Abstract

Modern data centers increasingly rely on interconnects for delivering critical communications connectivity among numerous servers, memory, and computation resources. Data center interconnects turned to optical communications almost a decade ago, and the recent acceleration in data center requirements is expected to further drive photonic interconnect technologies deeper into the systems architecture. This review paper analyzes optical technologies that will enable next-generation data center optical interconnects. Recent progress addressing the challenges of terabit/s links and networks at the laser, modulator, photodiode, and switch levels is reported and summarized.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (8)

G. Zervas, H. Yuan, A. Saljoghei, Q. Chen, and V. Mishra, “Optically disaggregated data centers with minimal remote memory latency: technologies, architectures, and resource allocation,” J. Opt. Commun Netw. 10, A270–A285 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Glick, L. C. Kimmerling, and R. C. Pfahl, “A roadmap for integrated photonics,” Opt. Photon. News 29(3), 36–41 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, J. C. Norman, D. Jung, M. Kennedy, A. C. Gossard, and J. E. Bowers, “Monolithic 9  GHz passively mode locked quantum dot lasers directly grown on on-axis (001) Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 041108 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Ding, A. Wonfor, Q. Cheng, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Hybrid MZI-SOA InGaAs/InP photonic integrated switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 1–8 (2018).
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M. Bahadori, A. Gazman, N. Janosik, S. Rumley, Z. Zhu, R. Polster, Q. Cheng, and K. Bergman, “Thermal rectification of integrated microheaters for microring resonators in silicon photonics platform,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 773–788 (2018).
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Y. Shen, M. H. N. Hattink, P. Samadi, Q. Cheng, Z. Hu, A. Gazman, and K. Bergman, “Software-defined networking control plane for seamless integration of multiple silicon photonic switches in Datacom networks,” Opt. Express 26, 10914–10929 (2018).
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M. Bahadori, M. Nikdast, S. Rumley, L. Y. Dai, N. Janosik, T. Van Vaerenbergh, A. Gazman, Q. Cheng, R. Polster, and K. Bergman, “Design space exploration of microring resonators in silicon photonic interconnects: impact of the ring curvature,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 2767–2782 (2018).
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Q. Cheng, S. Rumley, M. Bahadori, and K. Bergman, “Photonic switching in high performance datacenters [Invited],” Opt. Express 26, 16022–16043 (2018).
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2017 (9)

J. Hulme, M. J. Kennedy, R.-L. Chao, L. Liang, T. Komljenovic, J.-W. Shi, B. Szafraniec, D. Baney, and J. E. Bowers, “Fully integrated microwave frequency synthesizer on heterogeneous silicon-III/V,” Opt. Express 25, 2422–2431 (2017).
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Y. Sun, R. Lingle, R. Shubochkin, A. H. Mccurdy, K. Balemarthy, D. Braganza, J. Kamino, T. Gray, W. Fan, K. Wade, F. Chang, D. Gazula, G. Landry, J. Tatum, and S. Bhoja, “SWDM PAM4 transmission over next generation wide-band multimode optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 690–697 (2017).
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X. Zhou, H. Liu, and R. Urata, “Datacenter optics: requirements, technologies, and trends (Invited Paper),” Chin. Opt. Lett. 15, 120008 (2017).
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A. Samani, D. Patel, M. Chagnon, E. El-Fiky, R. Li, M. Jacques, N. Abadía, V. Veerasubramanian, and D. V. Plant, “Experimental parametric study of 128  Gb/s PAM-4 transmission system using a multi-electrode silicon photonic Mach Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 25, 13252–13262 (2017).
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Q. Li, K. Sun, K. Li, Q. Yu, P. Runge, W. Ebert, A. Beling, and J. C. Campbell, “High-power evanescently coupled waveguide MUTC photodiode with >105-GHz bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 4752–4757 (2017).
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L. Qiao, W. Tang, and T. Chu, “32 × 32 silicon electro-optic switch with built-in monitors and balanced-status units,” Sci. Rep. 7, 42306 (2017).
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Z. Lu, D. Celo, H. Mehrvar, E. Bernier, and L. Chrostowski, “High-performance silicon photonic tri-state switch based on balanced nested Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Sci. Rep. 7, 12244 (2017).
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C. L. Manganelli, P. Pintus, F. Gambini, D. Fowler, M. Fournier, S. Faralli, C. Kopp, and C. J. Oton, “Large-FSR thermally tunable double-ring filters for WDM applications in silicon photonics,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 1–10 (2017).
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S. Rumley, M. Bahadori, R. Polster, S. D. Hammond, D. M. Calhoun, K. Wen, A. Rodrigues, and K. Bergman, “Optical interconnects for extreme scale computing systems,” Parallel Comput. 64, 65–80 (2017).
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2016 (19)

A. Singh, J. Ong, A. Agarwal, G. Anderson, A. Armistead, R. Bannon, S. Boving, G. Desai, B. Felderman, P. Germano, A. Kanagala, H. Liu, J. Provost, J. Simmons, E. Tanda, J. Wanderer, U. Holzle, S. Stuart, and A. Vahdat, “Jupiter rising: a decade of Clos topologies and centralized control in Google’s datacenter network,” Commun. ACM 59, 88–97 (2016).
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D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18, 073003 (2016).
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V. Panapakkam, A. P. Anthur, V. Vujicic, R. Zhou, Q. Gaimard, K. Merghem, G. Aubin, F. Lelarge, E. A. Viktorov, L. P. Barry, and A. Ramdane, “Amplitude and phase noise of frequency combs generated by single-section InAs/InP quantum-dash-based passively and actively mode-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52, 1–7 (2016).
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S. Chen, W. Li, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. Tang, S. Shutts, S. N. Elliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. J. Seeds, I. Ross, P. M. Smowton, and H. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10, 307–311 (2016).
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C. Sun, M. Wade, M. Georgas, S. Lin, L. Alloatti, B. Moss, R. Kumar, A. H. Atabaki, F. Pavanello, J. M. Shainline, J. S. Orcutt, R. J. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stojanović, “A 45  nm CMOS-SOI monolithic photonics platform with bit-statistics-based resonant microring thermal tuning,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 51, 893–907 (2016).
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O. Dubray, A. Abraham, K. Hassan, S. Olivier, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, I. O. Connor, and S. Menezo, “Electro-optical ring modulator: an ultracompact model for the comparison and optimization of p-n, p-i-n, and capacitive junction,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 89–98 (2016).
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F. Nakajima, M. Nada, and T. Yoshimatsu, “High-speed avalanche photodiode and high-sensitivity receiver optical subassembly for 100  Gb/s ethernet,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 243–248 (2016).
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S. A. Srinivasan, M. Pantouvaki, S. Gupta, H. T. Chen, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, G. Roelkens, K. Saraswat, D. V. Thourhout, P. Absil, and J. V. Campenhout, “56  Gb/s germanium waveguide electro-absorption modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 419–424 (2016).
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M. A. Mestre, H. Mardoyan, C. Caillaud, R. Rios-Müller, J. Renaudier, P. Jennevé, F. Blache, F. Pommereau, J. Decobert, F. Jorge, P. Charbonnier, A. Konczykowska, J.-Y. Dupuy, K. Mekhazni, J.-F. Paret, M. Faugeron, F. Mallecot, M. Achouche, and S. Bigo, “Compact InP-based DFB-EAM enabling PAM-4 112  Gb/s transmission over 2 km,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 1572–1578 (2016).
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L. Lu, S. Zhao, L. Zhou, D. Li, Z. Li, M. Wang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “16 × 16 non-blocking silicon optical switch based on electro-optic Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Opt. Express 24, 9295–9307 (2016).
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J. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and J. F. Buckwalter, “Scaling trends for picojoule-per-bit WDM photonic interconnects in CMOS SOI and FinFET processes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 2730–2742 (2016).
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R. Dubé-Demers, S. Larochelle, and W. Shi, “Ultrafast pulse-amplitude modulation with a femtojoule silicon photonic modulator,” Optica 3, 622–627 (2016).
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A. De Groote, P. Cardile, A. Z. Subramanian, A. M. Fecioru, C. Bower, D. Delbeke, R. Baets, and G. Roelkens, “Transfer-printing-based integration of single-mode waveguide-coupled III-V-on-silicon broadband light emitters,” Opt. Express 24, 13754–13762 (2016).
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H. Jayatilleka, K. Murray, M. Caverley, N. A. F. Jaeger, L. Chrostowski, and S. Shekhar, “Crosstalk in SOI microring resonator-based filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 2886–2896 (2016).
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M. Bahadori, S. Rumley, D. Nikolova, and K. Bergman, “Comprehensive design space exploration of silicon photonic interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 2975–2987 (2016).
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N. Dupuis, A. V. Rylyakov, C. L. Schow, D. M. Kuchta, C. W. Baks, J. S. Orcutt, D. M. Gill, W. M. J. Green, and B. G. Lee, “Ultralow crosstalk nanosecond-scale nested 2 × 2 Mach-Zehnder silicon photonic switch,” Opt. Lett. 41, 3002–3005 (2016).
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Z. Huang, C. Li, D. Liang, K. Yu, C. Santori, M. Fiorentino, W. Sorin, S. Palermo, and R. G. Beausoleil, “25  Gbps low-voltage waveguide SiGe avalanche photodiode,” Optica 3, 793–798 (2016).
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M. Nikdast, G. Nicolescu, J. Trajkovic, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “Chip-scale silicon photonic interconnects: a formal study on fabrication non-uniformity,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 3682–3695 (2016).
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M. Bahadori, S. Rumley, H. Jayatilleka, K. Murray, N. A. F. Jaeger, L. Chrostowski, S. Shekhar, and K. Bergman, “Crosstalk penalty in microring-based silicon photonic interconnect systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 4043–4052 (2016).
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2015 (11)

A. Ghiasi, “Large data centers interconnect bottlenecks,” Opt. Express 23, 2085–2090 (2015).
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H. Duprez, A. Descos, T. Ferrotti, C. Sciancalepore, C. Jany, K. Hassan, C. Seassal, S. Menezo, and B. Ben Bakir, “1310  nm hybrid InP/InGaAsP on silicon distributed feedback laser with high side-mode suppression ratio,” Opt. Express 23, 8489–8497 (2015).
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R. Wu, C.-H. Chen, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, K.-T. Cheng, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Compact models for carrier-injection silicon microring modulators,” Opt. Express 23, 15545–15554 (2015).
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K. Tanizawa, K. Suzuki, M. Toyama, M. Ohtsuka, N. Yokoyama, K. Matsumaro, M. Seki, K. Koshino, T. Sugaya, S. Suda, G. Cong, T. Kimura, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Ultra-compact 32 × 32 strictly-non-blocking Si-wire optical switch with fan-out LGA interposer,” Opt. Express 23, 17599–17606 (2015).
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X. Fu, J. Cheng, Q. Huang, Y. Hu, W. Xie, M. Tassaert, J. Verbist, K. Ma, J. Zhang, K. Chen, C. Zhang, Y. Shi, J. Bauwelinck, G. Roelkens, L. Liu, and S. He, “5 × 20  Gb/s heterogeneously integrated III-V on silicon electro-absorption modulator array with arrayed waveguide grating multiplexer,” Opt. Express 23, 18686–18693 (2015).
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C.-H. Chen, M. A. Seyedi, M. Fiorentino, D. Livshits, A. Gubenko, S. Mikhrin, V. Mikhrin, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A comb laser-driven DWDM silicon photonic transmitter based on microring modulators,” Opt. Express 23, 21541–21548 (2015).
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Q. Li, R. Ding, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “High-speed BPSK modulation in silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 1329–1332 (2015).
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S. Kanazawa, T. Fujisawa, K. Takahata, T. Ito, Y. Ueda, W. Kobayashi, H. Ishii, and H. Sanjoh, “Flip-chip interconnection lumped-electrode EADFB laser for 100-Gb/s/$\lambda $ transmitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 1699–1701 (2015).
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E. Haglund, P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, E. P. Haglund, A. Larsson, M. Geen, and A. Joel, “30  GHz bandwidth 850  nm VCSEL with sub-100  fJ/bit energy dissipation at 25–50  Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett. 51, 1096–1098 (2015).
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D. M. Kuchta, A. V. Rylyakov, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, J. E. Proesel, C. W. Baks, P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, and A. Larsson, “A 71-Gb/s NRZ modulated 850-nm VCSEL-based optical link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 577–580 (2015).
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A. Rylyakov, J. E. Proesel, S. Rylov, B. G. Lee, J. F. Bulzacchelli, A. Ardey, B. Parker, M. Beakes, C. W. Baks, C. L. Schow, and M. Meghelli, “A 25  Gb/s burst-mode receiver for low latency photonic switch networks,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50, 3120–3132 (2015).
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2014 (9)

P. Dasmahapatra, R. Stabile, A. Rohit, and K. A. Williams, “Optical crosspoint matrix using broadband resonant switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1–10 (2014).
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J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 375–380 (2014).
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K. Padmaraju, X. Zhu, L. Chen, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Intermodulation crosstalk characteristics of WDM silicon microring modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1478–1481 (2014).
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R. Stabile, A. Rohit, and K. A. Williams, “Monolithically integrated 8 × 8 space and wavelength selective cross-connect,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 201–207 (2014).
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K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, T. Shiraishi, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, and K. Bergman, “Wavelength locking and thermally stabilizing microring resonators using dithering signals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 505–512 (2014).
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K. Suzuki, K. Tanizawa, T. Matsukawa, G. Cong, S.-H. Kim, S. Suda, M. Ohno, T. Chiba, H. Tadokoro, M. Yanagihara, Y. Igarashi, M. Masahara, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Ultra-compact 8 × 8 strictly-non-blocking Si-wire PILOSS switch,” Opt. Express 22, 3887–3894 (2014).
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Q. Cheng, A. Wonfor, J. L. Wei, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Monolithic MZI-SOA hybrid switch for low-power and low-penalty operation,” Opt. Lett. 39, 1449–1452 (2014).
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Q. Cheng, A. Wonfor, J. L. Wei, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Demonstration of the feasibility of large-port-count optical switching using a hybrid Mach-Zehnder interferometer-semiconductor optical amplifier switch module in a recirculating loop,” Opt. Lett. 39, 5244–5247 (2014).
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M. Piels and J. E. Bowers, “40  GHz Si/Ge uni-traveling carrier waveguide photodiode,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 3502–3508 (2014).
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2013 (5)

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Ring resonator modulators in silicon for interchip photonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 95–113 (2013).
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M. Pantouvaki, H. Yu, M. Rakowski, P. Christie, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, N. V. Hoovels, P. Absil, and J. V. Campenhout, “Comparison of silicon ring modulators with interdigitated and lateral p-n junctions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 7900308 (2013).
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T. Baba, S. Akiyama, M. Imai, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “50  Gb/s ring-resonator-based silicon modulator,” Opt. Express 21, 11869–11876 (2013).
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Q. Cheng, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Scalable, low-energy hybrid photonic space switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 3077–3084 (2013).
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L. Virot, L. Vivien, J.-M. Fédéli, Y. Bogumilowicz, J.-M. Hartmann, F. Bœuf, P. Crozat, D. Marris-Morini, and E. Cassan, “High-performance waveguide-integrated germanium PIN photodiodes for optical communication applications [Invited],” Photon. Res. 1, 140–147 (2013).
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2012 (8)

L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J. M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J. M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40  Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express 20, 1096–1101 (2012).
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Y. Tang, J. D. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, “Over 67  GHz bandwidth hybrid silicon electroabsorption modulator with asymmetric segmented electrode for 1.3  μm transmission,” Opt. Express 20, 11529–11535 (2012).
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L. Chen and Y.-K. Chen, “Compact, low-loss and low-power 8 × 8 broadband silicon optical switch,” Opt. Express 20, 18977–18985 (2012).
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P. Dong, L. Chen, C. Xie, L. L. Buhl, and Y.-K. Chen, “50  Gb/s silicon quadrature phase-shift keying modulator,” Opt. Express 20, 21181–21186 (2012).
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A. Rohit, J. Bolk, X. J. M. Leijtens, and K. A. Williams, “Monolithic nanosecond-reconfigurable 4 × 4 space and wavelength selective cross-connect,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 2913–2921 (2012).
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R. Stabile, A. Albores-Mejia, and K. A. Williams, “Monolithic active-passive 16 × 16 optoelectronic switch,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4666–4668 (2012).
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P. Dong, C. Xie, L. Chen, L. L. Buhl, and Y.-K. Chen, “112-Gb/s monolithic PDM-QPSK modulator in silicon,” Opt. Express 20, B624–B629 (2012).
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X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1712–1714 (2012).
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2011 (6)

2010 (8)

S. C. Nicholes, M. L. Mašanović, B. Jevremović, E. Lively, L. A. Coldren, and D. J. Blumenthal, “An 8 × 8 InP Monolithic Tunable Optical Router (MOTOR) packet forwarding chip,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 641–650 (2010).
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G. Wang, D. G. Andersen, M. Kaminsky, K. Papagiannaki, T. S. E. Ng, M. Kozuch, and M. Ryan, “c-Through: part-time optics in data centers,” SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 40, 327–338 (2010).
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A. Vahdat, M. Al-Fares, N. Farrington, R. N. Mysore, G. Porter, and S. Radhakrishnan, “Scale-out networking in the data center,” IEEE Micro 30, 29–41 (2010).
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S. A. Reinemo, T. Skeie, and M. K. Wadekar, “Ethernet for high-performance data centers: on the new IEEE datacenter bridging standards,” IEEE Micro 30, 42–51 (2010).
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N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. H. Bazzaz, V. Subramanya, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: a hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 40, 339–350 (2010).
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G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4, 518–526 (2010).
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J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4, 37–40 (2010).
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F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, M. Torregiani, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, “Roughness induced backscattering in optical silicon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 033902 (2010).
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2009 (4)

A. Greenberg, J. R. Hamilton, N. Jain, S. Kandula, C. Kim, P. Lahiri, D. A. Maltz, P. Patel, and S. Sengupta, “VL2: a scalable and flexible data center network,” SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 39, 51–62 (2009).
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X. Wang, S. Xiao, W. Zheng, F. Wang, Y. Li, Y. Hao, X. Jiang, M. Wang, and J. Yang, “Athermal silicon arrayed waveguide grating with polymer-filled slot structure,” Opt. Commun. 282, 2841–2844 (2009).
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D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
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I. White, E. T. Aw, K. Williams, H. Wang, A. Wonfor, and R. Penty, “Scalable optical switches for computing applications [Invited],” J. Opt. Netw. 8, 215–224 (2009).
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2008 (2)

2007 (5)

2006 (3)

2005 (5)

A. Beling, H. G. Bach, G. G. Mekonnen, R. Kunkel, and D. Schmidt, “Miniaturized waveguide-integrated p-i-n photodetector with 120-GHz bandwidth and high responsivity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2152–2154 (2005).
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M. Yano, F. Yamagishi, and T. Tsuda, “Optical MEMS for photonic switching-compact and stable optical crossconnect switches for simple, fast, and flexible wavelength applications in recent photonic networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 383–394 (2005).
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R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, T. Huan-Shang, M. F. V. Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 50–65 (2005).
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Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437, 1334–1336 (2005).
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Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
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2004 (1)

H. Ito, S. Kodama, Y. Muramoto, T. Furuta, T. Nagatsuma, and T. Ishibashi, “High-speed and high-output InP-InGaAs unitraveling-carrier photodiodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 709–727 (2004).
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2003 (2)

S. Kamei, M. Ishii, I. Kitagawa, M. Itoh, and Y. Hibino, “64-channel ultra-low crosstalk arrayed-waveguide grating multi/demultiplexer module using cascade connection technique,” Electron. Lett. 39, 81–82 (2003).
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J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, and J. V. Gates, “1100 × 1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1537–1539 (2003).
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2000 (2)

A. Sugita, A. Kaneko, K. Okamoto, M. Itoh, A. Himeno, and Y. Ohmori, “Very low insertion loss arrayed-waveguide grating with vertically tapered waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1180–1182 (2000).
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T. Ishibashi, T. Furuta, H. Fushimi, S. Kodama, H. Ito, T. Nagatsuma, N. Shimizu, and Y. Miyamoto, “InP/InGaAs uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes,” IEICE Trans. Electron. 83, 938–949 (2000).

1997 (1)

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B. Abali, R. J. Eickemeyer, H. Franke, C.-S. Li, and M. A. Taubenblatt, “Disaggregated and optically interconnected memory: when will it be cost effective?” arXiv:1503.01416 (2015).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Optical interface for active optical cables (AOCs) and pluggable transceivers. (b) Optical interface for board-mounted assembly. (c) Co-packaged optics with electronics (2.5D integration on an interposer). (d) Monolithic integration of optics and electronics. (e) Schematic of a 2.5D MCM co-integrating electronics and photonics via an interposer. (f) Schematic of a 3D integrated module. PIC, photonic integrated circuit; EIC, electronic integrated circuit; BGA, ball grid array; PCB, printed circuit boards; QFN, quad-flat no-leads.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Disaggregated rack places resources of different types (a–c) in different parts of the data center compared to traditional servers and uses networking to pool and compose needed resources together. In (d), a logical node can be constructed from distant resources. SSD, solid state drive; GPU, graphics processing unit; CPU, central processing unit; RAM, random-access memory.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Example of bandwidth steering. Photonic switches may be used to assemble optimized nodes as (b) by configuration of the switches (within the dashed box). MEM, memory; GPU, graphics processing unit; CMP, chip multi-processor.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Anatomy of various link architectures: (a) single-wavelength point-to-point photonic link; (b) WDM photonic link based on separate lasers and broadband modulators; (c) photonic link based on a comb laser, parallel broadband modulators, and DeMux/Mux. (d) WDM photonic link based on comb laser, cascaded microring resonators, and cascaded drop filters. MOD, modulator; Det, detector; TIA, trans-impedance amplifier; CLK, clock; Mux, multiplexer; DeMux, demultiplexer.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) On-chip optical comb generator using silicon nitride ring resonator with a single external pump laser [60]. (b) Chip-integrated, ultra low-power comb generator using an electrically pumped RSOA and a high-quality-factor silicon nitride ring resonator [61]. OPO, optical parametric oscillator; RSOA, reflective semiconductor optical amplifier.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Cross-section of a PN-based modulator. (b) Cross-section of a PIN-based modulator. (c) Example of spectral response of a PIN-based microring modulator. (d) Power penalty space of microring modulators based on the spectral shift. (e) Spectral shift of a PIN-based ring modulator as a function of injected current [76]. (f) Measured bending loss of ring resonators as a function of radius reported in [77] and [78] (both horizontal and vertical axes are in log scale). OMA, optical modulation amplitude; OOK, on–off keying; IL, insertion loss.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Impact of the spectral filtering of a demux ring when data rate is much smaller than the optical bandwidth. (b) Impact of the spectral filtering of a demux ring when data rate is comparable to the optical bandwidth. (c) Design space of a critically coupled demux add–drop ring. (d) Power penalty space of microring demux based on the Q factor. DR, data rate; FWHM, full width at half maximum; OOK, on–off keying; BW, bandwidth; ER, extinction ratio; IL, insertion loss; FSR, free spectral range.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Schematic of optical switch topologies: (a) Crossbar, (b) Beneš, (c) dilated Beneš, (d) switch-and-select, (e) N-stage planar, (f) PILOSS, and (g) broadcast-and-select. Red rectangles represent SOA elements.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (a) Number of cascading stages of switch cells per path and (b) the total number of switch cells required for each type of topology as a function of port number N in an N×N network.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. High connectivity optical switch matrix technologies highlighted in terms of input side connectivity.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. (a) 1×N MZI-based cascading structure versus 1×N MRR-based bus structure. (b) MRR-based switch-and-select topology. MRR, microring resonator; CT, crosstalk.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. Microscope photo of (a) 4×4 Si/SiN dual-layered MRR-based S&S switch, (b) 4×4 Si MRR-based S&S switch, and (c) 12×12 Si MRR-Based Clos switch with populated S&S stages.
Fig. 13.
Fig. 13. (a) Packaged switch device by flip-chip bonding on the breakout PCB board. (b) Packaged 12×12 Si MRR-Based Clos switch by flip-chip bonding onto a silicon interposer.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Notable Demonstrations of Photonic Integrated Switches

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