic speckle illumination. The FWHM of the peak is 0.64 μm. (c) Axial resolution as a function of numerical aperture, and laser bandwidth, by Eq. (1).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Depth-resolved images of living cells. (a)–(e) Reflectance images taken at different heights of 15 μm, 13 μm, 9 μm, 7 μm, and 4 μm from the bottom surface of the glass slide. (f) The z -stack image of multiple reflection images measured at 50 different depths. (g) Transmission phase image obtained from the double transmission measurement. (h) Zoom-view of the region in the white-box in (g). The measured phase values were divided by two to consider the double transmission in (g) and (h). (i) Another cell cluster showing the vigorous motion of filopodia (see Visualization 2). Color bars: phase in radian.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Observation of the nuclear fluctuation. (a) Reflection intensity and (b) corresponding phase image for the top plasma membrane of the cell. (c) Reflection intensity and (d) corresponding phase image for the nuclear membrane of the cell. (e) Background fluctuation before (red line) and after (black line) the phase stabilization. (f) Nuclear membrane motion (blue trace) measured at the point indicated by the arrow in (d). Black trace represents the background fluctuation in the blank region. Color bar in (a) and (c): normalized intensity. (a) and (c) are presented with the same color scale. Color bar in (b) and (d): phase in radians.

Equations (2)

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I ( z s ) | ω 2 S ( ω ) P ( k z , ω ) exp ( i k z z s ) d k z d ω | 2 ,
P ( k z , ω ) = 1 for    n 0 2 NA 2 < c k z ω < n 0 .

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