Abstract

Entanglement, describing the inseparability of a quantum multiparty system, is one of the most intriguing features of quantum mechanics. Violation of Bell inequality, for ruling out the possibility of local hidden-variable theories, is commonly used as a strong witness of quantum entanglement. In previous Bell test experiments with photonic entanglement based on two-photon coincidence measurement, the photon temporal wave packets were absorbed completely by the detectors. That is, the photon coherence time is much shorter than the detection time window. Here we demonstrate the generation of frequency-bin entangled narrowband biphotons, and for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, test the Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt (CHSH) Bell inequality |S|2 for their nonlocal temporal correlations with time-resolved detection. We obtain a maximum |S| value of 2.52±0.48, which violates the CHSH inequality. Our result will have applications in quantum information processing involving time-frequency entanglement.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  34. S. Zhang, J. F. Chen, C. Liu, S. Zhou, M. M. T. Loy, G. K. L. Wong, and S. Du, “A dark-line two-dimensional magneto-optical trap of 85Rb atoms with high optical depth,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 073102 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  35. See the supplementary material and Refs. [31,32,36] for a detailed description of the experimental setup, the theory of SFWM biphoton generation from cold atoms, and the derivation of quantum beating and CHSH Bell parameter from frequency-bin entanglement, the heralded single-photon quantum state, and the biphoton waveform likeness between the two SFWM paths.
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  38. S. Clemmen, A. Farsi, S. Ramelow, and A. L. Gaeta, “Ramsey interference with single photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 223601 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  39. H. J. Kimble, “The quantum internet,” Nature 453, 1023–1030 (2008).
    [Crossref]

2016 (3)

C. Shu, P. Chen, T. K. A. Chow, L. Zhu, Y. Xiao, M. M. T. Loy, and S. Du, “Subnatural-linewidth biphotons from a Doppler-broadened hot atomic vapor cell,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12783 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Qian, Z. Gu, R. Cao, R. Wen, Z. Y. Ou, J. F. Chen, and W. Zhang, “Temporal purity and quantum interference of single photons from two independent cold atomic ensembles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 013602 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Clemmen, A. Farsi, S. Ramelow, and A. L. Gaeta, “Ramsey interference with single photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 223601 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

P. Chen, C. Shu, X. Guo, M. M. T. Loy, and S. Du, “Measuring the biphoton temporal wave function with polarization-dependent and time-resolved two-photon interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 010401 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Du, “Quantum-state purity of heralded single photons produced from frequency-anticorrelated biphotons,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 043836 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Han, P. Qian, L. Zhou, J. F. Chen, and W. Zhang, “Coherence time limit of the biphotons generated in a dense cold atom cloud,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9126 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Giustina, M. A. M. Versteegh, S. Wengerowsky, J. Handsteiner, A. Hochrainer, K. Phelan, F. Steinlechner, J. Kofler, J.-A. Larsson, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, J. Beyer, T. Gerrits, A. E. Lita, L. K. Shalm, S. W. Nam, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, B. Wittmann, and A. Zeilinger, “Significant-loophole-free test of Bell’s theorem with entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250401 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong loophole-free test of local realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Xie, T. Zhong, S. Shrestha, X. Xu, J. Liang, Y.-X. Gong, J. C. Bienfang, A. Restelli, J. H. Shapiro, F. N. C. Wong, and C. W. Wong, “Harnessing high-dimensional hyperentanglement through a biphoton frequency comb,” Nat. Photonics 9, 536–542 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

L. Olislager, E. Woodhead, K. P. Huy, J.-M. Merolla, P. Emplit, and S. Massar, “Creating and manipulating entangled optical qubits in the frequency domain,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 052323 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Liao, H. Yan, J. He, S. Du, Z.-M. Zhang, and S.-L. Zhu, “Subnatural-linewidth polarization-entangled photon pairs with controllable temporal length,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 243602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y.-W. Cho, K.-K. Park, J.-C. Lee, and Y.-H. Kim, “Engineering frequency-time quantum correlation of narrow-band biphotons from cold atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 063602 (2014).
[Crossref]

T.-M. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. Yang, Z.-R. Sang, X. Jiang, X.-H. Bao, and J.-W. Pan, “Entangling different-color photons via time-resolved measurement and active feed forward,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 103602 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Zhao, X. Guo, C. Liu, Y. Sun, M. M. T. Loy, and S. Du, “Photon pairs with coherence time exceeding 1 μs,” Optica 1, 84–88 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

J. Fekete, D. Rielander, M. Cristiani, and H. de Riedmatten, “Ultranarrow-band photon-pair source compatible with solid state quantum memories and telecommunication networks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 220502 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Srivathsan, G. K. Gulati, B. Chng, G. Maslennikov, D. Matsukevich, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Narrow band source of transform-limited photon pairs via four-wave mixing in a cold atomic ensemble,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 123602 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Bernhard, B. Bessire, T. Feurer, and A. Stefanov, “Shaping frequency-entangled qudits,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 032322 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

S. Zhang, J. F. Chen, C. Liu, S. Zhou, M. M. T. Loy, G. K. L. Wong, and S. Du, “A dark-line two-dimensional magneto-optical trap of 85Rb atoms with high optical depth,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 073102 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

L. Olislager, J. Cussey, A. T. Nguyen, P. Emplit, S. Massar, J.-M. Merolla, and K. P. Huy, “Frequency-bin entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 013804 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

R. Horodecki, P. Horodecki, M. Horodecki, and K. Horodecki, “Quantum entanglement,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 865–942 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Ramelow, L. Ratschbacher, A. Fedrizzi, N. K. Langford, and A. Zeilinger, “Discrete tunable color entanglement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 253601 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

S. Du, J. Wen, and M. H. Rubin, “Narrowband biphoton generation near atomic resonance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, C98–C108 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Du, P. Kolchin, C. Belthangady, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Subnatural linewidth biphotons with controllable temporal length,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 183603 (2008).
[Crossref]

X.-H. Bao, Y. Qian, J. Yang, H. Zhang, Z.-B. Chen, T. Yang, and J.-W. Pan, “Generation of narrow-band polarization-entangled photon pairs for atomic quantum memories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 190501 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. J. Kimble, “The quantum internet,” Nature 453, 1023–1030 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. Halder, A. Beveratos, N. Gisin, V. Scarani, C. Simon, and H. Zbinden, “Entangling independent photons by time measurement,” Nat. Phys. 3, 692–695 (2007).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

J.-W. Pan, D. Bouwmeester, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental entanglement swapping: entangling photons that never interacted,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3891–3894 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, “New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337–4341 (1995).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

J. G. Rarity and P. R. Tapster, “Experimental violation of Bell’s inequality based on phase and momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2495–2498 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (2)

M. A. Horne, A. Shimony, and A. Zeilinger, “Two-particle interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2209–2212 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. D. Franson, “Bell inequality for position and time,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2205–2208 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (2)

Z. Y. Ou and L. Mandel, “Violation of Bell’s inequality and classical probability in a two-photon correlation experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 50–53 (1988).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Shih and C. O. Alley, “New type of Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen–Bohm experiment using pairs of light quanta produced by optical parametric down conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2921–2924 (1988).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

J. F. Clauser, M. A. Horne, A. Shimony, and R. A. Holt, “Proposed experiment to test local hidden-variable theories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 880–884 (1969).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

J. S. Bell, “On the Einstein Podolsky Rosen paradox,” Physics 1, 195–200 (1964).

1935 (1)

A. Einstein, B. Podolsky, and N. Rosen, “Can quantum-mechanical description of physical reality be considered complete?” Phys. Rev. 47, 777–780 (1935).
[Crossref]

Abellan, C.

M. Giustina, M. A. M. Versteegh, S. Wengerowsky, J. Handsteiner, A. Hochrainer, K. Phelan, F. Steinlechner, J. Kofler, J.-A. Larsson, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, J. Beyer, T. Gerrits, A. E. Lita, L. K. Shalm, S. W. Nam, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, B. Wittmann, and A. Zeilinger, “Significant-loophole-free test of Bell’s theorem with entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250401 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong loophole-free test of local realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alley, C. O.

Y. H. Shih and C. O. Alley, “New type of Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen–Bohm experiment using pairs of light quanta produced by optical parametric down conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2921–2924 (1988).
[Crossref]

Allman, M. S.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong loophole-free test of local realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Amaya, W.

M. Giustina, M. A. M. Versteegh, S. Wengerowsky, J. Handsteiner, A. Hochrainer, K. Phelan, F. Steinlechner, J. Kofler, J.-A. Larsson, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, J. Beyer, T. Gerrits, A. E. Lita, L. K. Shalm, S. W. Nam, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, B. Wittmann, and A. Zeilinger, “Significant-loophole-free test of Bell’s theorem with entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250401 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong loophole-free test of local realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bao, X.-H.

T.-M. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. Yang, Z.-R. Sang, X. Jiang, X.-H. Bao, and J.-W. Pan, “Entangling different-color photons via time-resolved measurement and active feed forward,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 103602 (2014).
[Crossref]

X.-H. Bao, Y. Qian, J. Yang, H. Zhang, Z.-B. Chen, T. Yang, and J.-W. Pan, “Generation of narrow-band polarization-entangled photon pairs for atomic quantum memories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 190501 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bell, J. S.

J. S. Bell, “On the Einstein Podolsky Rosen paradox,” Physics 1, 195–200 (1964).

J. S. Bell, Speakable and Unspeakable in Quantum Mechanics (Cambridge University, 2004).

Belthangady, C.

S. Du, P. Kolchin, C. Belthangady, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Subnatural linewidth biphotons with controllable temporal length,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 183603 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bernhard, C.

C. Bernhard, B. Bessire, T. Feurer, and A. Stefanov, “Shaping frequency-entangled qudits,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 032322 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bessire, B.

C. Bernhard, B. Bessire, T. Feurer, and A. Stefanov, “Shaping frequency-entangled qudits,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 032322 (2013).
[Crossref]

Beveratos, A.

M. Halder, A. Beveratos, N. Gisin, V. Scarani, C. Simon, and H. Zbinden, “Entangling independent photons by time measurement,” Nat. Phys. 3, 692–695 (2007).
[Crossref]

Beyer, J.

M. Giustina, M. A. M. Versteegh, S. Wengerowsky, J. Handsteiner, A. Hochrainer, K. Phelan, F. Steinlechner, J. Kofler, J.-A. Larsson, C. Abellan, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, J. Beyer, T. Gerrits, A. E. Lita, L. K. Shalm, S. W. Nam, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, B. Wittmann, and A. Zeilinger, “Significant-loophole-free test of Bell’s theorem with entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250401 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Other (2)

See the supplementary material and Refs. [31,32,36] for a detailed description of the experimental setup, the theory of SFWM biphoton generation from cold atoms, and the derivation of quantum beating and CHSH Bell parameter from frequency-bin entanglement, the heralded single-photon quantum state, and the biphoton waveform likeness between the two SFWM paths.

J. S. Bell, Speakable and Unspeakable in Quantum Mechanics (Cambridge University, 2004).

Supplementary Material (1)

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» Supplement 1: PDF (1394 KB)      Supplementary material

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Generation of frequency-bin entangled narrowband biphotons. (a) Experimental schematics of generating biphotons with double-path SFWM in cold Rb 85 atoms. Backward and paired Stokes ( ω s ) and anti-Stokes ( ω a s ) photons are spontaneously produced into paths 1 and 2, respectively, which are symmetric with angles of ± 3 ° to the longitudinal axis. The Stokes photons on path 1 go through FPS ( δ , Δ ϕ s ), while the anti-Stokes photons on path 2 go through FPS ( δ , Δ ϕ a s ). BS 1 and BS 2 are two beam splitters. D s ± and D a s ± are single-photon counting modules. (b)  Rb 85 atomic energy level diagram for SFWM. The atomic hyperfine levels are chosen as | 1 = | 5 S 1 / 2 , F = 2 , | 2 = | 5 S 1 / 2 , F = 3 , | 3 = | 5 P 1 / 2 , F = 3 , and | 4 = | 5 P 3 / 2 , F = 3 . The circularly polarized ( σ ) pump laser (780 nm) is blue-detuned by 60 MHz from the transition | 1 | 4 , whereas the coupling laser ( σ + , 795 nm) is on resonance to the transition | 2 | 3 . Panels (c) and (d) show the biphoton temporal correlations on paths 1 and 2, respectively. (e) Biphoton quantum beating measured between detectors D s + and D a s + and its visibility with the phase setting Δ ϕ s = 3 π / 2 and Δ ϕ a s = π / 4 . The solid curves in panels (c)–(e) are obtained from the SFWM biphoton theory [35].
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. CHSH Bell inequality of frequency-bin entanglement. (a)  S as a function of a two-photon relative time delay of τ . The circles are experimental data. The solid curve is predicted by the theory. The dashed envelopes are plotted from ± 2 2 V ( τ ) , where the visibility V ( τ ) is determined by Eq. (4). The shadow area is the classical regime where | S | 2 . Panels (b)–(e) show the measured Bell correlations. The phase settings are Δ ϕ s = 0 , Δ ϕ a s = π / 4 , Δ ϕ s = π / 2 , and Δ ϕ a s = π / 4 .
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Two-photon nonlocal phase correlation. (a) Measured biphoton temporal correlations with different phase settings. (b) Phase correlations at τ = 252    ns . The error bars are standard deviations resulting from the statistical uncertainties of coincidence counts. The solid lines are the best fitting curves, with visibilities of V 1 = 0.86 ± 0.09 for Δ ϕ a s = π / 4 and V 2 = 0.85 ± 0.13 for Δ ϕ a s = π / 4 .
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Biphoton temporal beating. (a) Measured two-photon temporal correlations with different phase settings. The blue data are measured with Δ ϕ s = 3 π / 2 , Δ ϕ a s = π / 4 and the red data with Δ ϕ s = π , Δ ϕ a s = π / 4 . (b) Normalized beating signals. The solid curves are the best fittings.

Equations (9)

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| Ψ X Y = 1 2 [ | ω s + δ | ω a s + X Y e i ( Δ ϕ a s Δ ϕ s ) | ω s | ω a s + δ ] ,
G X Y ( 2 ) ( τ ; Δ ϕ s , Δ ϕ a s ) = 1 2 [ G 0 ( 2 ) ( τ ) N 0 ] × [ 1 + X Y cos ( δ τ + Δ ϕ s Δ ϕ a s ) ] + N 0 ,
g X Y ( 2 ) ( τ ; Δ ϕ s , Δ ϕ a s ) = G X Y ( 2 ) ( τ ; Δ ϕ s , Δ ϕ a s ) / N 0 = 1 2 [ g 0 ( 2 ) ( τ ) 1 ] [ 1 + X Y cos ( δ τ + Δ ϕ s Δ ϕ a s ) ] + 1 ,
V ( τ ) = G 0 ( 2 ) ( τ ) N 0 G 0 ( 2 ) ( τ ) + N 0 = g 0 ( 2 ) ( τ ) 1 g 0 ( 2 ) ( τ ) + 1 .
C X Y ( τ ; Δ ϕ s , Δ ϕ a s ) = G X Y ( 2 ) ( τ ; Δ ϕ s , Δ ϕ a s ) η ξ Δ t bin T ,
E ( τ ; Δ ϕ s , Δ ϕ a s ) = C ++ + C C + C + C ++ + C + C + + C + .
E ( τ ; Δ ϕ s , Δ ϕ a s ) = C ++ ( τ ; Δ ϕ s , Δ ϕ a s ) C ++ ( τ ; Δ ϕ s , Δ ϕ a s ) C ++ ( τ ; Δ ϕ s , Δ ϕ a s ) + C ++ ( τ ; Δ ϕ s , Δ ϕ a s ) ,
S ( τ ) = E ( τ ; Δ ϕ s , Δ ϕ a s ) E ( τ ; Δ ϕ s , Δ ϕ a s ) + E ( τ ; Δ ϕ s , Δ ϕ a s ) + E ( τ ; Δ ϕ s , Δ ϕ a s ) .
S ( τ ) = 2 2 V ( τ ) cos ( δ τ + Δ ϕ s Δ ϕ a s + π 4 ) .

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