Abstract

The marriage of micro/nanoelectromechanical systems with metamaterials offers a viable route to achieving reconfigurable devices, which control the emission of energy. Here we propose and demonstrate the idea of a metamaterial microelectromechanical system (MEMS) capable of tailoring the energy emitted from a surface, without changing the temperature, but, instead, only altering the spectral emissivity. Our metamaterial achieves a range of emissivities equivalent to a nearly 20°C temperature change when viewed with a thermal infrared camera. We tessellate a surface with individually reconfigurable MEMS metamaterial pixels, thus realizing a spatiotemporal emitter capable of displaying thermal infrared patterns up to 110 kHz. Our results may be scaled to nearly any sub-optical range of the electromagnetic spectrum, and validate the potential of MEMS metamaterials to operate as reconfigurable multifunctional devices with unprecedented energy control capabilities.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (1)

X. Liu and W. J. Padilla, Adv. Mater. 28, 871 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

A. Tittl, A. U. Michel, M. Schäferling, X. Yin, B. Gholipour, L. Cui, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, F. Neubrech, and H. Giessen, Adv. Mater. 27, 4597 (2015).

V. W. Brar, M. C. Sherrott, L. A. Sweatlock, M. S. Jang, L. Kim, M. Choi, and H. A. Atwater, Nat. Commun. 6, 7032 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. A. Noginov, A. Mozafari, T. U. Tumkur, J. K. Kitur, and E. E. Narimanov, Opt. Mater. Express 5, 1511 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

L. Luo, I. Chatzakis, J. Wang, F. B. P. Niesler, M. Wegener, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nat. Commun. 5, 3055 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Inoue, M. De Zoysa, T. Asano, and S. Noda, Nat. Mater. 13, 928 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, S. Zhang, P. Genevet, C. Ko, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, Phys. Rev. X 3, 041004 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Molesky, C. J. Dewalt, and Z. Jacob, Opt. Express 21, A96 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Liu and W. J. Padilla, Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 559 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Ou, E. Plum, J. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 252 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

2011 (2)

I. Puscasu, E. Johnson, A. Taylor, and W. Schaich, Proc. SPIE 8031, 80312Y (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 045901 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

J. Hildenbrand, J. Korvink, J. Wollenstein, C. Peter, A. Kurzinger, F. Naumann, M. Ebert, and F. Lamprecht, IEEE Sens. J. 10, 353 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

H. Demiryont and D. Moorehead, Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 2075 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

I. Puscasu and W. L. Schaich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233102 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. San, X. Chen, P. Xu, F. Li, and M. Cheng, Proc. SPIE 6940, 69401T (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. U. Pralle, I. Puscasu, J. Daly, K. Fallon, P. Loges, A. Greenwald, and E. Johnson, Proc. SPIE 6542, 65422Z (2007).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

E. Saucedo-Flores, R. Ruelas, M. Flores, and J.-C. Chiao, Proc. MRS 782, A5.86 (2003).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J. S. Hale and J. A. Woollam, Thin Solid Films 339, 174 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

O. M. Williams, Infrared Phys. Technol. 39, 473 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

W. D. Cowan, V. M. Bright, A. A. Elvin, and D. A. Koester, Proc. SPIE 3225, 56 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

B. E. Cole, C. J. Han, R. E. Higashi, and J. Ridley, Sens. Actuators A 48, 193 (1995).
[Crossref]

1861 (1)

B. Stewart and T. Roy, Soc. Edinb. 22, 1 (1861).
[Crossref]

1800 (1)

W. Herschel, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 90, 284 (1800).
[Crossref]

Abbas, M. N.

Aleksandrova, A.

Asano, T.

T. Inoue, M. De Zoysa, T. Asano, and S. Noda, Nat. Mater. 13, 928 (2014).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

V. W. Brar, M. C. Sherrott, L. A. Sweatlock, M. S. Jang, L. Kim, M. Choi, and H. A. Atwater, Nat. Commun. 6, 7032 (2015).
[Crossref]

Blanchard, R.

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, S. Zhang, P. Genevet, C. Ko, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, Phys. Rev. X 3, 041004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brar, V. W.

V. W. Brar, M. C. Sherrott, L. A. Sweatlock, M. S. Jang, L. Kim, M. Choi, and H. A. Atwater, Nat. Commun. 6, 7032 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bright, V. M.

W. D. Cowan, V. M. Bright, A. A. Elvin, and D. A. Koester, Proc. SPIE 3225, 56 (1997).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, S. Zhang, P. Genevet, C. Ko, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, Phys. Rev. X 3, 041004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y.-C.

Chashnikova, M.

Chatzakis, I.

L. Luo, I. Chatzakis, J. Wang, F. B. P. Niesler, M. Wegener, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nat. Commun. 5, 3055 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

H. San, X. Chen, P. Xu, F. Li, and M. Cheng, Proc. SPIE 6940, 69401T (2008).
[Crossref]

Cheng, C.-W.

Cheng, M.

H. San, X. Chen, P. Xu, F. Li, and M. Cheng, Proc. SPIE 6940, 69401T (2008).
[Crossref]

Cheon, S. H.

W. S. Yang, S. M. Cho, H. Ryu, S. H. Cheon, B. G. Yu, and C. A. Choi, Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications (2008), p. 391.

Chiao, J.-C.

E. Saucedo-Flores, R. Ruelas, M. Flores, and J.-C. Chiao, Proc. MRS 782, A5.86 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chiu, C.-W.

Cho, S. M.

W. S. Yang, S. M. Cho, H. Ryu, S. H. Cheon, B. G. Yu, and C. A. Choi, Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications (2008), p. 391.

Choi, C. A.

W. S. Yang, S. M. Cho, H. Ryu, S. H. Cheon, B. G. Yu, and C. A. Choi, Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications (2008), p. 391.

Choi, M.

V. W. Brar, M. C. Sherrott, L. A. Sweatlock, M. S. Jang, L. Kim, M. Choi, and H. A. Atwater, Nat. Commun. 6, 7032 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cole, B. E.

B. E. Cole, C. J. Han, R. E. Higashi, and J. Ridley, Sens. Actuators A 48, 193 (1995).
[Crossref]

Cowan, W. D.

W. D. Cowan, V. M. Bright, A. A. Elvin, and D. A. Koester, Proc. SPIE 3225, 56 (1997).
[Crossref]

Cui, L.

A. Tittl, A. U. Michel, M. Schäferling, X. Yin, B. Gholipour, L. Cui, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, F. Neubrech, and H. Giessen, Adv. Mater. 27, 4597 (2015).

Daly, J.

M. U. Pralle, I. Puscasu, J. Daly, K. Fallon, P. Loges, A. Greenwald, and E. Johnson, Proc. SPIE 6542, 65422Z (2007).
[Crossref]

De Zoysa, M.

T. Inoue, M. De Zoysa, T. Asano, and S. Noda, Nat. Mater. 13, 928 (2014).
[Crossref]

Demiryont, H.

H. Demiryont and D. Moorehead, Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 2075 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dewalt, C. J.

Ebert, M.

J. Hildenbrand, J. Korvink, J. Wollenstein, C. Peter, A. Kurzinger, F. Naumann, M. Ebert, and F. Lamprecht, IEEE Sens. J. 10, 353 (2010).
[Crossref]

Elvin, A. A.

W. D. Cowan, V. M. Bright, A. A. Elvin, and D. A. Koester, Proc. SPIE 3225, 56 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fallon, K.

M. U. Pralle, I. Puscasu, J. Daly, K. Fallon, P. Loges, A. Greenwald, and E. Johnson, Proc. SPIE 6542, 65422Z (2007).
[Crossref]

Fedosenko, O.

Flores, M.

E. Saucedo-Flores, R. Ruelas, M. Flores, and J.-C. Chiao, Proc. MRS 782, A5.86 (2003).
[Crossref]

Flores, Y.

Genevet, P.

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, S. Zhang, P. Genevet, C. Ko, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, Phys. Rev. X 3, 041004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gholipour, B.

A. Tittl, A. U. Michel, M. Schäferling, X. Yin, B. Gholipour, L. Cui, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, F. Neubrech, and H. Giessen, Adv. Mater. 27, 4597 (2015).

Giessen, H.

A. Tittl, A. U. Michel, M. Schäferling, X. Yin, B. Gholipour, L. Cui, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, F. Neubrech, and H. Giessen, Adv. Mater. 27, 4597 (2015).

Greenwald, A.

M. U. Pralle, I. Puscasu, J. Daly, K. Fallon, P. Loges, A. Greenwald, and E. Johnson, Proc. SPIE 6542, 65422Z (2007).
[Crossref]

Gruska, B.

Hale, J. S.

J. S. Hale and J. A. Woollam, Thin Solid Films 339, 174 (1999).
[Crossref]

Han, C. J.

B. E. Cole, C. J. Han, R. E. Higashi, and J. Ridley, Sens. Actuators A 48, 193 (1995).
[Crossref]

Herschel, W.

W. Herschel, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 90, 284 (1800).
[Crossref]

Higashi, R. E.

B. E. Cole, C. J. Han, R. E. Higashi, and J. Ridley, Sens. Actuators A 48, 193 (1995).
[Crossref]

Hildenbrand, J.

J. Hildenbrand, J. Korvink, J. Wollenstein, C. Peter, A. Kurzinger, F. Naumann, M. Ebert, and F. Lamprecht, IEEE Sens. J. 10, 353 (2010).
[Crossref]

Inoue, T.

T. Inoue, M. De Zoysa, T. Asano, and S. Noda, Nat. Mater. 13, 928 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jacob, Z.

Jang, M. S.

V. W. Brar, M. C. Sherrott, L. A. Sweatlock, M. S. Jang, L. Kim, M. Choi, and H. A. Atwater, Nat. Commun. 6, 7032 (2015).
[Crossref]

Johnson, E.

I. Puscasu, E. Johnson, A. Taylor, and W. Schaich, Proc. SPIE 8031, 80312Y (2011).
[Crossref]

M. U. Pralle, I. Puscasu, J. Daly, K. Fallon, P. Loges, A. Greenwald, and E. Johnson, Proc. SPIE 6542, 65422Z (2007).
[Crossref]

Jokerst, N. M.

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 045901 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kats, M. A.

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, S. Zhang, P. Genevet, C. Ko, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, Phys. Rev. X 3, 041004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, L.

V. W. Brar, M. C. Sherrott, L. A. Sweatlock, M. S. Jang, L. Kim, M. Choi, and H. A. Atwater, Nat. Commun. 6, 7032 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kischkat, J.

Kitur, J. K.

Klinkmüller, M.

Ko, C.

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, S. Zhang, P. Genevet, C. Ko, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, Phys. Rev. X 3, 041004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Koester, D. A.

W. D. Cowan, V. M. Bright, A. A. Elvin, and D. A. Koester, Proc. SPIE 3225, 56 (1997).
[Crossref]

Korvink, J.

J. Hildenbrand, J. Korvink, J. Wollenstein, C. Peter, A. Kurzinger, F. Naumann, M. Ebert, and F. Lamprecht, IEEE Sens. J. 10, 353 (2010).
[Crossref]

Koschny, T.

L. Luo, I. Chatzakis, J. Wang, F. B. P. Niesler, M. Wegener, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nat. Commun. 5, 3055 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kurzinger, A.

J. Hildenbrand, J. Korvink, J. Wollenstein, C. Peter, A. Kurzinger, F. Naumann, M. Ebert, and F. Lamprecht, IEEE Sens. J. 10, 353 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lai, K.-T.

Lamprecht, F.

J. Hildenbrand, J. Korvink, J. Wollenstein, C. Peter, A. Kurzinger, F. Naumann, M. Ebert, and F. Lamprecht, IEEE Sens. J. 10, 353 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, F.

H. San, X. Chen, P. Xu, F. Li, and M. Cheng, Proc. SPIE 6940, 69401T (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

X. Liu and W. J. Padilla, Adv. Mater. 28, 871 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Liu and W. J. Padilla, Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 559 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, Adv. Mater. 24, OP98 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 045901 (2011).
[Crossref]

Loges, P.

M. U. Pralle, I. Puscasu, J. Daly, K. Fallon, P. Loges, A. Greenwald, and E. Johnson, Proc. SPIE 6542, 65422Z (2007).
[Crossref]

Luo, L.

L. Luo, I. Chatzakis, J. Wang, F. B. P. Niesler, M. Wegener, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nat. Commun. 5, 3055 (2014).
[Crossref]

Machulik, S.

Michel, A. U.

A. Tittl, A. U. Michel, M. Schäferling, X. Yin, B. Gholipour, L. Cui, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, F. Neubrech, and H. Giessen, Adv. Mater. 27, 4597 (2015).

Molesky, S.

Monastyrskyi, G.

Moorehead, D.

H. Demiryont and D. Moorehead, Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 2075 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mozafari, A.

Narimanov, E. E.

Naumann, F.

J. Hildenbrand, J. Korvink, J. Wollenstein, C. Peter, A. Kurzinger, F. Naumann, M. Ebert, and F. Lamprecht, IEEE Sens. J. 10, 353 (2010).
[Crossref]

Neubrech, F.

A. Tittl, A. U. Michel, M. Schäferling, X. Yin, B. Gholipour, L. Cui, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, F. Neubrech, and H. Giessen, Adv. Mater. 27, 4597 (2015).

Niesler, F. B. P.

L. Luo, I. Chatzakis, J. Wang, F. B. P. Niesler, M. Wegener, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nat. Commun. 5, 3055 (2014).
[Crossref]

Noda, S.

T. Inoue, M. De Zoysa, T. Asano, and S. Noda, Nat. Mater. 13, 928 (2014).
[Crossref]

Noginov, M. A.

Ou, J. Y.

J. Y. Ou, E. Plum, J. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 252 (2013).
[Crossref]

Padilla, W. J.

X. Liu and W. J. Padilla, Adv. Mater. 28, 871 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Liu and W. J. Padilla, Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 559 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, Adv. Mater. 24, OP98 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 045901 (2011).
[Crossref]

Peter, C.

J. Hildenbrand, J. Korvink, J. Wollenstein, C. Peter, A. Kurzinger, F. Naumann, M. Ebert, and F. Lamprecht, IEEE Sens. J. 10, 353 (2010).
[Crossref]

Peters, S.

Plum, E.

J. Y. Ou, E. Plum, J. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 252 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pralle, M. U.

M. U. Pralle, I. Puscasu, J. Daly, K. Fallon, P. Loges, A. Greenwald, and E. Johnson, Proc. SPIE 6542, 65422Z (2007).
[Crossref]

Puscasu, I.

I. Puscasu, E. Johnson, A. Taylor, and W. Schaich, Proc. SPIE 8031, 80312Y (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Puscasu and W. L. Schaich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233102 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. U. Pralle, I. Puscasu, J. Daly, K. Fallon, P. Loges, A. Greenwald, and E. Johnson, Proc. SPIE 6542, 65422Z (2007).
[Crossref]

Ramanathan, S.

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, S. Zhang, P. Genevet, C. Ko, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, Phys. Rev. X 3, 041004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ridley, J.

B. E. Cole, C. J. Han, R. E. Higashi, and J. Ridley, Sens. Actuators A 48, 193 (1995).
[Crossref]

Roy, T.

B. Stewart and T. Roy, Soc. Edinb. 22, 1 (1861).
[Crossref]

Ruelas, R.

E. Saucedo-Flores, R. Ruelas, M. Flores, and J.-C. Chiao, Proc. MRS 782, A5.86 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ryu, H.

W. S. Yang, S. M. Cho, H. Ryu, S. H. Cheon, B. G. Yu, and C. A. Choi, Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications (2008), p. 391.

San, H.

H. San, X. Chen, P. Xu, F. Li, and M. Cheng, Proc. SPIE 6940, 69401T (2008).
[Crossref]

Saucedo-Flores, E.

E. Saucedo-Flores, R. Ruelas, M. Flores, and J.-C. Chiao, Proc. MRS 782, A5.86 (2003).
[Crossref]

Schäferling, M.

A. Tittl, A. U. Michel, M. Schäferling, X. Yin, B. Gholipour, L. Cui, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, F. Neubrech, and H. Giessen, Adv. Mater. 27, 4597 (2015).

Schaich, W.

I. Puscasu, E. Johnson, A. Taylor, and W. Schaich, Proc. SPIE 8031, 80312Y (2011).
[Crossref]

Schaich, W. L.

I. Puscasu and W. L. Schaich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Semtsiv, M.

Sherrott, M. C.

V. W. Brar, M. C. Sherrott, L. A. Sweatlock, M. S. Jang, L. Kim, M. Choi, and H. A. Atwater, Nat. Commun. 6, 7032 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shih, M.-H.

Soukoulis, C. M.

L. Luo, I. Chatzakis, J. Wang, F. B. P. Niesler, M. Wegener, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nat. Commun. 5, 3055 (2014).
[Crossref]

Starr, A. F.

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 045901 (2011).
[Crossref]

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Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Supplement 1: PDF (5909 KB)      Supplementary material
» Visualization 1: AVI (3267 KB)      Time dependent radiant exitance of emitter array

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of the MME in both emissive off (left) and on (right) states. (b) SEM images of the MME at a tilt angle of 45°. (c) Close-up image of the metamaterial. Dimensions are p=4.6  μm, l=1.3  μm, and w=0.6  μm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

FTIR measurement result of the MME. (a) Measured spectral absorptivity of the MME in both on (red curve) and off (blue curve) states. The insets show microscope images of our sample in both on (right) and off (left) states. (b) Measured (red solid curve) and simulated (blue dashed curve) differential absorptivity. (c) Measured IR signal as a function of modulation frequency. (d) Spectral radiant exitance versus wavelength in both on (red curve) and off (blue curve) states.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Imaging measurement result of the single-pixel MME. (a) Time dependence of the spatially averaged emitted power density (left y axis) and temperature (right y axis). The two black horizontal lines denote the time- and space-averaged emitted power density in the on and off states, respectively. (b) Spatial dependence of temperature over the sample surface in on (b) and off (c) states.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Emitted power density of our MME imaged with an IR camera in (a) on and (b) off states.

Equations (5)

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Mλ(λ,TR)=S(λ)E(λ)B(λ,TR),
B(λ,T)=2πhc2λ51exp(hcλkBT)1.
P=PE+PR,
PR=αR6  μm16  μmB(λ,TR)R(λ)S(λ)dλ,
PE=αE6  μm16  μmB(λ,TR)E(λ)S(λ)dλ,

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