Abstract

Modern fiber-optic coherent communications employ advanced, spectrally efficient modulation formats that require sophisticated narrow-linewidth local oscillators (LOs) and complex digital signal processing (DSP). Self-coherent optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (self-CO-OFDM) is a modern technology that retrieves the frequency and phase information from the extracted carrier without employing a LO or additional DSP. However, a wide carrier guard is typically required to easily filter out the optical carrier at the receiver, thus discarding many OFDM middle subcarriers that limit the system data rate. Here, we establish an optical technique for carrier recovery, harnessing large-gain stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) on a photonic chip for up to 116.82  Gbit·s1 self-CO-OFDM signals, without requiring a separate LO. The narrow SBS linewidth allows for a record-breaking small carrier guard band of 265  MHz in self-CO-OFDM, resulting in higher capacity than benchmark self-coherent multi-carrier schemes. Chip-based SBS-self-coherent technology reveals comparable performance to state-of-the-art coherent optical receivers while relaxing the requirements of the DSP. In contrast to on-fiber SBS processing, our solution provides phase and polarization stability. Our demonstration develops a low-noise and frequency-tracking filter that synchronously regenerates a low-power narrowband optical tone, which could relax the requirements on very-high-order modulation signaling for future communication networks. The proposed hybrid carrier filtering-and-regeneration technique could be useful in long-baseline interferometry for precision optical timing or reconstructing a reference tone for quantum-state measurements.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2018 (2)

A. Zarifi, B. Stiller, M. Merklein, N. Li, K. Vu, D.-Y. Choi, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, and B. J. Eggleton, “Highly localized distributed Brillouin scattering response in a photonic integrated circuit editors-pick,” APL Photon. 3, 036101 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Jignesh, A. Lowery, and B. Corcoran, “Inter-channel nonlinear phase noise compensation using optical injection locking,” Opt. Express 26, 5733–5746 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (11)

J. Zhou, Y. Qiao, Z. Yang, Q. Cheng, Q. Wang, M. Guo, and X. Tang, “Capacity limit for faster-than-Nyquist non-orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing signaling,” Sci. Rep. 7, 3380 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Clivati, R. Ambrosini, T. Artz, A. Bertarini, C. Bortolotti, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, G. Maccaferri, M. Nanni, M. Negusini, F. Perini, M. Roma, M. Stagni, M. Zucco, and D. Calonico, “A VLBI experiment using a remote atomic clock via a coherent fibre link,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40992 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Marie and R. Alléaume, “Self-coherent phase reference sharing for continuous-variable quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 012316 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Choudhary, M. Pelusi, D. Marpaung, T. Inoue, K. Vu, P. Ma, D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, S. Namiki, and B. J. Eggleton, “On-chip Brillouin purification for frequency comb-based coherent optical communications,” Opt. Lett. 42, 5074–5077 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Morrison, A. C. Bedoya, G. Ren, K. Vu, Y. Liu, A. Zarifi, T. G. Nguyen, D.-Y. Choi, D. Marpaung, S. J. Madden, A. Mitchell, and B. J. Eggleton, “Compact Brillouin devices through hybrid integration on silicon,” Optica 4, 847–854 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. S. Erkılınç, D. Lavery, K. Shi, B. C. Thomsen, R. I. Killey, S. J. Savory, and P. Bayvel, “Bidirectional wavelength-division multiplexing transmission over installed fibre using a simplified optical coherent access transceiver,” Nat. Commun. 8, 1043 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Choudhary, Y. Liu, B. Morrison, K. Vu, D.-Y. Choi, P. Ma, S. Madden, D. Marpaung, and B. J. Eggleton, “High-resolution, on-chip RF photonic signal processor using Brillouin gain shaping and RF interference,” Sci. Rep. 7, 5932 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. T. Le, V. Aref, and H. Buelow, “Nonlinear signal multiplexing for communication beyond the Kerr nonlinearity limit,” Nat. Photonics 11, 570–576 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. T. Van Veen and V. E. Houtsma, “Proposals for cost-effectively upgrading passive optical networks to a 25G line rate,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 1180–1187 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Choudhary, B. Morrison, I. Aryanfar, S. Shahnia, M. Pagani, Y. Liu, K. Vu, S. Madden, D. Marpaung, and B. J. Eggleton, “Advanced integrated microwave signal processing with giant on-chip Brillouin gain,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 846–854 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Pelusi, A. Choudhary, T. Inoue, D. Marpaung, B. J. Eggleton, K. S. Trapala, H. N. Tan, and S. Namiki, “Frequency comb noise suppressor by a Brillouin comb amplifier for phase sensitive communications,” Opt. Express 25, 17847–17863 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (7)

2015 (2)

E. Temprana, E. Myslivets, B. P.-P. Kuo, L. Liu, V. Ataie, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Overcoming Kerr-induced capacity limit in optical fiber transmission,” Science 348, 1445–1448 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, J.-Y. Kim, D. S. Wu, D. J. Richardson, and R. Slavík, “Homodyne OFDM with optical injection locking for carrier recovery,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 34–41 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

B. Bangerter, S. Talwar, R. Arefi, and K. Stewart, “Networks and devices for the 5G era,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), 90–96 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Giacoumidis, M. A. Jarajreh, S. Sygletos, S. T. Le, A. Tsokanos, A. Hamié, E. Pincemin, Y. Jaouën, F. Farjady, A. D. Ellis, and N. J. Doran, “Dual-polarization multi-band OFDM transmission and transceiver limitations for up to 500  Gb/s in uncompensated long-haul links,” Opt. Express 22, 10975–10986 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

M. A. Soto, M. Alem, M. A. Shoaie, A. Vedadi, C.-S. Brès, L. Thévenaz, and T. Schneider, “Optical sinc-shaped Nyquist pulses of exceptional quality,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2898 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Omiya, M. Yoshida, and M. Nakazawa, “400  Gbit/s 256 QAM-OFDM transmission over 720  km with a 14  bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency by using high-resolution FDE,” Opt. Express 21, 2632–2641 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, A. R. Chraplyvy, P. J. Winzer, R. W. Tkach, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Phase-conjugated twin waves for communication beyond the Kerr nonlinearity limit,” Nat. Photonics 7, 560–568 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Bilal, M. Manzano, S. U. Khan, E. Calle, K. Li, and A. Y. Zomaya, “On the characterization of the structural robustness of data center networks,” IEEE Trans. Cloud Comput. 1, 64 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2010 (5)

P. Johannisson, M. Sjodin, M. Karlsson, E. Tipsuwannakul, and P. Andrekson, “Cancellation of nonlinear phase distortion in self-homodyne coherent systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 802–804 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Nakamura, Y. Kamio, and T. Miyazaki, “Linewidth-tolerant real-time 40-Gbit/s 16-QAM self-homodyne detection using a pilot carrier and ISI suppression based on electronic digital processing,” Opt. Lett. 35, 13–15 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Banchi, M. Presi, R. Proietti, and E. Ciaramella, “System feasibility of using stimulated Brillouin scattering in self coherent detection schemes,” Opt. Express 18, 12702–12707 (2010).
[Crossref]

R.-J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, and B. Goebel, “Capacity limits of optical fiber networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 662–701 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Giacoumidis, J. L. Wei, X. L. Yang, A. Tsokanos, and J. M. Tang, “Adaptive modulation-enabled WDM impairment reduction in multi-channel optical OFDM transmission systems for next generation PONs,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 130–140 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2005 (1)

T. Miyazaki and F. Kubota, “PSK self-homodyne detection using a pilot carrier for multibit/symbol transmission with inverse-RZ signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

R. Haas and J. C. A. Belfiore, “Time-frequency well-localized pulse for multiple carrier transmission,” Wireless Personal Commun. 5, 1–18 (1997).

1960 (1)

R. C. Bose and D. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, “On a class of error correcting binary group codes,” Inf. Control 3, 68–79 (1960).
[Crossref]

Adhikari, S.

S. Adhikari, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, B. Inan, S. L. Jansen, and W. Rosenkranz, “Enhanced self-coherent OFDM by the use of injection locked laser,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, 2012), paper JW2A.

S. Adhikari, S. L. Jansen, M. S. Alfiad, B. Inan, A. Lobato, V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, and W. Rosenkranz, “Experimental investigation of self coherent optical OFDM systems using Fabry-Perot filters for carrier extraction,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2010), paper Tu.4.A.1.

Agrell, E.

Alem, M.

M. A. Soto, M. Alem, M. A. Shoaie, A. Vedadi, C.-S. Brès, L. Thévenaz, and T. Schneider, “Optical sinc-shaped Nyquist pulses of exceptional quality,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2898 (2013).
[Crossref]

Alfiad, M. S.

S. Adhikari, S. L. Jansen, M. S. Alfiad, B. Inan, A. Lobato, V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, and W. Rosenkranz, “Experimental investigation of self coherent optical OFDM systems using Fabry-Perot filters for carrier extraction,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2010), paper Tu.4.A.1.

Alic, N.

E. Temprana, E. Myslivets, B. P.-P. Kuo, L. Liu, V. Ataie, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Overcoming Kerr-induced capacity limit in optical fiber transmission,” Science 348, 1445–1448 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alléaume, R.

A. Marie and R. Alléaume, “Self-coherent phase reference sharing for continuous-variable quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 012316 (2017).
[Crossref]

Alves, C.

Ambrosini, R.

C. Clivati, R. Ambrosini, T. Artz, A. Bertarini, C. Bortolotti, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, G. Maccaferri, M. Nanni, M. Negusini, F. Perini, M. Roma, M. Stagni, M. Zucco, and D. Calonico, “A VLBI experiment using a remote atomic clock via a coherent fibre link,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40992 (2017).
[Crossref]

Andrekson, P.

P. Johannisson, M. Sjodin, M. Karlsson, E. Tipsuwannakul, and P. Andrekson, “Cancellation of nonlinear phase distortion in self-homodyne coherent systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 802–804 (2010).
[Crossref]

Andrekson, P. A.

Antonelli, C.

Aref, V.

S. T. Le, V. Aref, and H. Buelow, “Nonlinear signal multiplexing for communication beyond the Kerr nonlinearity limit,” Nat. Photonics 11, 570–576 (2017).
[Crossref]

Arefi, R.

B. Bangerter, S. Talwar, R. Arefi, and K. Stewart, “Networks and devices for the 5G era,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), 90–96 (2014).
[Crossref]

Artz, T.

C. Clivati, R. Ambrosini, T. Artz, A. Bertarini, C. Bortolotti, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, G. Maccaferri, M. Nanni, M. Negusini, F. Perini, M. Roma, M. Stagni, M. Zucco, and D. Calonico, “A VLBI experiment using a remote atomic clock via a coherent fibre link,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40992 (2017).
[Crossref]

Aryanfar, I.

Ataie, V.

E. Temprana, E. Myslivets, B. P.-P. Kuo, L. Liu, V. Ataie, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Overcoming Kerr-induced capacity limit in optical fiber transmission,” Science 348, 1445–1448 (2015).
[Crossref]

Banchi, L.

Bangerter, B.

B. Bangerter, S. Talwar, R. Arefi, and K. Stewart, “Networks and devices for the 5G era,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), 90–96 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bayvel, P.

M. S. Erkılınç, D. Lavery, K. Shi, B. C. Thomsen, R. I. Killey, S. J. Savory, and P. Bayvel, “Bidirectional wavelength-division multiplexing transmission over installed fibre using a simplified optical coherent access transceiver,” Nat. Commun. 8, 1043 (2017).
[Crossref]

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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Receiver SBS-based self-CO-OFDM. (b) Filter gain profile (Lorentzian) and illustration of the filtering process on an OFDM signal spectrum with carrier guard band of 256    MHz . P.C., polarization controller; (O)BPF, (optical) band-pass filter; ISO, isolator; ADC, analog-to-digital converter; OM, optical modulator; PM, phase modulator; As 2 S 3 , chalcogenide.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Qualitative comparison of the developed (1) chip-based self-CO-OFDM system with (2) SBS processed on a fiber, and (3) a state-of-the-art carrier-suppressed CO-OFDM. AWG, arbitrary waveform generator; LD, laser diode; OM, optical modulator; PM, phase modulator; EDC, electronic dispersion compensation; LO, local oscillator; DSP, digital signal processing.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. SBS-based self-CO-OFDM experimental setup block diagram. Insets: optical spectrums from transmitter side (OSA-1) and after carrier selection (OSA-2). OSA, optical spectrum analyzer; VOA, variable optical attenuator; P. Meter, power meter.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Experimental conventional CO-OFDM block diagram that includes the transmission link and noise loading.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Comparison of received quaternary phase-shift keying (QPSK) constellation diagrams. (b) Comparison at 40 km: quality (Q)-factor versus optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) for experimental 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM). Black triangles refer to the theoretical calculation. The SBS gain and optical carrier-to-signal ratio (OCSR) for the self-coherent system were fixed at 14 dB and 3    dB , respectively. The launched optical power for both systems was fixed at 0 dBm. FEC, forward-error-correction.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Comparison of on-chip and fiber-based SBS for 16-QAM self-CO-OFDM. (a) Q-factor versus SBS gain with fixed OSNR at 38 dB and optimum OCSR at 3    dB . (b) Q-factor versus OSNR for best SBS-gain at 14 dB. (c) Subcarrier index (127 subcarriers) versus Q -factor for on-chip and single-mode fiber (SMF)-based SBS with OSNR and gain fixed at 38 and 8 dB, respectively. Inset (A): received optical spectrum with a resolution of 5 MHz after 40 km of SMF transmission. Inset (B): example of received constellation diagrams and Q -factors for subcarrier #66.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. SBS noise limit by simulation analysis. Q -factor versus OSNR for 16-QAM self-CO-OFDM with optimum OCSR at 3    dB and best SBS gain at 14 dB (according to Fig. 4). Simulated results for ideal self-CO-OFDM (i.e., no frequency drifting) for different SBS noise figure (NF) are related to 40 km transmission at a launched optical power of 0 dBm.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Envisioned chip-based solution: an integrated photonic chip with carrier recovery and self-coherent detection. In this chip, the chalcogenide ( As 2 S 3 ) waveguide [24,25] is used as the phononic processor for providing narrowband Brillouin gain, silicon components to support functional circuits, and indium phosphide for active devices including detectors.

Equations (2)

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T S = 2 M S ( 1 + p ) r s ,
R signal = k = 1 M S S k = k = 1 M S n k T S = r s k = 1 M S n k M S ( 1 + p ) ,

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