Abstract

Conventional ultra-high sensitivity detectors in the millimeter-wave range are usually cooled as their own thermal noise at room temperature would mask the weak received radiation. The need for cryogenic systems increases the cost and complexity of the instruments, hindering the development of, among others, airborne and space applications. In this work, the nonlinear parametric upconversion of millimeter-wave radiation to the optical domain inside high-quality (Q) lithium niobate whispering-gallery mode (WGM) resonators is proposed for ultra-low noise detection. We experimentally demonstrate coherent upconversion of millimeter-wave signals to a 1550 nm telecom carrier, with a photon conversion efficiency surpassing the state-of-the-art by 2 orders of magnitude. Moreover, a theoretical model shows that the thermal equilibrium of counterpropagating WGMs is broken by overcoupling the millimeter-wave WGM, effectively cooling the upconverted mode and allowing ultra-low noise detection. By theoretically estimating the sensitivity of a correlation radiometer based on the presented scheme, it is found that room-temperature radiometers with better sensitivity than state-of-the-art high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT)-based radiometers can be designed. This detection paradigm can be used to develop room-temperature instrumentation for radio astronomy, earth observation, planetary missions, and imaging systems.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (3)

V. V. Kornienko, G. K. Kitaeva, F. Sedlmeir, G. Leuchs, and H. G. L. Schwefel, “Towards terahertz detection and calibration through spontaneous parametric down-conversion in the terahertz idler-frequency range generated by a 795  nm diode laser system,” APL Photon. 3, 051704 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. J. Mercante, S. Shi, P. Yao, L. Xie, R. M. Weikle, and D. W. Prather, “Thin film lithium niobate electro-optic modulator with terahertz operating bandwidth,” Opt. Express 26, 14810–14816 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. S. Trainor, F. Sedlmeir, C. Peuntinger, and H. G. Schwefel, “Selective coupling enhances harmonic generation of whispering-gallery modes,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9, 024007 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

R. Wolf, I. Breunig, H. Zappe, and K. Buse, “Cascaded second-order optical nonlinearities in on-chip micro rings,” Opt. Express 25, 29927–29933 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Sedlmeir, M. R. Foreman, U. Vogl, R. Zeltner, G. Schunk, D. V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, G. Leuchs, and H. G. L. Schwefel, “Polarization-selective out-coupling of whispering-gallery modes,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7, 024029 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

M. Leidinger, C. S. Werner, W. Yoshiki, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Impact of the photorefractive and pyroelectric-electro-optic effect in lithium niobate on whispering-gallery modes,” Opt. Lett. 41, 5474–5477 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Darré, R. Baudoin, J.-T. Gomes, N. J. Scott, L. Delage, L. Grossard, J. Sturmann, C. Farrington, F. Reynaud, and T. A. T. Brummelaar, “First on-sky fringes with an upconversion interferometer tested on a telescope array,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 233902 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, A. B. Matsko, H. G. L. Schwefel, and G. Leuchs, “Nonlinear and quantum optics with whispering gallery resonators,” J. Opt. 18, 123002 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Rueda, F. Sedlmeir, M. C. Collodo, U. Vogl, B. Stiller, G. Schunk, D. V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, J. M. Fink, O. Painter, G. Leuchs, and H. G. L. Schwefel, “Efficient microwave to optical photon conversion: an electro-optical realization,” Optica 3, 597–604 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

A. Rivera-Lavado, S. Preu, L. Garcia-Munoz, A. Generalov, J. Montero-de Paz, G. Dohler, D. Lioubtchenko, M. Mendez-Aller, F. Sedlmeir, M. Schneidereit, H. Schwefel, S. Malzer, D. Segovia-Vargas, and A. Raisanen, “Dielectric rod waveguide antenna as THz emitter for photomixing devices,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 63, 882–890 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

PRISM collaboration, “Prism (polarized radiation imaging and spectroscopy mission): an extended white paper,” J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 2014, 006 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Chen, Q. Xu, M. G. Wood, and R. M. Reano, “Hybrid silicon and lithium niobate electro-optical ring modulator,” Optica 1, 112–118 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2009 (2)

D. V. Strekalov, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and N. Yu, “Efficient upconversion of subterahertz radiation in a high-Q whispering gallery resonator,” Opt. Lett. 34, 713–715 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. V. Strekalov, H. G. L. Schwefel, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, L. J. Wang, and N. Yu, “Microwave whispering-gallery resonator for efficient optical upconversion,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 033810 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

A. Matsko, D. Strekalov, and N. Yu, “Sensitivity of terahertz photonic receivers,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 043812 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

S. Preu, F. H. Renner, S. Malzer, G. H. Döhler, L. J. Wang, M. Hanson, A. C. Gossard, T. L. J. Wilkinson, and E. R. Brown, “Efficient terahertz emission from ballistic transport enhanced n-i-p-n-i-p superlattice photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 212115 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Enhancement of photorefraction in whispering gallery mode resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 245119 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

N. Jarosik, C. L. Bennett, M. Halpern, G. Hinshaw, A. Kogut, M. Limon, S. S. Meyer, L. Page, M. Pospieszalski, D. N. Spergel, G. S. Tucker, D. T. Wilkinson, E. Wollack, E. L. Wright, and Z. Zhang, “Design, implementation, and testing of the microwave anisotropy probe radiometers,” Astrophys. J. 145, 413–436 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 321–322 (2000).
[Crossref]

1977 (2)

R. W. Boyd, “Infrared upconversion for astronomy,” Opt. Eng. 16, 166563 (1977).

A. Yariv and M. Nakamura, “Periodic structures for integrated optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 233–253 (1977).
[Crossref]

1961 (1)

H. A. Haus, “Thermal noise in dissipative media,” J. Appl. Phys. 32, 493–500 (1961).
[Crossref]

1959 (1)

L. Mandel, “Fluctuations of photon beams: the distribution of the photo-electrons,” Proc. Phys. Soc. 74, 233–243 (1959).
[Crossref]

Baudoin, R.

P. Darré, R. Baudoin, J.-T. Gomes, N. J. Scott, L. Delage, L. Grossard, J. Sturmann, C. Farrington, F. Reynaud, and T. A. T. Brummelaar, “First on-sky fringes with an upconversion interferometer tested on a telescope array,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 233902 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bennett, C. L.

N. Jarosik, C. L. Bennett, M. Halpern, G. Hinshaw, A. Kogut, M. Limon, S. S. Meyer, L. Page, M. Pospieszalski, D. N. Spergel, G. S. Tucker, D. T. Wilkinson, E. Wollack, E. L. Wright, and Z. Zhang, “Design, implementation, and testing of the microwave anisotropy probe radiometers,” Astrophys. J. 145, 413–436 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bhatia, A. B.

M. Born, E. Wolf, A. B. Bhatia, P. C. Clemmow, D. Gabor, A. R. Stokes, A. M. Taylor, P. A. Wayman, and W. L. Wilcock, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1999).

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, A. B. Bhatia, P. C. Clemmow, D. Gabor, A. R. Stokes, A. M. Taylor, P. A. Wayman, and W. L. Wilcock, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1999).

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, “Infrared upconversion for astronomy,” Opt. Eng. 16, 166563 (1977).

Breunig, I.

Brown, E. R.

S. Preu, F. H. Renner, S. Malzer, G. H. Döhler, L. J. Wang, M. Hanson, A. C. Gossard, T. L. J. Wilkinson, and E. R. Brown, “Efficient terahertz emission from ballistic transport enhanced n-i-p-n-i-p superlattice photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 212115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Brown, S.

P. Kangaslahti, B. Lim, T. Gaier, A. Tanner, M. Varonen, L. Samoska, S. Brown, B. Lambrigtsen, S. Reising, J. Tanabe, O. Montes, D. Dawson, and C. Parashare, “Low noise amplifier receivers for millimeter wave atmospheric remote sensing,” in IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest (2012), pp. 1–3.

Brummelaar, T. A. T.

P. Darré, R. Baudoin, J.-T. Gomes, N. J. Scott, L. Delage, L. Grossard, J. Sturmann, C. Farrington, F. Reynaud, and T. A. T. Brummelaar, “First on-sky fringes with an upconversion interferometer tested on a telescope array,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 233902 (2016).
[Crossref]

Buse, K.

Chen, L.

Clemmow, P. C.

M. Born, E. Wolf, A. B. Bhatia, P. C. Clemmow, D. Gabor, A. R. Stokes, A. M. Taylor, P. A. Wayman, and W. L. Wilcock, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1999).

Collodo, M. C.

Cooray, A. R.

A. R. Cooray and Origins Space Telescope Study Team, “Origins space telescope,” in American Astronomical Society Meeting Abstracts (2017), Vol. 229, pp. 405.01.

Darré, P.

P. Darré, R. Baudoin, J.-T. Gomes, N. J. Scott, L. Delage, L. Grossard, J. Sturmann, C. Farrington, F. Reynaud, and T. A. T. Brummelaar, “First on-sky fringes with an upconversion interferometer tested on a telescope array,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 233902 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dawson, D.

P. Kangaslahti, B. Lim, T. Gaier, A. Tanner, M. Varonen, L. Samoska, S. Brown, B. Lambrigtsen, S. Reising, J. Tanabe, O. Montes, D. Dawson, and C. Parashare, “Low noise amplifier receivers for millimeter wave atmospheric remote sensing,” in IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest (2012), pp. 1–3.

Delage, L.

P. Darré, R. Baudoin, J.-T. Gomes, N. J. Scott, L. Delage, L. Grossard, J. Sturmann, C. Farrington, F. Reynaud, and T. A. T. Brummelaar, “First on-sky fringes with an upconversion interferometer tested on a telescope array,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 233902 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dohler, G.

A. Rivera-Lavado, S. Preu, L. Garcia-Munoz, A. Generalov, J. Montero-de Paz, G. Dohler, D. Lioubtchenko, M. Mendez-Aller, F. Sedlmeir, M. Schneidereit, H. Schwefel, S. Malzer, D. Segovia-Vargas, and A. Raisanen, “Dielectric rod waveguide antenna as THz emitter for photomixing devices,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 63, 882–890 (2015).
[Crossref]

Döhler, G. H.

S. Preu, F. H. Renner, S. Malzer, G. H. Döhler, L. J. Wang, M. Hanson, A. C. Gossard, T. L. J. Wilkinson, and E. R. Brown, “Efficient terahertz emission from ballistic transport enhanced n-i-p-n-i-p superlattice photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 212115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Farrington, C.

P. Darré, R. Baudoin, J.-T. Gomes, N. J. Scott, L. Delage, L. Grossard, J. Sturmann, C. Farrington, F. Reynaud, and T. A. T. Brummelaar, “First on-sky fringes with an upconversion interferometer tested on a telescope array,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 233902 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fink, J. M.

Fomin, A. E.

Foreman, M. R.

F. Sedlmeir, M. R. Foreman, U. Vogl, R. Zeltner, G. Schunk, D. V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, G. Leuchs, and H. G. L. Schwefel, “Polarization-selective out-coupling of whispering-gallery modes,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7, 024029 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gabor, D.

M. Born, E. Wolf, A. B. Bhatia, P. C. Clemmow, D. Gabor, A. R. Stokes, A. M. Taylor, P. A. Wayman, and W. L. Wilcock, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1999).

Gaier, T.

P. Kangaslahti, B. Lim, T. Gaier, A. Tanner, M. Varonen, L. Samoska, S. Brown, B. Lambrigtsen, S. Reising, J. Tanabe, O. Montes, D. Dawson, and C. Parashare, “Low noise amplifier receivers for millimeter wave atmospheric remote sensing,” in IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest (2012), pp. 1–3.

Garcia-Munoz, L.

A. Rivera-Lavado, S. Preu, L. Garcia-Munoz, A. Generalov, J. Montero-de Paz, G. Dohler, D. Lioubtchenko, M. Mendez-Aller, F. Sedlmeir, M. Schneidereit, H. Schwefel, S. Malzer, D. Segovia-Vargas, and A. Raisanen, “Dielectric rod waveguide antenna as THz emitter for photomixing devices,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 63, 882–890 (2015).
[Crossref]

Generalov, A.

A. Rivera-Lavado, S. Preu, L. Garcia-Munoz, A. Generalov, J. Montero-de Paz, G. Dohler, D. Lioubtchenko, M. Mendez-Aller, F. Sedlmeir, M. Schneidereit, H. Schwefel, S. Malzer, D. Segovia-Vargas, and A. Raisanen, “Dielectric rod waveguide antenna as THz emitter for photomixing devices,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 63, 882–890 (2015).
[Crossref]

Goicoechea, J. R.

J. R. Goicoechea, K. Isaak, and B. Swinyard, “Exoplanet research with SAFARI: a far-IR imaging spectrometer for SPICA,” arXiv: 1002.2861v1 (2009).

Gomes, J.-T.

P. Darré, R. Baudoin, J.-T. Gomes, N. J. Scott, L. Delage, L. Grossard, J. Sturmann, C. Farrington, F. Reynaud, and T. A. T. Brummelaar, “First on-sky fringes with an upconversion interferometer tested on a telescope array,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 233902 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gorodetsky, M. L.

Gossard, A. C.

S. Preu, F. H. Renner, S. Malzer, G. H. Döhler, L. J. Wang, M. Hanson, A. C. Gossard, T. L. J. Wilkinson, and E. R. Brown, “Efficient terahertz emission from ballistic transport enhanced n-i-p-n-i-p superlattice photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 212115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Grossard, L.

P. Darré, R. Baudoin, J.-T. Gomes, N. J. Scott, L. Delage, L. Grossard, J. Sturmann, C. Farrington, F. Reynaud, and T. A. T. Brummelaar, “First on-sky fringes with an upconversion interferometer tested on a telescope array,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 233902 (2016).
[Crossref]

Grudinin, I. S.

Halpern, M.

N. Jarosik, C. L. Bennett, M. Halpern, G. Hinshaw, A. Kogut, M. Limon, S. S. Meyer, L. Page, M. Pospieszalski, D. N. Spergel, G. S. Tucker, D. T. Wilkinson, E. Wollack, E. L. Wright, and Z. Zhang, “Design, implementation, and testing of the microwave anisotropy probe radiometers,” Astrophys. J. 145, 413–436 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hanson, M.

S. Preu, F. H. Renner, S. Malzer, G. H. Döhler, L. J. Wang, M. Hanson, A. C. Gossard, T. L. J. Wilkinson, and E. R. Brown, “Efficient terahertz emission from ballistic transport enhanced n-i-p-n-i-p superlattice photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 212115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus, “Thermal noise in dissipative media,” J. Appl. Phys. 32, 493–500 (1961).
[Crossref]

Haus, J.

P. Powers and J. Haus, Fundamentals of Nonlinear Optics (Electro-Optics and Photonics Faculty, 2017).

Hinshaw, G.

N. Jarosik, C. L. Bennett, M. Halpern, G. Hinshaw, A. Kogut, M. Limon, S. S. Meyer, L. Page, M. Pospieszalski, D. N. Spergel, G. S. Tucker, D. T. Wilkinson, E. Wollack, E. L. Wright, and Z. Zhang, “Design, implementation, and testing of the microwave anisotropy probe radiometers,” Astrophys. J. 145, 413–436 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ilchenko, V. S.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Enhancement of photorefraction in whispering gallery mode resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 245119 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. E. Fomin, M. L. Gorodetsky, I. S. Grudinin, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Nonstationary nonlinear effects in optical microspheres,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 459–465 (2004).
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D. V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, A. B. Matsko, H. G. L. Schwefel, and G. Leuchs, “Nonlinear and quantum optics with whispering gallery resonators,” J. Opt. 18, 123002 (2016).
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D. V. Strekalov, H. G. L. Schwefel, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, L. J. Wang, and N. Yu, “Microwave whispering-gallery resonator for efficient optical upconversion,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 033810 (2009).
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Parashare, C.

P. Kangaslahti, B. Lim, T. Gaier, A. Tanner, M. Varonen, L. Samoska, S. Brown, B. Lambrigtsen, S. Reising, J. Tanabe, O. Montes, D. Dawson, and C. Parashare, “Low noise amplifier receivers for millimeter wave atmospheric remote sensing,” in IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest (2012), pp. 1–3.

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D. V. Strekalov, H. G. L. Schwefel, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, L. J. Wang, and N. Yu, “Microwave whispering-gallery resonator for efficient optical upconversion,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 033810 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. V. Strekalov, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and N. Yu, “Efficient upconversion of subterahertz radiation in a high-Q whispering gallery resonator,” Opt. Lett. 34, 713–715 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Enhancement of photorefraction in whispering gallery mode resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 245119 (2006).
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A. Rivera-Lavado, S. Preu, L. Garcia-Munoz, A. Generalov, J. Montero-de Paz, G. Dohler, D. Lioubtchenko, M. Mendez-Aller, F. Sedlmeir, M. Schneidereit, H. Schwefel, S. Malzer, D. Segovia-Vargas, and A. Raisanen, “Dielectric rod waveguide antenna as THz emitter for photomixing devices,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 63, 882–890 (2015).
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F. Sedlmeir, M. R. Foreman, U. Vogl, R. Zeltner, G. Schunk, D. V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, G. Leuchs, and H. G. L. Schwefel, “Polarization-selective out-coupling of whispering-gallery modes,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7, 024029 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Rueda, F. Sedlmeir, M. C. Collodo, U. Vogl, B. Stiller, G. Schunk, D. V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, J. M. Fink, O. Painter, G. Leuchs, and H. G. L. Schwefel, “Efficient microwave to optical photon conversion: an electro-optical realization,” Optica 3, 597–604 (2016).
[Crossref]

Schwefel, H.

A. Rivera-Lavado, S. Preu, L. Garcia-Munoz, A. Generalov, J. Montero-de Paz, G. Dohler, D. Lioubtchenko, M. Mendez-Aller, F. Sedlmeir, M. Schneidereit, H. Schwefel, S. Malzer, D. Segovia-Vargas, and A. Raisanen, “Dielectric rod waveguide antenna as THz emitter for photomixing devices,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 63, 882–890 (2015).
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Schwefel, H. G.

L. S. Trainor, F. Sedlmeir, C. Peuntinger, and H. G. Schwefel, “Selective coupling enhances harmonic generation of whispering-gallery modes,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9, 024007 (2018).
[Crossref]

Schwefel, H. G. L.

V. V. Kornienko, G. K. Kitaeva, F. Sedlmeir, G. Leuchs, and H. G. L. Schwefel, “Towards terahertz detection and calibration through spontaneous parametric down-conversion in the terahertz idler-frequency range generated by a 795  nm diode laser system,” APL Photon. 3, 051704 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Sedlmeir, M. R. Foreman, U. Vogl, R. Zeltner, G. Schunk, D. V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, G. Leuchs, and H. G. L. Schwefel, “Polarization-selective out-coupling of whispering-gallery modes,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7, 024029 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Rueda, F. Sedlmeir, M. C. Collodo, U. Vogl, B. Stiller, G. Schunk, D. V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, J. M. Fink, O. Painter, G. Leuchs, and H. G. L. Schwefel, “Efficient microwave to optical photon conversion: an electro-optical realization,” Optica 3, 597–604 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, A. B. Matsko, H. G. L. Schwefel, and G. Leuchs, “Nonlinear and quantum optics with whispering gallery resonators,” J. Opt. 18, 123002 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Breunig, B. Sturman, F. Sedlmeir, H. G. L. Schwefel, and K. Buse, “Whispering gallery modes at the rim of an axisymmetric optical resonator: analytical versus numerical description and comparison with experiment,” Opt. Express 21, 30683–30692 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. V. Strekalov, H. G. L. Schwefel, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, L. J. Wang, and N. Yu, “Microwave whispering-gallery resonator for efficient optical upconversion,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 033810 (2009).
[Crossref]

Scott, N. J.

P. Darré, R. Baudoin, J.-T. Gomes, N. J. Scott, L. Delage, L. Grossard, J. Sturmann, C. Farrington, F. Reynaud, and T. A. T. Brummelaar, “First on-sky fringes with an upconversion interferometer tested on a telescope array,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 233902 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sedlmeir, F.

V. V. Kornienko, G. K. Kitaeva, F. Sedlmeir, G. Leuchs, and H. G. L. Schwefel, “Towards terahertz detection and calibration through spontaneous parametric down-conversion in the terahertz idler-frequency range generated by a 795  nm diode laser system,” APL Photon. 3, 051704 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. S. Trainor, F. Sedlmeir, C. Peuntinger, and H. G. Schwefel, “Selective coupling enhances harmonic generation of whispering-gallery modes,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9, 024007 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Sedlmeir, M. R. Foreman, U. Vogl, R. Zeltner, G. Schunk, D. V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, G. Leuchs, and H. G. L. Schwefel, “Polarization-selective out-coupling of whispering-gallery modes,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7, 024029 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Rueda, F. Sedlmeir, M. C. Collodo, U. Vogl, B. Stiller, G. Schunk, D. V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, J. M. Fink, O. Painter, G. Leuchs, and H. G. L. Schwefel, “Efficient microwave to optical photon conversion: an electro-optical realization,” Optica 3, 597–604 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Rivera-Lavado, S. Preu, L. Garcia-Munoz, A. Generalov, J. Montero-de Paz, G. Dohler, D. Lioubtchenko, M. Mendez-Aller, F. Sedlmeir, M. Schneidereit, H. Schwefel, S. Malzer, D. Segovia-Vargas, and A. Raisanen, “Dielectric rod waveguide antenna as THz emitter for photomixing devices,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 63, 882–890 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Breunig, B. Sturman, F. Sedlmeir, H. G. L. Schwefel, and K. Buse, “Whispering gallery modes at the rim of an axisymmetric optical resonator: analytical versus numerical description and comparison with experiment,” Opt. Express 21, 30683–30692 (2013).
[Crossref]

Segovia-Vargas, D.

A. Rivera-Lavado, S. Preu, L. Garcia-Munoz, A. Generalov, J. Montero-de Paz, G. Dohler, D. Lioubtchenko, M. Mendez-Aller, F. Sedlmeir, M. Schneidereit, H. Schwefel, S. Malzer, D. Segovia-Vargas, and A. Raisanen, “Dielectric rod waveguide antenna as THz emitter for photomixing devices,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 63, 882–890 (2015).
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Spergel, D. N.

N. Jarosik, C. L. Bennett, M. Halpern, G. Hinshaw, A. Kogut, M. Limon, S. S. Meyer, L. Page, M. Pospieszalski, D. N. Spergel, G. S. Tucker, D. T. Wilkinson, E. Wollack, E. L. Wright, and Z. Zhang, “Design, implementation, and testing of the microwave anisotropy probe radiometers,” Astrophys. J. 145, 413–436 (2003).
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Stokes, A. R.

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Strekalov, D.

A. Matsko, D. Strekalov, and N. Yu, “Sensitivity of terahertz photonic receivers,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 043812 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Enhancement of photorefraction in whispering gallery mode resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 245119 (2006).
[Crossref]

Strekalov, D. V.

F. Sedlmeir, M. R. Foreman, U. Vogl, R. Zeltner, G. Schunk, D. V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, G. Leuchs, and H. G. L. Schwefel, “Polarization-selective out-coupling of whispering-gallery modes,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7, 024029 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, A. B. Matsko, H. G. L. Schwefel, and G. Leuchs, “Nonlinear and quantum optics with whispering gallery resonators,” J. Opt. 18, 123002 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Rueda, F. Sedlmeir, M. C. Collodo, U. Vogl, B. Stiller, G. Schunk, D. V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, J. M. Fink, O. Painter, G. Leuchs, and H. G. L. Schwefel, “Efficient microwave to optical photon conversion: an electro-optical realization,” Optica 3, 597–604 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. V. Strekalov, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and N. Yu, “Efficient upconversion of subterahertz radiation in a high-Q whispering gallery resonator,” Opt. Lett. 34, 713–715 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. V. Strekalov, H. G. L. Schwefel, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, L. J. Wang, and N. Yu, “Microwave whispering-gallery resonator for efficient optical upconversion,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 033810 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sturman, B.

Sturmann, J.

P. Darré, R. Baudoin, J.-T. Gomes, N. J. Scott, L. Delage, L. Grossard, J. Sturmann, C. Farrington, F. Reynaud, and T. A. T. Brummelaar, “First on-sky fringes with an upconversion interferometer tested on a telescope array,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 233902 (2016).
[Crossref]

Swinyard, B.

J. R. Goicoechea, K. Isaak, and B. Swinyard, “Exoplanet research with SAFARI: a far-IR imaging spectrometer for SPICA,” arXiv: 1002.2861v1 (2009).

Tanabe, J.

P. Kangaslahti, B. Lim, T. Gaier, A. Tanner, M. Varonen, L. Samoska, S. Brown, B. Lambrigtsen, S. Reising, J. Tanabe, O. Montes, D. Dawson, and C. Parashare, “Low noise amplifier receivers for millimeter wave atmospheric remote sensing,” in IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest (2012), pp. 1–3.

Tanner, A.

P. Kangaslahti, B. Lim, T. Gaier, A. Tanner, M. Varonen, L. Samoska, S. Brown, B. Lambrigtsen, S. Reising, J. Tanabe, O. Montes, D. Dawson, and C. Parashare, “Low noise amplifier receivers for millimeter wave atmospheric remote sensing,” in IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest (2012), pp. 1–3.

Taylor, A. M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, A. B. Bhatia, P. C. Clemmow, D. Gabor, A. R. Stokes, A. M. Taylor, P. A. Wayman, and W. L. Wilcock, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1999).

Trainor, L. S.

L. S. Trainor, F. Sedlmeir, C. Peuntinger, and H. G. Schwefel, “Selective coupling enhances harmonic generation of whispering-gallery modes,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9, 024007 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tucker, G. S.

N. Jarosik, C. L. Bennett, M. Halpern, G. Hinshaw, A. Kogut, M. Limon, S. S. Meyer, L. Page, M. Pospieszalski, D. N. Spergel, G. S. Tucker, D. T. Wilkinson, E. Wollack, E. L. Wright, and Z. Zhang, “Design, implementation, and testing of the microwave anisotropy probe radiometers,” Astrophys. J. 145, 413–436 (2003).
[Crossref]

Varonen, M.

P. Kangaslahti, B. Lim, T. Gaier, A. Tanner, M. Varonen, L. Samoska, S. Brown, B. Lambrigtsen, S. Reising, J. Tanabe, O. Montes, D. Dawson, and C. Parashare, “Low noise amplifier receivers for millimeter wave atmospheric remote sensing,” in IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest (2012), pp. 1–3.

Vogl, U.

F. Sedlmeir, M. R. Foreman, U. Vogl, R. Zeltner, G. Schunk, D. V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, G. Leuchs, and H. G. L. Schwefel, “Polarization-selective out-coupling of whispering-gallery modes,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7, 024029 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Rueda, F. Sedlmeir, M. C. Collodo, U. Vogl, B. Stiller, G. Schunk, D. V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, J. M. Fink, O. Painter, G. Leuchs, and H. G. L. Schwefel, “Efficient microwave to optical photon conversion: an electro-optical realization,” Optica 3, 597–604 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, L. J.

D. V. Strekalov, H. G. L. Schwefel, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, L. J. Wang, and N. Yu, “Microwave whispering-gallery resonator for efficient optical upconversion,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 033810 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Preu, F. H. Renner, S. Malzer, G. H. Döhler, L. J. Wang, M. Hanson, A. C. Gossard, T. L. J. Wilkinson, and E. R. Brown, “Efficient terahertz emission from ballistic transport enhanced n-i-p-n-i-p superlattice photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 212115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wayman, P. A.

M. Born, E. Wolf, A. B. Bhatia, P. C. Clemmow, D. Gabor, A. R. Stokes, A. M. Taylor, P. A. Wayman, and W. L. Wilcock, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1999).

Weikle, R. M.

Werner, C. S.

Wilcock, W. L.

M. Born, E. Wolf, A. B. Bhatia, P. C. Clemmow, D. Gabor, A. R. Stokes, A. M. Taylor, P. A. Wayman, and W. L. Wilcock, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1999).

Wilkinson, D. T.

N. Jarosik, C. L. Bennett, M. Halpern, G. Hinshaw, A. Kogut, M. Limon, S. S. Meyer, L. Page, M. Pospieszalski, D. N. Spergel, G. S. Tucker, D. T. Wilkinson, E. Wollack, E. L. Wright, and Z. Zhang, “Design, implementation, and testing of the microwave anisotropy probe radiometers,” Astrophys. J. 145, 413–436 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wilkinson, T. L. J.

S. Preu, F. H. Renner, S. Malzer, G. H. Döhler, L. J. Wang, M. Hanson, A. C. Gossard, T. L. J. Wilkinson, and E. R. Brown, “Efficient terahertz emission from ballistic transport enhanced n-i-p-n-i-p superlattice photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 212115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, A. B. Bhatia, P. C. Clemmow, D. Gabor, A. R. Stokes, A. M. Taylor, P. A. Wayman, and W. L. Wilcock, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1999).

Wolf, R.

Wollack, E.

N. Jarosik, C. L. Bennett, M. Halpern, G. Hinshaw, A. Kogut, M. Limon, S. S. Meyer, L. Page, M. Pospieszalski, D. N. Spergel, G. S. Tucker, D. T. Wilkinson, E. Wollack, E. L. Wright, and Z. Zhang, “Design, implementation, and testing of the microwave anisotropy probe radiometers,” Astrophys. J. 145, 413–436 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wood, M. G.

Wright, E. L.

N. Jarosik, C. L. Bennett, M. Halpern, G. Hinshaw, A. Kogut, M. Limon, S. S. Meyer, L. Page, M. Pospieszalski, D. N. Spergel, G. S. Tucker, D. T. Wilkinson, E. Wollack, E. L. Wright, and Z. Zhang, “Design, implementation, and testing of the microwave anisotropy probe radiometers,” Astrophys. J. 145, 413–436 (2003).
[Crossref]

Xie, L.

Xu, Q.

Yao, P.

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A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 321–322 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Yariv and M. Nakamura, “Periodic structures for integrated optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 233–253 (1977).
[Crossref]

Yoshiki, W.

Yu, N.

D. V. Strekalov, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and N. Yu, “Efficient upconversion of subterahertz radiation in a high-Q whispering gallery resonator,” Opt. Lett. 34, 713–715 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. V. Strekalov, H. G. L. Schwefel, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, L. J. Wang, and N. Yu, “Microwave whispering-gallery resonator for efficient optical upconversion,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 033810 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Matsko, D. Strekalov, and N. Yu, “Sensitivity of terahertz photonic receivers,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 043812 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zappe, H.

Zeltner, R.

F. Sedlmeir, M. R. Foreman, U. Vogl, R. Zeltner, G. Schunk, D. V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, G. Leuchs, and H. G. L. Schwefel, “Polarization-selective out-coupling of whispering-gallery modes,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7, 024029 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

N. Jarosik, C. L. Bennett, M. Halpern, G. Hinshaw, A. Kogut, M. Limon, S. S. Meyer, L. Page, M. Pospieszalski, D. N. Spergel, G. S. Tucker, D. T. Wilkinson, E. Wollack, E. L. Wright, and Z. Zhang, “Design, implementation, and testing of the microwave anisotropy probe radiometers,” Astrophys. J. 145, 413–436 (2003).
[Crossref]

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V. V. Kornienko, G. K. Kitaeva, F. Sedlmeir, G. Leuchs, and H. G. L. Schwefel, “Towards terahertz detection and calibration through spontaneous parametric down-conversion in the terahertz idler-frequency range generated by a 795  nm diode laser system,” APL Photon. 3, 051704 (2018).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Preu, F. H. Renner, S. Malzer, G. H. Döhler, L. J. Wang, M. Hanson, A. C. Gossard, T. L. J. Wilkinson, and E. R. Brown, “Efficient terahertz emission from ballistic transport enhanced n-i-p-n-i-p superlattice photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 212115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Astrophys. J. (1)

N. Jarosik, C. L. Bennett, M. Halpern, G. Hinshaw, A. Kogut, M. Limon, S. S. Meyer, L. Page, M. Pospieszalski, D. N. Spergel, G. S. Tucker, D. T. Wilkinson, E. Wollack, E. L. Wright, and Z. Zhang, “Design, implementation, and testing of the microwave anisotropy probe radiometers,” Astrophys. J. 145, 413–436 (2003).
[Crossref]

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A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 321–322 (2000).
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[Crossref]

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A. Rivera-Lavado, S. Preu, L. Garcia-Munoz, A. Generalov, J. Montero-de Paz, G. Dohler, D. Lioubtchenko, M. Mendez-Aller, F. Sedlmeir, M. Schneidereit, H. Schwefel, S. Malzer, D. Segovia-Vargas, and A. Raisanen, “Dielectric rod waveguide antenna as THz emitter for photomixing devices,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 63, 882–890 (2015).
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Phys. Rev. A (2)

D. V. Strekalov, H. G. L. Schwefel, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, L. J. Wang, and N. Yu, “Microwave whispering-gallery resonator for efficient optical upconversion,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 033810 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Matsko, D. Strekalov, and N. Yu, “Sensitivity of terahertz photonic receivers,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 043812 (2008).
[Crossref]

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F. Sedlmeir, M. R. Foreman, U. Vogl, R. Zeltner, G. Schunk, D. V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, G. Leuchs, and H. G. L. Schwefel, “Polarization-selective out-coupling of whispering-gallery modes,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7, 024029 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. S. Trainor, F. Sedlmeir, C. Peuntinger, and H. G. Schwefel, “Selective coupling enhances harmonic generation of whispering-gallery modes,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9, 024007 (2018).
[Crossref]

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A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Enhancement of photorefraction in whispering gallery mode resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 245119 (2006).
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P. Kangaslahti, B. Lim, T. Gaier, A. Tanner, M. Varonen, L. Samoska, S. Brown, B. Lambrigtsen, S. Reising, J. Tanabe, O. Montes, D. Dawson, and C. Parashare, “Low noise amplifier receivers for millimeter wave atmospheric remote sensing,” in IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest (2012), pp. 1–3.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Coupling of millimeter-wave and optical radiation to the WGM resonator. The microwave coupling region (enclosed by the dashed curve) is considered small and lossless. Input and output modes in the waveguide and the resonator are defined with normalized field amplitudes ai(ν) such that their squared norm equals the power spectral density of the mode. The coupling system can be viewed as a four-port network whose scattering matrix is characterized by the waveguide’s reflection coefficient r=a2/a1 and waveguide-resonator transmission coefficient t=a3/a1. The cavity’s reflection coefficient r=a3/a4 and cavity-waveguide transmission coefficient t=a2/a4 have the same magnitudes as r and t, respectively, but a different phase in general.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Upconversion based cross-correlation interferometer receiver. The antennas feed two upconverters with effective noise temperature Teff and efficiency η. The upconverted signals are cross-correlated in two stages, to retrieve the autocorrelation of the in-phase and quadrature signals.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Normalized temperature uncertainty of the upconversion-based radiometer obtained from Eq. (20). For 100% efficient upconversion, the curves converge to the quantum limit derived from Eq. (14) as Teff0. All curves converge to a linear function of Teff when Gaussian noise of the CMB dominates over shot noise as Teff. Shot noise starts to dominate for low temperatures Teff, causing a deviation of the curves from the linear behavior and preventing vanishing uncertainties.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Effective noise temperature and millimeter-wave power enhancement of two resonators coupled to a waveguide with different strength |t|=1|r|2: a lithium niobate disk with an intrinsic millimeter-wave Q400 and a thin lithium niobate ring surrounded by a low-loss medium such as sapphire, with Q1200. Vertical-dashed lines represent the critical coupling point for each resonator, at which the intracavity power enhancement is maximum and TeffTphys. An azimuthal mode number m=4 and Tphys=300  K are considered.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Nonlinear upconversion experimental setup, showing the WGM cavity excited with resonant microwave and optical modes coupled by a dielectric rod waveguide and a prism, respectively.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Phase-matching adjustment by polishing. The resonator is polished to reduce progressively its radius. At each polishing step, the resonance frequency of the m=10 microwave mode is plotted (red dots) along with the optical free spectral range of the cavity multiplied by 10 (black dots).
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Spectrum of the pump and upconverted sidebands observed in the optical spectrum analyzer. In the inset the zoomed-in SFG sideband. (b) Calculation of the normalized conversion efficiency η/Pp as a function of the input microwave power, obtained from the measured power of the SFG sideband.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Theoretical frequency-selective coupling bandwidth Δν=ν/Qc (Qc being the mode’s coupling Q factor) between each optical WGM and a silicon waveguide where a Bragg grating is etched. Upconversion of 130  GHz signals to the SFG sideband with 800  MHz of bandwidth is possible.

Equations (21)

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η=PpQpQsg2πhνp2νs(QsQsc)τF,
g=χ(2)ζVΨpΨΨs*  dVV|Ψp|2  dVV|Ψ|2  dVV|Ψs|2  dV,
|a4(ν)|2=a2(1|r|2)|1a|r|exp(i2πτδν)|2|a1(ν)|2,
|a2(ν)|2=[1(1|r|2)(1a2)|1a|r|exp(i2πτδν)|2]|a1(ν)|2,
|jν(Tphys)|2=hν(1exp(2αδ))Θν(Tphys),
Θν(T)=[exp(hν/(kBT))1]1,
|bν(2,1)|2=K(2,1)|1a|r|exp(i2πτδν)|2|jν(Tphys)|2,
K(1,2)={exp[2α(21)]21|r|2exp[2α(L+21)]2<1.
|sn(ν,2)|2=1|r|2a2(1|r|2)a22/L|1arexp(i2πτδν)|2hνΘν(Tp),
|sT(ν,2)|2=a22/L(1|r|2)|1a|r|exp(i2πτδν)|2hνΘν(TA)Antennacontribution+1|r|2a2(1|r|2)a22/L|1a|r|exp(i2πτδν)|2hνΘν(Tphys)Hotresonatorcontribution,
Ps(1a2)(1|r|2)ln(a2)hν[Θν(TA)+Θν(Teff)],
Θν(Teff)=[(1a2|r|2)ln(a2)(1a2)(1|r|2)1]Θν(Tphys).
Teff=[(1a2|r|2)ln(a2)(1a2)(1|r|2)1]Tphys.
Δn=n¯+(n¯)2ΔνΔt,
1/Δνdsinθ0/c,
ΓB(lx,ly)F2(lx,ly)exp[i2π(ulx+vly)]dlxdly,
n1¯=ηΔνΔt2[Θν(Teff)+(1+cosϕ)Θν(TA)],
n2¯=ηΔνΔt2[Θν(Teff)+(1cosϕ)Θν(TA)]
ΔnTηΔνΔt=[ϕν+ηϕν2+η(cos4ϕ+sin4ϕ)Θν2(TA)ηΔνΔt]1/2,
TA+ΔT=hνkBln[1+(Θν(TA)+ΔnTηΔνΔt)1],
ΔTΔT1+δPintPint+TAδPintPint,

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