Abstract

Chirped multilayer mirrors have permitted mode-locked lasers to routinely generate pulses in the sub-10 fs regime. Continuous progress in the design, manufacturing, and characterization of multilayer structures has led to ever more precise group-delay dispersion control over ever broader spectral ranges. The resultant few-cycle laser fields have opened the door to the generation and measurement of isolated attosecond pulses and led to the birth of attosecond metrology. Precision multilayer dispersion control over increasing bandwidth has gradually pushed the frontier of femtosecond technology to what has been thought to be its ultimate limit: the wave cycle of visible light, allowing routine generation of sub-100 attosecond pulses. Next-generation attosecond technology will be based on synthesized multi-octave waveforms; they are expected to advance the field in several ways: first, by permitting control of electronic motions with a force variable on the atomic time scale; second, by providing sub-femtosecond optical transients for attosecond nonlinear pump-probe spectroscopy; third, by producing attosecond pulses at Angstrom wavelengths, opening the door to four-dimensional imaging with atomic resolution in space and time. In this article, we address the enabling technology: chirped multilayers for spectral separation and recombination as well as precise dispersion control of multi-octave optical radiation spanning from the ultraviolet to the mid-infrared range. This cutting-edge optical technology provides the force engineerable on atomic-to-molecular time scales and brings about the next revolution in ultrafast science.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (4)

M. T. Hassan, T. T. Luu, A. Moulet, O. Raskazovskaya, P. Zhokhov, M. Garg, N. Karpowicz, A. M. Zheltikov, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Optical attosecond pulses and tracking the nonlinear response of bound electrons,” Nature 530, 66–70 (2016).
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S. Keiber, S. Sederberg, A. Schwarz, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and N. Karpowicz, “Electro-optic sampling of near-infrared waveforms,” Nat. Photonics 10, 159–162 (2016).
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O. Razskazovskaya, M. T. Hassan, T. Luu, E. Goulielmakis, and V. Pervak, “Efficient broadband highly dispersive HfO_2/SiO_2 multilayer mirror for pulse compression in near ultraviolet,” Opt. Express 24, 13628–13633 (2016).
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E. Fedulova, M. Trubetskov, T. Amotchkina, K. Fritsch, P. Baum, O. Pronin, and V. Pervak, “Kerr effect in multilayer dielectric coatings,” Opt. Express 24, 21802–21817 (2016).
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2015 (3)

O. Razskazovskaya, T. T. Luu, M. Trubetskov, E. Goulielmakis, and V. Pervak, “Nonlinear absorbance in dielectric multilayers,” Optica 2, 803–811 (2015).
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C. Manzoni, O. D. Mücke, G. Cirmi, S. Fang, J. Moses, S.-W. Huang, K.-H. Hong, G. Cerullo, and F. X. Kärtner, “Coherent pulse synthesis: towards sub-cycle optical waveforms,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 129–171 (2015).
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O. D. Mucke, S. Fang, G. Cirmi, G. M. Rossi, S.-H. Chia, H. Ye, Y. Yang, R. Mainz, C. Manzoni, P. Farinello, G. Cerullo, and F. X. Kartner, “Toward waveform nonlinear optics using multimillijoule sub-cycle waveform synthesizers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 1–12 (2015).
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2014 (5)

2013 (1)

2012 (8)

P. G. Antal and R. Szipöcs, “Relationships among group delay, energy storage, and loss in dispersive dielectric mirrors,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10, 053101 (2012).
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W. Schweinberger, A. Sommer, E. Bothschafter, J. Li, F. Krausz, R. Kienberger, and M. Schultze, “Waveform-controlled near-single-cycle milli-joule laser pulses generate sub-10  nm extreme ultraviolet continua,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3573–3575 (2012).
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A. V. Tikhonravov and M. K. Trubetskov, “Modern design tools and a new paradigm in optical coating design,” Appl. Opt. 51, 7319–7332 (2012).
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C. Bourassin-Bouchet, S. De Rossi, J. Wang, E. Meltchakov, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, S. Nannarone, and F. Delmotte, “Shaping of single-cycle sub-50-attosecond pulses with multilayer mirrors,” New J. Phys. 14, 023040 (2012).
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A. Guggenmos, M. Hofstetter, R. Rauhut, B. Nickel, E. Gullikson, and U. Kleineberg, “Aperiodic multilayer mirrors for attosecond soft x-ray pulses,” Proc. SPIE 8502, 850204 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. T. Hassan, A. Wirth, I. Grgura, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, J. Gagnon, V. Pervak, and E. Goulielmakis, “Invited article: attosecond photonics: synthesis and control of light transients,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 111301 (2012).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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S.-W. Huang, G. Cirmi, J. Moses, K.-H. Hong, S. Bhardwaj, J. R. Birge, L.-J. Chen, I. V. Kabakova, E. Li, B. J. Eggleton, G. Cerullo, and F. X. Kärtner, “Optical waveform synthesizer and its application to high-harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 45, 074009 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

S.-W. Huang, G. Cirmi, J. Moses, K.-H. Hong, S. Bhardwaj, J. R. Birge, L.-J. Chen, E. Li, B. J. Eggleton, G. Cerullo, and F. X. Kärtner, “High-energy pulse synthesis with sub-cycle waveform control for strong-field physics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 475–479 (2011).
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A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguras, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334, 195–200 (2011).
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V. Pervak, “Recent development and new ideas in the field of dispersive multilayer optics,” Appl. Opt. 50, C55–C61 (2011).
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M. Hofstetter, M. Schultze, M. Fiess, B. Dennhardt, A. Guggenmos, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, E. M. Gullikson, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Attosecond dispersion control by extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express 19, 1767–1776 (2011).
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G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčinas, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “90  GW peak power few-cycle mid-infrared pulses from an optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2755–2757 (2011).
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2010 (3)

C. A. Rivera, S. E. Bradforth, and G. Tempea, “Gires-Tournois interferometer type negative dispersion mirrors for deep ultraviolet pulse compression,” Opt. Express 18, 18615–18624 (2010).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “The attosecond nonlinear optics of bright coherent X-ray generation,” Nat. Photonics 4, 822–832 (2010).
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G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Synthesis of a single cycle of light with compact erbium-doped fibre technology,” Nat. Photonics 4, 33–36 (2010).
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2009 (2)

2008 (1)

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
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2007 (6)

2006 (4)

C. Vozzi, G. Cirmi, C. Manzoni, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, G. Sansone, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, and G. Cerullo, “High-energy, few-optical-cycle pulses at 1.5  m with passive carrier-envelope phase stabilization,” Opt. Express 14, 10109–10116 (2006).
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A. Verhoef, J. Seres, K. Schmid, Y. Nomura, G. Tempea, L. Veisz, and F. Krausz, “Compression of the pulses of a Ti:sapphire laser system to 5 femtoseconds at 0.2 terawatt level,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 513–517 (2006)
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G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
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F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023904 (2006).
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2005 (1)

2003 (1)

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Haensch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
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2002 (2)

N. Demirdöven, M. Khalil, O. Golonzka, and A. Tokmakoff, “Dispersion compensation with optical materials for compression of intense sub-100-fs mid-infrared pulses,” Opt. Lett. 27, 433–435 (2002).
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J. A. Gruetzmacher and N. F. Scherer, “Few-cycle mid-infrared pulse generation, characterization, and coherent propagation in optically dense media,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2227–2236 (2002).
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2001 (6)

R. Ell, U. Morgner, F. X. Kãârtner, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, T. Tschudi, M. J. Lederer, A. Boiko, and B. Luther-Davies, “Generation of 5-fs pulses and octave-spanning spectra directly from a Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 26, 373–375 (2001).
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F. X. Kärtner, U. Morgner, R. Ell, T. Schibli, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, “Ultrabroadband double-chirped mirror pairs for generation of octave spectra,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 882–885 (2001).
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G. Tempea, V. Yakovlev, B. Bacovic, F. Krausz, and K. Ferencz, “Tilted-front-interface chirped mirrors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1747–1750 (2001).
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P. Paul, E. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
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M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
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R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent optical pulse synthesis from separate femtosecond lasers,” Science 293, 1286–1289 (2001).
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2000 (3)

N. Matuschek, L. Gallmann, D. Sutter, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, “Back-side-coated chirped mirrors with ultra-smooth broadband dispersion characteristics,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 509–522 (2000).
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A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929–1960 (2000).
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F. Verluise, V. Laude, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, and P. Tournois, “Amplitude and phase control of ultrashort pulses by use of an acousto-optic programmable dispersive filter: pulse compression and shaping,” Opt. Lett. 25, 575–577 (2000).
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1998 (4)

N. Matuschek, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Theory of double-chirped mirrors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 197–208 (1998).
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G. Tempea, F. Krausz, C. Spielmann, and K. Ferencz, “Dispersion control over 150  THz with chirped dielectric mirrors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 193–196 (1998).
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C. Iaconis and I. Walmsley, “Spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23, 792–794 (1998).
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R. DeSalvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n 2 in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324–1333 (1996).
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1981 (1)

R. L. Fork, “Generation of optical pulses shorter than 0.1  psec by colliding pulse mode locking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 671–673 (1981).
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E. Ippen, “Passive mode locking of the cw dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 348–350 (1972).
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1969 (1)

E. Treacy, “Optical pulse compression with difraction gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 5, 454–458 (1969).
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1966 (1)

A. J. DeMaria, “Self mode-locking of lasers with saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 174–176 (1966).
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P. Paul, E. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
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Ahmad, I.

Aközbek, N.

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023904 (2006).
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Alahmed, Z. A.

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguras, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334, 195–200 (2011).
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Alisauskas, S.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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Ališauskas, S.

Alismail, A.

Alsaif, B.

Altucci, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
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Amotchkina, T.

Andriukaitis, G.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčinas, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “90  GW peak power few-cycle mid-infrared pulses from an optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2755–2757 (2011).
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Angelov, I. B.

V. Pervak, O. Razskazovskaya, I. B. Angelov, K. L. Vodopyanov, and M. Trubetskov, “Dispersive mirror technology for ultrafast lasers in the range 220-4500  nm,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3, 55–63 (2014).

I. B. Angelov, M. von Pechmann, M. K. Trubetskov, F. Krausz, and V. Pervak, “Optical breakdown of multilayer thin-films induced by ultrashort pulses at MHz repetition rates,” Opt. Express 21, 31453–31461 (2013).
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Angelow, G.

Antal, P. G.

Apolonski, A.

V. Pervak, A. Tikhonravov, M. Trubetskov, S. Naumov, F. Krausz, and A. Apolonski, “1.5-octave chirped mirror for pulse compression down to sub-3  fs,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 5–12 (2007).
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V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and A. Apolonski, “Hafnium oxide thin films deposited by reactive middle-frequency dual-magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 515, 7984–7989 (2007).
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Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
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Arisholm, G.

Arpin, P.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “The attosecond nonlinear optics of bright coherent X-ray generation,” Nat. Photonics 4, 822–832 (2010).
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Asaki, M. T.

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref]

Auge, F.

P. Paul, E. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref]

Avaldi, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref]

Azzeer, A. M.

Backus, S.

Bacovic, B.

Balcinas, T.

Balciunas, T.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref]

Balcou, P.

P. Paul, E. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref]

Baltuska, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčinas, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “90  GW peak power few-cycle mid-infrared pulses from an optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2755–2757 (2011).
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X. Gu, G. Marcus, Y. Deng, T. Metzger, C. Teisset, N. Ishii, T. Fuji, A. Baltuska, R. Butkus, V. Pervak, H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, T. Kobayashi, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Generation of carrier-envelope-phase-stable 2-cycle 740-J pulses at 2.1-m carrier wavelength,” Opt. Express 17, 62–69 (2009).
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A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Haensch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[Crossref]

Barros, H. G.

Baum, P.

Becker, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023904 (2006).
[Crossref]

Benedetti, E.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Vozzi, G. Cirmi, C. Manzoni, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, G. Sansone, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, and G. Cerullo, “High-energy, few-optical-cycle pulses at 1.5  m with passive carrier-envelope phase stabilization,” Opt. Express 14, 10109–10116 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bhardwaj, S.

S.-W. Huang, G. Cirmi, J. Moses, K.-H. Hong, S. Bhardwaj, J. R. Birge, L.-J. Chen, I. V. Kabakova, E. Li, B. J. Eggleton, G. Cerullo, and F. X. Kärtner, “Optical waveform synthesizer and its application to high-harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 45, 074009 (2012).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Huang, G. Cirmi, J. Moses, K.-H. Hong, S. Bhardwaj, J. R. Birge, L.-J. Chen, E. Li, B. J. Eggleton, G. Cerullo, and F. X. Kärtner, “High-energy pulse synthesis with sub-cycle waveform control for strong-field physics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 475–479 (2011).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Dichroic beam splitters for optical waveform synthesis. (a) Class of dichroic beam splitters for separation of ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared bands in the passive synthesizer in [43]. (b) Class of dichroic beam splitters for separation of visible and near-infrared bands in the passive and active synthesizers under development. Solid curves, designed reflectance; dotted curves, designed GD.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Dispersion targets developed based on the phase compensation (red curve) and material compensation (dark blue curve) approach. The vertical offset is introduced for illustration purposes.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Hybrid dispersion target approach for the design of the visible and near-infrared dispersive mirrors. (a) Hybrid dispersion target for the design of visible and near-infrared dispersive mirrors. (b) Pulse compression with hybrid target. Black curve shows spectral phase of the 15 fs pulse achieved with material compensation only. Blue curve shows spectral phase of the 6.1 fs pulse ( FTL = 6    fs ) achieved with hybrid compensation.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Dispersive multilayers in visible spectral range. (a) Dispersive multilayer developed upon phase compensation dispersion target. (b) Dispersive multilayer developed upon material compensation dispersion target. Black solid curves, designed reflectance/GD; dotted red curve, measured reflectance; dotted blue curve, measured GD.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Gaining control over induced nonlinear effects. (a) Solid curves, designed reflectance of the non-optimized multilayer mirror without (gray) and with (blue) nonlinear absorptance taken into account, and of the optimized design with nonlinear absorptance taken into account (red). Working intensity is 0.25 * 10 10    W / cm 2 . Dotted curves, designed GD of the optimized (red) and non-optimized (blue) mirrors. Vertical offset of the GD curves is for illustration purposes. (b) Layer sequence of the non-optimized mirror. (c) Layer sequence of the optimized mirror. Figures (b), (c), and partially (a) reproduced from [75].
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Gaining control over induced nonlinear effects: distribution of the electric field inside the multilayer structures. (a) Electric field distribution inside the non-optimized dispersive multilayer stack. (b) Electric field distribution inside the optimized dispersive multilayer stack. Dark yellow bands, high-index material; brown bands, low-index material.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Dispersive multilayers in the infrared spectral range designed to compensate the material dispersion of 0.25 mm Si to the lowest order. (a) Dispersion target and design imitating 0.25 mm Si. (b) Dispersion target and design introducing second-order identical to 0.25 mm Si, yet with negative third-order dispersion. Gray, dark gray curves, the designed GD curves of an individual mirror of the mirror pair; red curve, resulting designed averaged GD; gray, dark gray curves, reflectance of the individual mirror of the mirror pair; blue curve, resulting averaged reflectance.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Dispersive multilayers spanning over three optical octaves developed and produced for OWS. (a) Chirped mirrors developed and produced for the passive OWS in [43,91]. (b) Chirped mirrors under development and production for the passive and active infrared OWSs. Solid curves, designed reflectance; dotted curves, designed GD.

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