Abstract

The generation of dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators has provided a route to compact frequency combs of high repetition rate, which have already been employed for optical frequency synthesizers, ultrafast ranging, coherent telecommunication, and dual-comb spectroscopy. Silicon nitride (Si3N4) microresonators are promising for photonic integrated soliton microcombs. Yet to date, soliton formation in Si3N4 microresonators at electronically detectable repetition rates, typically less than 100 GHz, is hindered by the requirement of external power amplifiers, due to the low quality (Q) factors, as well as by thermal effects that necessitate the use of frequency agile lasers to access the soliton state. These requirements complicate future photonic integration, heterogeneous or hybrid, of soliton microcomb devices based on Si3N4 microresonators with other active or passive components. Here, using the photonic Damascene reflow process, we demonstrate ultralow-power single-soliton formation in high-Q (Q0>15×106)Si3N4 microresonators with 9.8 mW input power (6.2 mW in the waveguide) for devices of electronically detectable, 99-GHz repetition rate. We show that solitons can be accessed via simple, slow laser piezo tuning, in many resonances in the same sample. These power levels are compatible with current silicon-photonics-based lasers for full photonic integration of soliton microcombs, at repetition rates suitable for applications such as ultrafast ranging and coherent communication. Our results show the technological readiness of Si3N4 optical waveguides for future all-on-chip soliton microcomb devices.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (9)

P. Trocha, M. Karpov, D. Ganin, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, S. Wolf, J. Krockenberger, P. Marin-Palomo, C. Weimann, S. Randel, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs,” Science 359, 887–891 (2018).
[Crossref]

M.-G. Suh and K. J. Vahala, “Soliton microcomb range measurement,” Science 359, 884–887 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 55, 81–85 (2018).

N. Volet, X. Yi, Q. Yang, E. J. Stanton, P. A. Morton, K. Y. Yang, K. J. Vahala, and J. E. Bowers, “Micro-resonator soliton generated directly with a diode laser,” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1700307 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. R. Stone, T. C. Briles, T. E. Drake, D. T. Spencer, D. R. Carlson, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Thermal and nonlinear dissipative-soliton dynamics in Kerr-microresonator frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 063902 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. C. Briles, J. R. Stone, T. E. Drake, D. T. Spencer, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Interlocking Kerr-microresonator frequency combs for microwave to optical synthesis,” Opt. Lett. 43, 2933–2936 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. H. P. Pfeiffer, C. Herkommer, J. Liu, T. Morais, M. Zervas, M. Geiselmann, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic damascene process for low-loss, high-confinement silicon nitride waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 1–11 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. H. P. Pfeiffer, J. Liu, A. S. Raja, T. Morais, B. Ghadiani, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Ultra-smooth silicon nitride waveguides based on the damascene reflow process: fabrication and loss origins,” Optica 5, 884–892 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, A. S. Raja, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, C. Herkommer, H. Guo, M. Zervas, M. Geiselmann, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Double inverse nanotapers for efficient light coupling to integrated photonic devices,” Opt. Lett. 43, 3200–3203 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (8)

M. H. P. Pfeiffer, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Coupling ideality of integrated planar high-Q microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7, 024026 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Bao, Y. Xuan, D. E. Leaird, S. Wabnitz, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Spatial mode-interaction induced single soliton generation in microresonators,” Optica 4, 1011–1015 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Guo, E. Lucas, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. Karpov, M. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, J. D. Jost, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Intermode breather solitons in optical microresonators,” Phys. Rev. X 7, 041055 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Tombez, E. J. Zhang, J. S. Orcutt, S. Kamlapurkar, and W. M. J. Green, “Methane absorption spectroscopy on a silicon photonic chip,” Optica 4, 1322–1325 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Ji, F. A. S. Barbosa, S. P. Roberts, A. Dutt, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Bryant, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low-loss on-chip resonators with sub-milliwatt parametric oscillation threshold,” Optica 4, 619–624 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, T. C. Briles, D. A. Westly, T. E. Drake, J. R. Stone, B. R. Ilic, S. A. Diddams, S. B. Papp, and K. Srinivasan, “Stably accessing octave-spanning microresonator frequency combs in the soliton regime,” Optica 4, 193–203 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. H. P. Pfeiffer, C. Herkommer, J. Liu, H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, M. Zervas, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave-spanning dissipative Kerr soliton frequency combs in si3n4 microresonators,” Optica 4, 684–691 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546, 274–279 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (7)

M.-G. Suh, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, X. Yi, and K. J. Vahala, “Microresonator soliton dual-comb spectroscopy,” Science 354, 600–603 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351, 357–360 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Bringing short-lived dissipative kerr soliton states in microresonators into a steady state,” Opt. Express 24, 29312–29320 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, V. Brasch, M. Zervas, M. Geiselmann, J. D. Jost, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic damascene process for integrated high-Q microresonator based nonlinear photonics,” Optica 3, 20–25 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, L. T. Varghese, A. J. Metcalf, X. Xue, P.-H. Wang, K. Han, J. A. Jaramillo-Villegas, A. A. Noman, C. Wang, S. Kim, M. Teng, Y. J. Lee, B. Niu, L. Fan, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “High-Q silicon nitride microresonators exhibiting low-power frequency comb initiation,” Optica 3, 1171–1180 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, A. Kordts, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, V. Brasch, G. Lihachev, V. E. Lobanov, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal dynamics and deterministic switching of dissipative kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Phys. 13, 94–102 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, V. Brasch, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, A. N. Kamel, H. Guo, M. Geiselmann, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Frequency-comb-assisted broadband precision spectroscopy with cascaded diode lasers,” Opt. Lett. 41, 3134–3137 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

2014 (5)

2013 (4)

K. Luke, A. Dutt, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Overcoming si3n4 film stress limitations for high quality factor ring resonators,” Opt. Express 21, 22829–22833 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Coen, H. G. Randle, T. Sylvestre, and M. Erkintalo, “Modeling of octave-spanning Kerr frequency combs using a generalized mean-field Lugiato–Lefever model,” Opt. Lett. 38, 37–39 (2013).
[Crossref]

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2011 (3)

N. R. Newbury, “Searching for applications with a fine-tooth comb,” Nat. Photonics 5, 186–188 (2011).
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2010 (4)

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4, 37–40 (2010).
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2009 (2)

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Frequency comb assisted diode laser spectroscopy for measurement of microcavity dispersion,” Nat. Photonics 3, 529–533 (2009).
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2008 (1)

2007 (1)

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
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2006 (1)

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441, 960–963 (2006).
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2003 (3)

2002 (1)

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Anderson, M.

H. Guo, E. Lucas, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. Karpov, M. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, J. D. Jost, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Intermode breather solitons in optical microresonators,” Phys. Rev. X 7, 041055 (2017).
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P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546, 274–279 (2017).
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P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Frequency comb assisted diode laser spectroscopy for measurement of microcavity dispersion,” Nat. Photonics 3, 529–533 (2009).
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P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
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Bluestone, A.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 55, 81–85 (2018).

Blumenthal, D. J.

Bouchy, F.

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. Anderson, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wildi, F. Bouchy, T. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” arXiv 1712.09526 (2017).

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Bowers, J. E.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 55, 81–85 (2018).

N. Volet, X. Yi, Q. Yang, E. J. Stanton, P. A. Morton, K. Y. Yang, K. J. Vahala, and J. E. Bowers, “Micro-resonator soliton generated directly with a diode laser,” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1700307 (2018).
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P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546, 274–279 (2017).
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M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, V. Brasch, M. Zervas, M. Geiselmann, J. D. Jost, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic damascene process for integrated high-Q microresonator based nonlinear photonics,” Optica 3, 20–25 (2016).
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V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Bringing short-lived dissipative kerr soliton states in microresonators into a steady state,” Opt. Express 24, 29312–29320 (2016).
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D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 55, 81–85 (2018).

J. R. Stone, T. C. Briles, T. E. Drake, D. T. Spencer, D. R. Carlson, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Thermal and nonlinear dissipative-soliton dynamics in Kerr-microresonator frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 063902 (2018).
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T. C. Briles, J. R. Stone, T. E. Drake, D. T. Spencer, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Interlocking Kerr-microresonator frequency combs for microwave to optical synthesis,” Opt. Lett. 43, 2933–2936 (2018).
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Bryant, A.

Cardenas, J.

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J. R. Stone, T. C. Briles, T. E. Drake, D. T. Spencer, D. R. Carlson, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Thermal and nonlinear dissipative-soliton dynamics in Kerr-microresonator frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 063902 (2018).
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D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 55, 81–85 (2018).

Chazelas, B.

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. Anderson, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wildi, F. Bouchy, T. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” arXiv 1712.09526 (2017).

Chen, Q.-F.

Chen, S.

X. Xue, Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Mode-locked dark pulse Kerr combs in normal-dispersion microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 9, 594–600 (2015).
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Del’Haye, P.

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P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
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Diddams, S. A.

J. R. Stone, T. C. Briles, T. E. Drake, D. T. Spencer, D. R. Carlson, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Thermal and nonlinear dissipative-soliton dynamics in Kerr-microresonator frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 063902 (2018).
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D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 55, 81–85 (2018).

T. C. Briles, J. R. Stone, T. E. Drake, D. T. Spencer, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Interlocking Kerr-microresonator frequency combs for microwave to optical synthesis,” Opt. Lett. 43, 2933–2936 (2018).
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M.-G. Suh, X. Yi, Y.-H. Lai, S. Leifer, I. S. Grudinin, G. Vasisht, E. C. Martin, M. P. Fitzgerald, G. Doppmann, J. Wang, D. Mawet, S. B. Papp, S. A. Diddams, C. Beichman, and K. Vahala, “Searching for exoplanets using a microresonator astrocomb,” arXiv 1801.05174v1 (2017).

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D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 55, 81–85 (2018).

Drake, T. E.

Dutt, A.

Eftekhar, A. A.

Q. Li, A. A. Eftekhar, Z. Xia, and A. Adibi, “Unified approach to mode splitting and scattering loss in high-Q whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 033816 (2013).
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Fan, L.

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Foster, M. A.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4, 37–40 (2010).
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M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441, 960–963 (2006).
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D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 55, 81–85 (2018).

T. C. Briles, J. R. Stone, T. E. Drake, D. T. Spencer, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Interlocking Kerr-microresonator frequency combs for microwave to optical synthesis,” Opt. Lett. 43, 2933–2936 (2018).
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P. Trocha, M. Karpov, D. Ganin, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, S. Wolf, J. Krockenberger, P. Marin-Palomo, C. Weimann, S. Randel, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs,” Science 359, 887–891 (2018).
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X. Ji, F. A. S. Barbosa, S. P. Roberts, A. Dutt, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Bryant, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low-loss on-chip resonators with sub-milliwatt parametric oscillation threshold,” Optica 4, 619–624 (2017).
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D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7, 597–607 (2013).
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J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4, 37–40 (2010).
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M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441, 960–963 (2006).
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M. H. P. Pfeiffer, C. Herkommer, J. Liu, T. Morais, M. Zervas, M. Geiselmann, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic damascene process for low-loss, high-confinement silicon nitride waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 1–11 (2018).
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M. H. P. Pfeiffer, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Coupling ideality of integrated planar high-Q microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7, 024026 (2017).
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H. Guo, E. Lucas, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. Karpov, M. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, J. D. Jost, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Intermode breather solitons in optical microresonators,” Phys. Rev. X 7, 041055 (2017).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Dispersion and resonance linewidth characterization of an 88-GHz-FSR microresonator. (a) Microscope image of densely packed 88-GHz-FSR microresonators, using meander bus waveguides. These samples have no SiO 2 top cladding. Inset: SEM image of the cross section of a Si 3 N 4 waveguide without SiO 2 top cladding. The Si 3 N 4 waveguide is blue shaded, the SiO 2 bottom cladding is red shaded, and the air is not color shaded. (b) Pump resonance at λ = 1558.0    nm and its fit, with the loaded linewidth of κ / 2 π = 30.3    MHz and fitted intrinsic loss of κ 0 / 2 π 23.2    MHz , corresponding to Q 0 > 8.2 × 10 6 . (c) Resonance at λ = 1620.0    nm and its fit, with the loaded linewidth of κ / 2 π = 28.7    MHz and fitted intrinsic loss of κ 0 / 2 π 17.3    MHz , corresponding to Q 0 > 10.7 × 10 6 . (d) Loaded linewidth, intrinsic loss, and coupling strength of each TE 00 resonance. Larger intrinsic loss is found in the wavelength region from 1500 nm to 1550 nm (red shaded area), due to absorption by the N–H and Si–H bonds in LPCVD Si 3 N 4 . (e) Measured GVD of the TE 00 mode family. Several avoided mode crossings are observed, where resonance linewidth increases.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Single-soliton formation in the 88-GHz-FSR microresonator. (a) Simulated single-soliton spectrum based on the measured microresonator’s parameters, in the TE 00 mode. P b = 30.6    mW corresponds to P in = 48.6    mW . (b) Single-soliton spectrum pumped at λ p = 1558.0    nm in the TE 00 mode, with a pump power of P in = 48.6    mW ( P b = 30.6    mW ) . Inset: cavity response measurement using the VNA, verifying that the spectrum is a single-soliton state. (c) Single-soliton spectrum pumped at λ p = 1558.0    nm in the TM 00 mode, with the pump power P in = 80.0    mW ( P b = 50.4    mW ) .
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Dispersion and resonance linewidth characterization of a 99-GHz-FSR microresonator. (a) Critically coupled resonance at λ = 1621.8    nm and its fit, with the loaded linewidth of κ / 2 π = 27.9    MHz and fitted intrinsic loss of κ 0 / 2 π 13.7    MHz . (b) SEM image of the cross section of a Si 3 N 4 waveguide with full SiO 2 cladding. The Si 3 N 4 waveguide is blue shaded, and the SiO 2 cladding is not color shaded. (c) Loaded linewidth, intrinsic loss and coupling strength of each TE 00 resonance. No prominent hydrogen absorption loss is observed in the wavelength region from 1500 nm to 1550 nm. (d) Measured GVD of the TE 00 mode family. Several avoided mode crossings are observed, where resonance linewidth increases. A strong mode crossing is found at 1577 nm, with 5.9    GHz resonance frequency deviation. (e) Histogram of intrinsic loss from the measurement of eight under-coupled samples. The most probable value of the histogram is around 13–14 MHz, which represents the Q factor of Q 0 > 15 × 10 6 .
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Single soliton formation in a 99-GHz-FSR microresonator without EDFA. (a) Experimental setup. ECDL, external-cavity diode laser; OSC, oscilloscope; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer; ESA, electrical spectrum analyzer; FPC, fiber polarization controller; PD, photodiode. (b) Single-soliton spectra pumped at λ p = 1596.1    nm in the TE 00 mode, with the input pump powers of P in = 9.8    mW ( P b = 6.2    mW , red) and P in = 20.1    mW ( P b = 12.6    mW , blue). (c) Representative soliton step of several hundreds of microseconds, sufficiently long for accessing the single-soliton state via simple laser piezo tuning. (d) Low-frequency RF spectrum of the optical spectrum with P in = 9.8    mW (red), demonstrating the soliton nature of the spectrum.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Characterization of a different 99-GHz-FSR microresonator, and single-soliton formation in multiple resonances. (a) Loaded linewidth, intrinsic loss, and coupling strength of each TE 00 resonance. (b) Measured GVD of the TE 00 mode family. (c) Single-soliton formation in twenty selected resonances, eleven of which are consecutive in the telecom L-band, and five of which are consecutive in the telecom C-band. λ p is the wavelength of the pumped resonance. The complete hydrogen removal facilitates the soliton generation in the hydrogen absorption band.

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