Abstract

Optical waveguides made from periodically poled materials provide high confinement of light and enable the generation of new wavelengths via quasi-phase-matching, making them a key platform for nonlinear optics and photonics. However, such devices are not typically employed for high-harmonic generation. Here, using 200-fs, 10-nJ-level pulses of 4100-nm light at 1 MHz, we generate high harmonics up to the 13th harmonic (315 nm) in a chirped, periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide. Total conversion efficiencies into the visible–ultraviolet region are as high as 10%. We find that the output spectrum depends on the waveguide poling period, indicating that quasi-phase-matching plays a significant role. In the future, such periodically poled waveguides may enable compact sources of ultrashort pulses at high repetition rates and provide new methods of probing the electronic structure of solid-state materials.

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2017 (11)

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5  nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Chen, Z. Tao, A. Carr, P. Matyba, T. Szilvási, S. Emmerich, M. Piecuch, M. Keller, D. Zusin, S. Eich, M. Rollinger, W. You, S. Mathias, U. Thumm, M. Mavrikakis, M. Aeschlimann, P. M. Oppeneer, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Distinguishing attosecond electron-lectron scattering and screening in transition metals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114, E5300–E5307 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Gholam-Mirzaei, J. Beetar, and M. Chini, “High harmonic generation in ZnO with a high-power mid-IR OPA,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 061101 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, S. Han, Y. W. Kim, S. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet radiation from bulk sapphire crystal,” ACS Photon. 4, 1627–1632 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. A. Lanin, E. A. Stepanov, A. B. Fedotov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Mapping the electron band structure by intraband high-harmonic generation in solids,” Optica 4, 516–519 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. S. You, D. A. Reis, and S. Ghimire, “Anisotropic high-harmonic generation in bulk crystals,” Nat. Phys. 13, 345–349 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Tancogne-Dejean, O. D. Mücke, F. X. Kärtner, and A. Rubio, “Impact of the electronic band structure in high-harmonic generation spectra of solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 087403 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Yoshikawa, T. Tamaya, and K. Tanaka, “High-harmonic generation in graphene enhanced by elliptically polarized light excitation,” Science 356, 736–738 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Park, A. Camper, K. Kafka, B. Ma, Y. H. Lai, C. Blaga, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and E. Chowdhury, “High-order harmonic generations in intense MIR fields by cascade three-wave mixing in a fractal-poled LiNbO3 photonic crystal,” Opt. Lett. 42, 4020–4023 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. S. You, Y. Yin, Y. Wu, A. Chew, X. Ren, F. Zhuang, S. Gholam-Mirzaei, M. Chini, Z. Chang, and S. Ghimire, “High-harmonic generation in amorphous solids,” Nat. Commun. 8, 724 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, X. Xiong, N. Andrade, V. Venkataraman, X.-F. Ren, G.-C. Guo, and M. Lončar, “Second harmonic generation in nano-structured thin-film lithium niobate waveguides,” Opt. Express 25, 6963–6973 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

M. T. Hassan, T. T. Luu, A. Moulet, O. Raskazovskaya, P. Zhokhov, M. Garg, N. Karpowicz, A. M. Zheltikov, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Optical attosecond pulses and tracking the nonlinear response of bound electrons,” Nature 530, 66–70 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Ndabashimiye, S. Ghimire, M. Wu, D. A. Browne, K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, and D. A. Reis, “Solid-state harmonics beyond the atomic limit,” Nature 534, 520–523 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Han, H. Kim, Y. W. Kim, Y.-J. Kim, S. Kim, I.-Y. Park, and S.-W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by field enhanced femtosecond pulses in metal-sapphire nanostructure,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Tao, C. Chen, T. Szilvási, M. Keller, M. Mavrikakis, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Direct time-domain observation of attosecond final-state lifetimes in photoemission from solids,” Science 353, 62–67 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Leone and D. Neumark, “Attosecond science in atomic, molecular, and condensed matter physics,” Faraday Discuss. 194, 15–39 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, O. Schubert, M. Knorr, U. Huttner, S. W. Koch, M. Kira, and R. Huber, “Real-time observation of interfering crystal electrons in high-harmonic generation,” Nature 523, 572–575 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. T. Luu, M. Garg, S. Y. Kruchinin, A. Moulet, M. T. Hassan, and E. Goulielmakis, “Extreme ultraviolet high-harmonic spectroscopy of solids,” Nature 521, 498–502 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Vampa, T. J. Hammond, N. Thiré, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, C. R. McDonald, T. Brabec, D. D. Klug, and P. B. Corkum, “All-optical reconstruction of crystal band structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 193603 (2015).
[Crossref]

B.-Q. Chen, C. Zhang, C.-Y. Hu, R.-J. Liu, and Z.-Y. Li, “High-efficiency broadband high-harmonic generation from a single quasi-phase-matching nonlinear crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 083902 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

J.-H. Park, T.-Y. Kang, J.-H. Ha, and H.-Y. Lee, “Spatial mode behavior of second harmonic generation in a ridge-type waveguide with a periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53, 062201 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8, 119–123 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Zürch, J. Rothhardt, S. Hdrich, S. Demmler, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, and C. Spielmann, “Real-time and sub-wavelength ultrafast coherent diffraction imaging in the extreme ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7356 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

K. Zhao, Q. Zhang, M. Chini, Y. Wu, X. Wang, and Z. Chang, “Tailoring a 67 attosecond pulse through advantageous phase-mismatch,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3891–3893 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Zhou, P. Ranitovic, C. W. Hogle, J. H. D. Eland, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Probing and controlling non-Born-Oppenheimer dynamics in highly excited molecular ions,” Nat. Phys. 8, 232–237 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, G. Ndabashimiye, U. B. Szafruga, A. Mohammad, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 043836 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Phys. 7, 138–141 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. C. Delagnes and L. Canioni, “Third harmonic generation in periodically poled crystals,” Proc. SPIE 7917, 79171C (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

2009 (1)

2007 (4)

X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Quasi-phase-matching and quantum-path control of high-harmonic generation using counterpropagating light,” Nat. Phys. 3, 270–275 (2007).
[Crossref]

O. Cohen, X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Grating-assisted phase matching in extreme nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 053902 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hdrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-x-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Bache, J. Moses, and F. W. Wise, “Scaling laws for soliton pulse compression by cascaded quadratic nonlinearities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2752–2762 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

J. Moses and F. W. Wise, “Soliton compression in quadratic media: high-energy few-cycle pulses with a frequency-doubling crystal,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1881–1883 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135–1184 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. M. Saltiel, P. K. Datta, K. Koynov, and V. L. Saltiel, “Direct third harmonic generation in single quadratic crystal in quasi phase matched regime,” Bulg. J. Phys. 33, 1–12 (2006).

S. K. Das, S. Mukhopadhyay, N. Sinha, A. Saha, P. K. Datta, S. M. Saltiel, and L. C. Andreani, “Direct third harmonic generation due to quadratic cascaded processes in periodically poled crystals,” Opt. Commun. 262, 108–113 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, and H. Suzuki, “Direct-bonded QPM-LN ridge waveguide with high damage resistance at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 39, 609–611 (2003).
[Crossref]

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95–98 (2003).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Highly efficient, phase-matched high-harmonic generation by a self-guided laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1422–1425 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187–2190 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631–2654 (1992).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

X. F. Li, A. L’Huillier, M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, and G. Mainfray, “Multiple-harmonic generation in rare gases at high laser intensity,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 5751–5761 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064  nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 21, L31–L35 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

Adams, D. E.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5  nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

Aeschlimann, M.

C. Chen, Z. Tao, A. Carr, P. Matyba, T. Szilvási, S. Emmerich, M. Piecuch, M. Keller, D. Zusin, S. Eich, M. Rollinger, W. You, S. Mathias, U. Thumm, M. Mavrikakis, M. Aeschlimann, P. M. Oppeneer, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Distinguishing attosecond electron-lectron scattering and screening in transition metals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114, E5300–E5307 (2017).
[Crossref]

Agostini, P.

H. Park, A. Camper, K. Kafka, B. Ma, Y. H. Lai, C. Blaga, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and E. Chowdhury, “High-order harmonic generations in intense MIR fields by cascade three-wave mixing in a fractal-poled LiNbO3 photonic crystal,” Opt. Lett. 42, 4020–4023 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, G. Ndabashimiye, U. B. Szafruga, A. Mohammad, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 043836 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Phys. 7, 138–141 (2011).
[Crossref]

Albrecht, M.

O. Kfir, S. Zayko, C. Nolte, M. Sivis, M. Möller, B. Hebler, S. S. P. K. Arekapudi, D. Steil, S. Schäfer, M. Albrecht, O. Cohen, S. Mathias, and C. Ropers, “Nanoscale magnetic imaging using circularly polarized high-harmonic radiation,” arXiv:1706.07695 (2017).

Andrade, N.

Andreani, L. C.

S. K. Das, S. Mukhopadhyay, N. Sinha, A. Saha, P. K. Datta, S. M. Saltiel, and L. C. Andreani, “Direct third harmonic generation due to quadratic cascaded processes in periodically poled crystals,” Opt. Commun. 262, 108–113 (2006).
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Aquila, A.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95–98 (2003).
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Arekapudi, S. S. P. K.

O. Kfir, S. Zayko, C. Nolte, M. Sivis, M. Möller, B. Hebler, S. S. P. K. Arekapudi, D. Steil, S. Schäfer, M. Albrecht, O. Cohen, S. Mathias, and C. Ropers, “Nanoscale magnetic imaging using circularly polarized high-harmonic radiation,” arXiv:1706.07695 (2017).

Asobe, M.

T. Nishikawa, A. Ozawa, Y. Nishida, M. Asobe, F.-L. Hong, and T. W. Hänsch, “Efficient 494  mW sum-frequency generation of sodium resonance radiation at 589  nm by using a periodically poled Zn:LiNbO3 ridge waveguide,” Opt. Express 17, 17792–17800 (2009).
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Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, and H. Suzuki, “Direct-bonded QPM-LN ridge waveguide with high damage resistance at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 39, 609–611 (2003).
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Attwood, D. T.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95–98 (2003).
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Bache, M.

Backus, S.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95–98 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187–2190 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
[Crossref]

Backus, S. J.

S. Domingue, D. G. Winters, M. Kirchner, S. J. Backus, and S. J. Backus, “Coherently seeded optical parametric amplifier with 500  nJ short-wave infrared signal at 1  MHz,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper JTh2A.129.

S. Domingue, D. G. Winters, M. Kirchner, S. J. Backus, and S. J. Backus, “Coherently seeded optical parametric amplifier with 500  nJ short-wave infrared signal at 1  MHz,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper JTh2A.129.

Bahabad, A.

Beetar, J.

S. Gholam-Mirzaei, J. Beetar, and M. Chini, “High harmonic generation in ZnO with a high-power mid-IR OPA,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 061101 (2017).
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Bevis, C.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5  nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
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Blaga, C.

Boyer, K.

Brabec, T.

G. Vampa, T. J. Hammond, N. Thiré, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, C. R. McDonald, T. Brabec, D. D. Klug, and P. B. Corkum, “All-optical reconstruction of crystal band structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 193603 (2015).
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Browne, D. A.

G. Ndabashimiye, S. Ghimire, M. Wu, D. A. Browne, K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, and D. A. Reis, “Solid-state harmonics beyond the atomic limit,” Nature 534, 520–523 (2016).
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Byer, R. L.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631–2654 (1992).
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Camper, A.

Canioni, L.

J. C. Delagnes and L. Canioni, “Third harmonic generation in periodically poled crystals,” Proc. SPIE 7917, 79171C (2011).
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Carr, A.

C. Chen, Z. Tao, A. Carr, P. Matyba, T. Szilvási, S. Emmerich, M. Piecuch, M. Keller, D. Zusin, S. Eich, M. Rollinger, W. You, S. Mathias, U. Thumm, M. Mavrikakis, M. Aeschlimann, P. M. Oppeneer, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Distinguishing attosecond electron-lectron scattering and screening in transition metals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114, E5300–E5307 (2017).
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Chang, Z.

Y. S. You, Y. Yin, Y. Wu, A. Chew, X. Ren, F. Zhuang, S. Gholam-Mirzaei, M. Chini, Z. Chang, and S. Ghimire, “High-harmonic generation in amorphous solids,” Nat. Commun. 8, 724 (2017).
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K. Zhao, Q. Zhang, M. Chini, Y. Wu, X. Wang, and Z. Chang, “Tailoring a 67 attosecond pulse through advantageous phase-mismatch,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3891–3893 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
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Chen, B.-Q.

B.-Q. Chen, C. Zhang, C.-Y. Hu, R.-J. Liu, and Z.-Y. Li, “High-efficiency broadband high-harmonic generation from a single quasi-phase-matching nonlinear crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 083902 (2015).
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Chen, C.

C. Chen, Z. Tao, A. Carr, P. Matyba, T. Szilvási, S. Emmerich, M. Piecuch, M. Keller, D. Zusin, S. Eich, M. Rollinger, W. You, S. Mathias, U. Thumm, M. Mavrikakis, M. Aeschlimann, P. M. Oppeneer, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Distinguishing attosecond electron-lectron scattering and screening in transition metals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114, E5300–E5307 (2017).
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Z. Tao, C. Chen, T. Szilvási, M. Keller, M. Mavrikakis, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Direct time-domain observation of attosecond final-state lifetimes in photoemission from solids,” Science 353, 62–67 (2016).
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Chew, A.

Y. S. You, Y. Yin, Y. Wu, A. Chew, X. Ren, F. Zhuang, S. Gholam-Mirzaei, M. Chini, Z. Chang, and S. Ghimire, “High-harmonic generation in amorphous solids,” Nat. Commun. 8, 724 (2017).
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Chini, M.

Y. S. You, Y. Yin, Y. Wu, A. Chew, X. Ren, F. Zhuang, S. Gholam-Mirzaei, M. Chini, Z. Chang, and S. Ghimire, “High-harmonic generation in amorphous solids,” Nat. Commun. 8, 724 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Gholam-Mirzaei, J. Beetar, and M. Chini, “High harmonic generation in ZnO with a high-power mid-IR OPA,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 061101 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Zhao, Q. Zhang, M. Chini, Y. Wu, X. Wang, and Z. Chang, “Tailoring a 67 attosecond pulse through advantageous phase-mismatch,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3891–3893 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chowdhury, E.

Christov, I. P.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95–98 (2003).
[Crossref]

Coen, S.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135–1184 (2006).
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Cohen, O.

P. Sidorenko, M. Kozlov, A. Bahabad, T. Popmintchev, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and O. Cohen, “Sawtooth grating-assisted phase-matching,” Opt. Express 18, 22686–22692 (2010).
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X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Quasi-phase-matching and quantum-path control of high-harmonic generation using counterpropagating light,” Nat. Phys. 3, 270–275 (2007).
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O. Cohen, X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Grating-assisted phase matching in extreme nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 053902 (2007).
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R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hdrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-x-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
[Crossref]

O. Kfir, S. Zayko, C. Nolte, M. Sivis, M. Möller, B. Hebler, S. S. P. K. Arekapudi, D. Steil, S. Schäfer, M. Albrecht, O. Cohen, S. Mathias, and C. Ropers, “Nanoscale magnetic imaging using circularly polarized high-harmonic radiation,” arXiv:1706.07695 (2017).

Corkum, P. B.

G. Vampa, T. J. Hammond, N. Thiré, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, C. R. McDonald, T. Brabec, D. D. Klug, and P. B. Corkum, “All-optical reconstruction of crystal band structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 193603 (2015).
[Crossref]

Das, S. K.

S. K. Das, S. Mukhopadhyay, N. Sinha, A. Saha, P. K. Datta, S. M. Saltiel, and L. C. Andreani, “Direct third harmonic generation due to quadratic cascaded processes in periodically poled crystals,” Opt. Commun. 262, 108–113 (2006).
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Datta, P. K.

S. M. Saltiel, P. K. Datta, K. Koynov, and V. L. Saltiel, “Direct third harmonic generation in single quadratic crystal in quasi phase matched regime,” Bulg. J. Phys. 33, 1–12 (2006).

S. K. Das, S. Mukhopadhyay, N. Sinha, A. Saha, P. K. Datta, S. M. Saltiel, and L. C. Andreani, “Direct third harmonic generation due to quadratic cascaded processes in periodically poled crystals,” Opt. Commun. 262, 108–113 (2006).
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Delagnes, J. C.

J. C. Delagnes and L. Canioni, “Third harmonic generation in periodically poled crystals,” Proc. SPIE 7917, 79171C (2011).
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Demmler, S.

M. Zürch, J. Rothhardt, S. Hdrich, S. Demmler, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, and C. Spielmann, “Real-time and sub-wavelength ultrafast coherent diffraction imaging in the extreme ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7356 (2014).
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DiChiara, A. D.

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, G. Ndabashimiye, U. B. Szafruga, A. Mohammad, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 043836 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Phys. 7, 138–141 (2011).
[Crossref]

DiMauro, L. F.

H. Park, A. Camper, K. Kafka, B. Ma, Y. H. Lai, C. Blaga, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and E. Chowdhury, “High-order harmonic generations in intense MIR fields by cascade three-wave mixing in a fractal-poled LiNbO3 photonic crystal,” Opt. Lett. 42, 4020–4023 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, G. Ndabashimiye, U. B. Szafruga, A. Mohammad, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 043836 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Phys. 7, 138–141 (2011).
[Crossref]

Domingue, S.

S. Domingue, D. G. Winters, M. Kirchner, S. J. Backus, and S. J. Backus, “Coherently seeded optical parametric amplifier with 500  nJ short-wave infrared signal at 1  MHz,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper JTh2A.129.

Dudley, J. M.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135–1184 (2006).
[Crossref]

Durfee, C. G.

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187–2190 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
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Eich, S.

C. Chen, Z. Tao, A. Carr, P. Matyba, T. Szilvási, S. Emmerich, M. Piecuch, M. Keller, D. Zusin, S. Eich, M. Rollinger, W. You, S. Mathias, U. Thumm, M. Mavrikakis, M. Aeschlimann, P. M. Oppeneer, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Distinguishing attosecond electron-lectron scattering and screening in transition metals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114, E5300–E5307 (2017).
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Eland, J. H. D.

X. Zhou, P. Ranitovic, C. W. Hogle, J. H. D. Eland, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Probing and controlling non-Born-Oppenheimer dynamics in highly excited molecular ions,” Nat. Phys. 8, 232–237 (2012).
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Emmerich, S.

C. Chen, Z. Tao, A. Carr, P. Matyba, T. Szilvási, S. Emmerich, M. Piecuch, M. Keller, D. Zusin, S. Eich, M. Rollinger, W. You, S. Mathias, U. Thumm, M. Mavrikakis, M. Aeschlimann, P. M. Oppeneer, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Distinguishing attosecond electron-lectron scattering and screening in transition metals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114, E5300–E5307 (2017).
[Crossref]

Emmerson, G. D.

Ettoumi, W.

Fedotov, A. B.

Fejer, M. M.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631–2654 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ferray, M.

X. F. Li, A. L’Huillier, M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, and G. Mainfray, “Multiple-harmonic generation in rare gases at high laser intensity,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 5751–5761 (1989).
[Crossref]

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064  nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 21, L31–L35 (1988).
[Crossref]

Gaarde, M. B.

G. Ndabashimiye, S. Ghimire, M. Wu, D. A. Browne, K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, and D. A. Reis, “Solid-state harmonics beyond the atomic limit,” Nature 534, 520–523 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gallo, K.

Galloway, B. R.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5  nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gardner, D. F.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5  nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

Garg, M.

M. T. Hassan, T. T. Luu, A. Moulet, O. Raskazovskaya, P. Zhokhov, M. Garg, N. Karpowicz, A. M. Zheltikov, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Optical attosecond pulses and tracking the nonlinear response of bound electrons,” Nature 530, 66–70 (2016).
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T. T. Luu, M. Garg, S. Y. Kruchinin, A. Moulet, M. T. Hassan, and E. Goulielmakis, “Extreme ultraviolet high-harmonic spectroscopy of solids,” Nature 521, 498–502 (2015).
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Gaudiosi, D.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95–98 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gaudiosi, D. M.

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hdrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-x-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gawith, C. B. E.

Genty, G.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135–1184 (2006).
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Y. S. You, D. A. Reis, and S. Ghimire, “Anisotropic high-harmonic generation in bulk crystals,” Nat. Phys. 13, 345–349 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. S. You, Y. Yin, Y. Wu, A. Chew, X. Ren, F. Zhuang, S. Gholam-Mirzaei, M. Chini, Z. Chang, and S. Ghimire, “High-harmonic generation in amorphous solids,” Nat. Commun. 8, 724 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Ndabashimiye, S. Ghimire, M. Wu, D. A. Browne, K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, and D. A. Reis, “Solid-state harmonics beyond the atomic limit,” Nature 534, 520–523 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, G. Ndabashimiye, U. B. Szafruga, A. Mohammad, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 043836 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Phys. 7, 138–141 (2011).
[Crossref]

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S. Gholam-Mirzaei, J. Beetar, and M. Chini, “High harmonic generation in ZnO with a high-power mid-IR OPA,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 061101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. S. You, Y. Yin, Y. Wu, A. Chew, X. Ren, F. Zhuang, S. Gholam-Mirzaei, M. Chini, Z. Chang, and S. Ghimire, “High-harmonic generation in amorphous solids,” Nat. Commun. 8, 724 (2017).
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E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 95–98 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gibson, G.

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H. Kim, S. Han, Y. W. Kim, S. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet radiation from bulk sapphire crystal,” ACS Photon. 4, 1627–1632 (2017).
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S. Han, H. Kim, Y. W. Kim, Y.-J. Kim, S. Kim, I.-Y. Park, and S.-W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by field enhanced femtosecond pulses in metal-sapphire nanostructure,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13105 (2016).
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Hong, F.-L.

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O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8, 119–123 (2014).
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M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, O. Schubert, M. Knorr, U. Huttner, S. W. Koch, M. Kira, and R. Huber, “Real-time observation of interfering crystal electrons in high-harmonic generation,” Nature 523, 572–575 (2015).
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O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8, 119–123 (2014).
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[Crossref]

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S. Han, H. Kim, Y. W. Kim, Y.-J. Kim, S. Kim, I.-Y. Park, and S.-W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by field enhanced femtosecond pulses in metal-sapphire nanostructure,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13105 (2016).
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H. Kim, S. Han, Y. W. Kim, S. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet radiation from bulk sapphire crystal,” ACS Photon. 4, 1627–1632 (2017).
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S. Han, H. Kim, Y. W. Kim, Y.-J. Kim, S. Kim, I.-Y. Park, and S.-W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by field enhanced femtosecond pulses in metal-sapphire nanostructure,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13105 (2016).
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H. Kim, S. Han, Y. W. Kim, S. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet radiation from bulk sapphire crystal,” ACS Photon. 4, 1627–1632 (2017).
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S. Han, H. Kim, Y. W. Kim, Y.-J. Kim, S. Kim, I.-Y. Park, and S.-W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by field enhanced femtosecond pulses in metal-sapphire nanostructure,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13105 (2016).
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H. Kim, S. Han, Y. W. Kim, S. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet radiation from bulk sapphire crystal,” ACS Photon. 4, 1627–1632 (2017).
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S. Han, H. Kim, Y. W. Kim, Y.-J. Kim, S. Kim, I.-Y. Park, and S.-W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by field enhanced femtosecond pulses in metal-sapphire nanostructure,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13105 (2016).
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S. Han, H. Kim, Y. W. Kim, Y.-J. Kim, S. Kim, I.-Y. Park, and S.-W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by field enhanced femtosecond pulses in metal-sapphire nanostructure,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13105 (2016).
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O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8, 119–123 (2014).
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M. Zürch, J. Rothhardt, S. Hdrich, S. Demmler, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, and C. Spielmann, “Real-time and sub-wavelength ultrafast coherent diffraction imaging in the extreme ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7356 (2014).
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M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, O. Schubert, M. Knorr, U. Huttner, S. W. Koch, M. Kira, and R. Huber, “Real-time observation of interfering crystal electrons in high-harmonic generation,” Nature 523, 572–575 (2015).
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Koch, S. W.

M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, O. Schubert, M. Knorr, U. Huttner, S. W. Koch, M. Kira, and R. Huber, “Real-time observation of interfering crystal electrons in high-harmonic generation,” Nature 523, 572–575 (2015).
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O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8, 119–123 (2014).
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Kozlov, M.

Krausz, F.

M. T. Hassan, T. T. Luu, A. Moulet, O. Raskazovskaya, P. Zhokhov, M. Garg, N. Karpowicz, A. M. Zheltikov, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Optical attosecond pulses and tracking the nonlinear response of bound electrons,” Nature 530, 66–70 (2016).
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Krebs, M.

M. Zürch, J. Rothhardt, S. Hdrich, S. Demmler, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, and C. Spielmann, “Real-time and sub-wavelength ultrafast coherent diffraction imaging in the extreme ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7356 (2014).
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T. T. Luu, M. Garg, S. Y. Kruchinin, A. Moulet, M. T. Hassan, and E. Goulielmakis, “Extreme ultraviolet high-harmonic spectroscopy of solids,” Nature 521, 498–502 (2015).
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Lai, Y. H.

Lange, C.

O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8, 119–123 (2014).
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Langer, F.

M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, O. Schubert, M. Knorr, U. Huttner, S. W. Koch, M. Kira, and R. Huber, “Real-time observation of interfering crystal electrons in high-harmonic generation,” Nature 523, 572–575 (2015).
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O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8, 119–123 (2014).
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Lanin, A. A.

Lee, H.-Y.

J.-H. Park, T.-Y. Kang, J.-H. Ha, and H.-Y. Lee, “Spatial mode behavior of second harmonic generation in a ridge-type waveguide with a periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53, 062201 (2014).
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Lee, Y. L.

Légaré, F.

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B.-Q. Chen, C. Zhang, C.-Y. Hu, R.-J. Liu, and Z.-Y. Li, “High-efficiency broadband high-harmonic generation from a single quasi-phase-matching nonlinear crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 083902 (2015).
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M. Zürch, J. Rothhardt, S. Hdrich, S. Demmler, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, and C. Spielmann, “Real-time and sub-wavelength ultrafast coherent diffraction imaging in the extreme ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7356 (2014).
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Liu, Y.

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hdrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-x-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
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Lompre, L. A.

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064  nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 21, L31–L35 (1988).
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Lompré, L. A.

X. F. Li, A. L’Huillier, M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, and G. Mainfray, “Multiple-harmonic generation in rare gases at high laser intensity,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 5751–5761 (1989).
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Loncar, M.

Luk, T. S.

Luu, T. T.

M. T. Hassan, T. T. Luu, A. Moulet, O. Raskazovskaya, P. Zhokhov, M. Garg, N. Karpowicz, A. M. Zheltikov, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Optical attosecond pulses and tracking the nonlinear response of bound electrons,” Nature 530, 66–70 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. T. Luu, M. Garg, S. Y. Kruchinin, A. Moulet, M. T. Hassan, and E. Goulielmakis, “Extreme ultraviolet high-harmonic spectroscopy of solids,” Nature 521, 498–502 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lytle, A. L.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) When pumped with mid-infrared light, the periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide glows with visible light. (b) The generated light, as dispersed with a prism and observed on white paper, reveals harmonic peaks across the visible and ultraviolet regions. (c) When pumped with 20-nJ, 200    fs pulses of 4100-nm light, the output spectrum consists of harmonics up to the 13th order (H13 at 315 nm).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) An illustration of the chip containing the lithium niobate (LN) waveguides on a lithium tantalate (LT) substrate. The pitch of the domain inversion periodic poling (shown as red and blue regions) changes along the length of the waveguide. The poling period is exaggerated for clarity; the waveguides contain several hundred poling periods. (b) Each waveguide has a different rate of chirp for the poling period.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Conversion efficiency of the harmonics (a) and the output spectrum (b) at various pump power levels. For these results, Waveguide #2 was pumped in the increasing-poling-period direction. (Note: Below 170 THz, the spectra were collected using a mid-infrared optical spectrum analyzer, which has a higher noise-floor.)
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Integrated power of each harmonic order as a function of the pump power. At lower powers, the harmonics show a perturbative behavior, scaling roughly with p n (dashed lines), where p is the pump power and n is the harmonic order. At higher powers, a non-perturbative scaling is observed. For H9, H10, and H11, a step is seen at approximately 10 mW, which corresponds to the situation where the discrete harmonics spectrally broaden and begin to merge together.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. PPLN waveguides pumped with 5-nJ pulses. (a) When pumped in the decreasing-poling-period direction, a smooth spectrum of even and odd harmonics is seen, with minimal changes between the waveguides. (b) When pumped in the increasing-poling-period direction, significant differences are seen between the different waveguides.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. PPLN waveguides pumped with 25-nJ pulses exhibit broader harmonic peaks. (a) When pumped in the decreasing-poling-period direction, small differences are seen between the various waveguides, mainly in the regions between the harmonic peaks. (b) When pumped in the increasing-poling-period direction, large differences are seen in the spectra produced from the various waveguides.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a)–(c) The top black curve shows the poling period of the chirped PPLN waveguides, while lower curves indicate the effective poling period achieved via 3rd-, 5th-, 7th-, 9th-, and 11th-order QPM. The horizontal lines indicate the poling period required for QPM of various sum-frequency generation (SFG) processes (Mechanism 1). The labels indicate the harmonic order produced, and (in parentheses) the harmonic order of the two photons consumed in the SFG process. If the line crosses a curve, QPM is achieved at this location. While many of the SFG processes experience QPM, none of the pathways for H6 are quasi-phase-matched for any of the waveguides. (d)–(f) The required poling period for QPM the direct-HHG processes are shown with horizontal lines. Odd grating orders (thick black curves) can provide QPM for even harmonics (thick lines), while even grating orders (thin gray curves) can provide QPM for odd-order harmonics (thin lines). In direct HHG (Mechanism 2) only odd grating orders (thick curves) are allowed, providing QPM only for even harmonics. In Mechanism 3 both odd and even grating orders are allowed, providing QPM for all harmonic orders in all of the waveguides.

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