Abstract

Infrared tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (IR-TDLAS) is an enabling technology for trace-gas detection, with applications ranging from air-quality monitoring to medical diagnostics. However, such sensors typically utilize discrete optical components that pose practical cost limits for large-scale network deployments. Here, we leverage silicon photonics technology to demonstrate IR-TDLAS on an integrated CMOS-compatible platform for methane (CH4) spectroscopy. Using near-IR (1650 nm) light from a distributed-feedback laser and an uncooled InGaAs detector, the evanescent optical field of a high-index contrast nanoscale silicon waveguide is used to probe ambient CH4, yielding Gaussian-noise-limited sub-100 parts-per-million by volume detection limits. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of chip-scale photonic integration for realizing compact, cost-effective, and versatile gas sensors capable of tackling diverse energy and environmental challenges, such as natural-gas leak quantification and localization for fugitive-emissions monitoring.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Mid-infrared dual-gas sensor for simultaneous detection of methane and ethane using a single continuous-wave interband cascade laser

Weilin Ye, Chunguang Li, Chuantao Zheng, Nancy P. Sanchez, Aleksander K. Gluszek, Arkadiusz J. Hudzikowski, Lei Dong, Robert J. Griffin, and Frank K. Tittel
Opt. Express 24(15) 16973-16985 (2016)

On-chip methane sensing by near-IR absorption signatures in a photonic crystal slot waveguide

Wei-Cheng Lai, Swapnajit Chakravarty, Xiaolong Wang, Cheyun Lin, and Ray T. Chen
Opt. Lett. 36(6) 984-986 (2011)

Methane detection at 1670-nm band using a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber and a multiline algorithm

A. M. Cubillas, M. Silva-Lopez, J. M. Lazaro, O. M. Conde, M. N. Petrovich, and J. M. Lopez-Higuera
Opt. Express 15(26) 17570-17576 (2007)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Hodgkinson and R. P. Tatam, Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 012004 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  2. B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  3. F. T. Dullo, S. Lindecrantz, J. Jágerská, J. H. Hansen, M. Engqvist, S. A. Solbø, and O. G. Hellesø, Opt. Express 23, 31564 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  4. T. H. Stievater, M. W. Pruessner, D. Park, W. S. Rabinovich, R. A. McGill, D. A. Kozak, R. Furstenberg, S. A. Holmstrom, and J. B. Khurgin, Opt. Lett. 39, 969 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  5. E. J. Zhang, L. Tombez, J. S. Orcutt, S. Kamlapurkar, G. Wysocki, and W. M. J. Green, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, San Jose, California, 2016, paper SF2H.1.
  6. P. Weibring, D. Richter, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, and C. Dyroff, Appl. Phys. B 85, 207 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  7. R. A. Alvarez, S. W. Pacala, J. J. Winebrake, W. L. Chameides, and S. P. Hamburg, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 6435 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  8. R. Soref, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1678 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. Densmore, D. X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delage, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. T. Robinson, K. Preston, O. Painter, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 16, 16659 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  11. V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  12. G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thompson, Nat. Photonics 4, 518 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  13. A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  14. N. Dupuis, A. V. Rylyakov, C. L. Schow, D. M. Kuchta, C. W. Baks, J. S. Orcutt, D. M. Gill, W. M. J. Green, and B. G. Lee, J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 615 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  15. A. Nitkowski, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 16, 11930 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  16. W. Lai, S. Chakravarty, X. Wang, C. Lin, and R. T. Chen, Opt. Lett. 36, 984 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  17. L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Barbe, N. Husson, C. P. Rinsland, and M. A. H. Smith, Appl. Opt. 26, 4058 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  18. S. W. Sharpe, T. J. Johnson, R. L. Sams, P. M. Chu, G. C. Rhoderick, and P. A. Johnson, Appl. Spectrosc. 58, 1452 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  19. L. Stern, B. Desiatov, I. Goykhman, and U. Levy, Nat. Commun. 4, 1548 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  20. T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, T. W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, Y. Martin, H. Numata, J.-W. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, E. L. Kimbrell, R. Leidy, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurkar, S. Engelmann, Y. A. Vlasov, and P. Fortier, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 455 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  21. A. J. Zilkie, P. Seddighian, B. J. Bijlani, W. Qian, D. C. Lee, S. Fathololoumi, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, B. J. Luff, X. Zheng, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, Opt. Express 20, 23456 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  22. R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, J. Opt. A 8, 840 (2006).
    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

2016 (1)

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, T. W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, Y. Martin, H. Numata, J.-W. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, E. L. Kimbrell, R. Leidy, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurkar, S. Engelmann, Y. A. Vlasov, and P. Fortier, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 455 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

2013 (2)

L. Stern, B. Desiatov, I. Goykhman, and U. Levy, Nat. Commun. 4, 1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Hodgkinson and R. P. Tatam, Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 012004 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thompson, Nat. Photonics 4, 518 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

2006 (4)

P. Weibring, D. Richter, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, and C. Dyroff, Appl. Phys. B 85, 207 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, J. Opt. A 8, 840 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1678 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Densmore, D. X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delage, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. W. Sharpe, T. J. Johnson, R. L. Sams, P. M. Chu, G. C. Rhoderick, and P. A. Johnson, Appl. Spectrosc. 58, 1452 (2004).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[Crossref]

Alvarez, R. A.

R. A. Alvarez, S. W. Pacala, J. J. Winebrake, W. L. Chameides, and S. P. Hamburg, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 6435 (2012).
[Crossref]

Asghari, M.

Baks, C. W.

Barbe, A.

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[Crossref]

Barwicz, T.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, T. W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, Y. Martin, H. Numata, J.-W. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, E. L. Kimbrell, R. Leidy, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurkar, S. Engelmann, Y. A. Vlasov, and P. Fortier, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 455 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bernhardt, B.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bijlani, B. J.

Boyer, N.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, T. W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, Y. Martin, H. Numata, J.-W. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, E. L. Kimbrell, R. Leidy, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurkar, S. Engelmann, Y. A. Vlasov, and P. Fortier, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 455 (2016).
[Crossref]

Brown, L. R.

Buchwald, W. R.

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, J. Opt. A 8, 840 (2006).
[Crossref]

Camy-Peyret, C.

Chakravarty, S.

Chameides, W. L.

R. A. Alvarez, S. W. Pacala, J. J. Winebrake, W. L. Chameides, and S. P. Hamburg, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 6435 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cheben, P.

A. Densmore, D. X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delage, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

Chen, R. T.

Chu, P. M.

Cohen, O.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cunningham, J. E.

Delage, A.

A. Densmore, D. X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delage, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[Crossref]

Densmore, A.

A. Densmore, D. X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delage, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[Crossref]

Desiatov, B.

L. Stern, B. Desiatov, I. Goykhman, and U. Levy, Nat. Commun. 4, 1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dullo, F. T.

Dupuis, N.

Dyroff, C.

P. Weibring, D. Richter, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, and C. Dyroff, Appl. Phys. B 85, 207 (2006).
[Crossref]

Emelett, S. J.

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, J. Opt. A 8, 840 (2006).
[Crossref]

Engelmann, S.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, T. W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, Y. Martin, H. Numata, J.-W. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, E. L. Kimbrell, R. Leidy, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurkar, S. Engelmann, Y. A. Vlasov, and P. Fortier, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 455 (2016).
[Crossref]

Engqvist, M.

Fathololoumi, S.

Feng, D.

Flaud, J.-M.

Fong, J.

Fortier, P.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, T. W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, Y. Martin, H. Numata, J.-W. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, E. L. Kimbrell, R. Leidy, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurkar, S. Engelmann, Y. A. Vlasov, and P. Fortier, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 455 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fried, A.

P. Weibring, D. Richter, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, and C. Dyroff, Appl. Phys. B 85, 207 (2006).
[Crossref]

Furstenberg, R.

Gamache, R. R.

Gardes, F. Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thompson, Nat. Photonics 4, 518 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gill, D. M.

Goldman, A.

Goykhman, I.

L. Stern, B. Desiatov, I. Goykhman, and U. Levy, Nat. Commun. 4, 1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

Green, W. M. J.

N. Dupuis, A. V. Rylyakov, C. L. Schow, D. M. Kuchta, C. W. Baks, J. S. Orcutt, D. M. Gill, W. M. J. Green, and B. G. Lee, J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 615 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. J. Zhang, L. Tombez, J. S. Orcutt, S. Kamlapurkar, G. Wysocki, and W. M. J. Green, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, San Jose, California, 2016, paper SF2H.1.

Guelachvili, G.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hamburg, S. P.

R. A. Alvarez, S. W. Pacala, J. J. Winebrake, W. L. Chameides, and S. P. Hamburg, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 6435 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hansch, T. W.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hansen, J. H.

Hellesø, O. G.

Hodgkinson, J.

J. Hodgkinson and R. P. Tatam, Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 012004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Holmstrom, S. A.

Holzwarth, R.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2010).
[Crossref]

Husson, N.

Jacquet, P.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jacquey, M.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jágerská, J.

Janta-Polczynski, A.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, T. W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, Y. Martin, H. Numata, J.-W. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, E. L. Kimbrell, R. Leidy, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurkar, S. Engelmann, Y. A. Vlasov, and P. Fortier, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 455 (2016).
[Crossref]

Janz, S.

A. Densmore, D. X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delage, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[Crossref]

Johnson, P. A.

Johnson, T. J.

Jones, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kamlapurkar, S.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, T. W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, Y. Martin, H. Numata, J.-W. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, E. L. Kimbrell, R. Leidy, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurkar, S. Engelmann, Y. A. Vlasov, and P. Fortier, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 455 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. J. Zhang, L. Tombez, J. S. Orcutt, S. Kamlapurkar, G. Wysocki, and W. M. J. Green, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, San Jose, California, 2016, paper SF2H.1.

Khater, M. H.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, T. W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, Y. Martin, H. Numata, J.-W. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, E. L. Kimbrell, R. Leidy, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurkar, S. Engelmann, Y. A. Vlasov, and P. Fortier, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 455 (2016).
[Crossref]

Khurgin, J. B.

Kimbrell, E. L.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, T. W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, Y. Martin, H. Numata, J.-W. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, E. L. Kimbrell, R. Leidy, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurkar, S. Engelmann, Y. A. Vlasov, and P. Fortier, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 455 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, Y.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kozak, D. A.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kuchta, D. M.

Lai, W.

Lamontagne, B.

A. Densmore, D. X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delage, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lapointe, J.

A. Densmore, D. X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delage, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, B. G.

Lee, D. C.

Leidy, R.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, T. W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, Y. Martin, H. Numata, J.-W. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, E. L. Kimbrell, R. Leidy, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurkar, S. Engelmann, Y. A. Vlasov, and P. Fortier, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 455 (2016).
[Crossref]

Levy, U.

L. Stern, B. Desiatov, I. Goykhman, and U. Levy, Nat. Commun. 4, 1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liao, L.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lichoulas, T. W.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, T. W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, Y. Martin, H. Numata, J.-W. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, E. L. Kimbrell, R. Leidy, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurkar, S. Engelmann, Y. A. Vlasov, and P. Fortier, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 455 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lin, C.

Lindecrantz, S.

Lipson, M.

Liu, A.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[Crossref]

Luff, B. J.

Martin, Y.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, T. W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, Y. Martin, H. Numata, J.-W. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, E. L. Kimbrell, R. Leidy, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurkar, S. Engelmann, Y. A. Vlasov, and P. Fortier, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 455 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thompson, Nat. Photonics 4, 518 (2010).
[Crossref]

McGill, R. A.

Nah, J.-W.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, T. W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, Y. Martin, H. Numata, J.-W. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, E. L. Kimbrell, R. Leidy, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurkar, S. Engelmann, Y. A. Vlasov, and P. Fortier, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 455 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nicolaescu, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nitkowski, A.

Numata, H.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, T. W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, Y. Martin, H. Numata, J.-W. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, E. L. Kimbrell, R. Leidy, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurkar, S. Engelmann, Y. A. Vlasov, and P. Fortier, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 455 (2016).
[Crossref]

Orcutt, J. S.

N. Dupuis, A. V. Rylyakov, C. L. Schow, D. M. Kuchta, C. W. Baks, J. S. Orcutt, D. M. Gill, W. M. J. Green, and B. G. Lee, J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 615 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. J. Zhang, L. Tombez, J. S. Orcutt, S. Kamlapurkar, G. Wysocki, and W. M. J. Green, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, San Jose, California, 2016, paper SF2H.1.

Ozawa, A.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pacala, S. W.

R. A. Alvarez, S. W. Pacala, J. J. Winebrake, W. L. Chameides, and S. P. Hamburg, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 6435 (2012).
[Crossref]

Painter, O.

Panepucci, R. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[Crossref]

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[Crossref]

Park, D.

Pickett, H. M.

Picque, N.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2010).
[Crossref]

Post, E.

A. Densmore, D. X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delage, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[Crossref]

Poynter, R. L.

Preston, K.

Pruessner, M. W.

Qian, W.

Rabinovich, W. S.

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thompson, Nat. Photonics 4, 518 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rhoderick, G. C.

Richter, D.

P. Weibring, D. Richter, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, and C. Dyroff, Appl. Phys. B 85, 207 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rinsland, C. P.

Robinson, J. T.

Rothman, L. S.

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rylyakov, A. V.

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sams, R. L.

Schmid, J. H.

A. Densmore, D. X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delage, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[Crossref]

Schow, C. L.

Seddighian, P.

Shafiiha, R.

Sharpe, S. W.

Smith, M. A. H.

Solbø, S. A.

Soref, R.

R. Soref, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1678 (2006).
[Crossref]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, J. Opt. A 8, 840 (2006).
[Crossref]

Stern, L.

L. Stern, B. Desiatov, I. Goykhman, and U. Levy, Nat. Commun. 4, 1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stievater, T. H.

Taira, Y.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, T. W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, Y. Martin, H. Numata, J.-W. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, E. L. Kimbrell, R. Leidy, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurkar, S. Engelmann, Y. A. Vlasov, and P. Fortier, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 455 (2016).
[Crossref]

Takenobu, S.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, T. W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, Y. Martin, H. Numata, J.-W. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, E. L. Kimbrell, R. Leidy, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurkar, S. Engelmann, Y. A. Vlasov, and P. Fortier, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 455 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tatam, R. P.

J. Hodgkinson and R. P. Tatam, Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 012004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Thompson, D. J.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thompson, Nat. Photonics 4, 518 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tombez, L.

E. J. Zhang, L. Tombez, J. S. Orcutt, S. Kamlapurkar, G. Wysocki, and W. M. J. Green, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, San Jose, California, 2016, paper SF2H.1.

Toth, R. A.

Udem, T.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vlasov, Y. A.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, T. W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, Y. Martin, H. Numata, J.-W. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, E. L. Kimbrell, R. Leidy, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurkar, S. Engelmann, Y. A. Vlasov, and P. Fortier, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 455 (2016).
[Crossref]

Waldron, P.

A. Densmore, D. X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delage, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[Crossref]

Walega, J. G.

P. Weibring, D. Richter, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, and C. Dyroff, Appl. Phys. B 85, 207 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Weibring, P.

P. Weibring, D. Richter, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, and C. Dyroff, Appl. Phys. B 85, 207 (2006).
[Crossref]

Winebrake, J. J.

R. A. Alvarez, S. W. Pacala, J. J. Winebrake, W. L. Chameides, and S. P. Hamburg, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 6435 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wysocki, G.

E. J. Zhang, L. Tombez, J. S. Orcutt, S. Kamlapurkar, G. Wysocki, and W. M. J. Green, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, San Jose, California, 2016, paper SF2H.1.

Xu, D. X.

A. Densmore, D. X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delage, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhang, E. J.

E. J. Zhang, L. Tombez, J. S. Orcutt, S. Kamlapurkar, G. Wysocki, and W. M. J. Green, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, San Jose, California, 2016, paper SF2H.1.

Zheng, X.

Zilkie, A. J.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

P. Weibring, D. Richter, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, and C. Dyroff, Appl. Phys. B 85, 207 (2006).
[Crossref]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Soref, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1678 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, T. W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, Y. Martin, H. Numata, J.-W. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, E. L. Kimbrell, R. Leidy, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurkar, S. Engelmann, Y. A. Vlasov, and P. Fortier, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 455 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Densmore, D. X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delage, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. A (1)

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, J. Opt. A 8, 840 (2006).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. Hodgkinson and R. P. Tatam, Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 012004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

L. Stern, B. Desiatov, I. Goykhman, and U. Levy, Nat. Commun. 4, 1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, Nat. Photonics 4, 55 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thompson, Nat. Photonics 4, 518 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[Crossref]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

R. A. Alvarez, S. W. Pacala, J. J. Winebrake, W. L. Chameides, and S. P. Hamburg, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 6435 (2012).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

E. J. Zhang, L. Tombez, J. S. Orcutt, S. Kamlapurkar, G. Wysocki, and W. M. J. Green, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, San Jose, California, 2016, paper SF2H.1.

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Supplement 1       Supplemental document

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic representation of the SPWAS. The evanescent field of the guided mode of a 10 cm SOI waveguide probes ambient CH4 via IR-TDLAS. The “paperclip” geometry is chosen as a spatially efficient configuration, occupying merely 16  mm2. (b) False-color cross section of the silicon waveguide. The dimensions are chosen to operate near the cutoff frequency, where the modal overlap Γ with the ambient air is enhanced. (c) Ey field profile of the waveguide’s fundamental TM mode, with dimensions optimized for large overlap Γ. (d) Absorption spectra retrieved from the HITRAN [17] and PNNL [18] databases, showing the low spectral cross talk between the selected R(4) 2ν3 CH4 transition and other common constituents of natural gas.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Apparatus for performance testing of the SPWAS, housed within a sealed chamber for controlled CH4 release studies. A 10 cm free-space fiber-coupled reference sensor is proximal to the SPWAS for measurement validation. The DFB laser is current-ramped at 100 Hz across the CH4 transition at 6057.1  cm1 and is fiber-coupled into the SPWAS where interaction with ambient CH4 occurs. Concurrent SPWAS and reference sensor measurements are performed using two InGaAs photodiodes, followed by signal digitization (NI-USB 6003) and postprocessing via spectral fitting. (b) Results of a dynamic etalon fitting-routine (DEF-R, see Supplement 1) for simultaneously acquired SPWAS and reference spectra (1.5 vol. % CH4), showing a modal overlap of Γ=25.4%.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) CH4 retrieval (5.7 s time resolution) from the SPWAS during a controlled gas release, showing good correspondence with the reference sensor. (b) CH4 peak absorption correlation between the SPWAS and the reference, indicating Γ=25.5%.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Zero-gas Allan-deviation stability analysis of the SPWAS, demonstrating Hz1/2 white-noise performance up to 103  s. The bandwidth-normalized sensitivity is 772  ppmv·Hz1/2, with sub-100 ppmv CH4 detection limits for averaging times of >1  min. This corresponds to 8.7×104  Hz1/2 minimum fractional absorption, consistent with conventional IR-TDLAS systems [1].

Metrics