Abstract

Silicon-germanium (Si–Ge)-based avalanche photodiodes (APDs) have shown a significant improvement in receiver sensitivity compared to their III–V counterparts due to the superior impact ionization property of silicon. However, conventional Si–Ge APDs typically operate at high voltages and low speed, limiting the application of this technology to data communication. In this paper, we present a waveguide Si–Ge avalanche photodiode using a thin silicon multiplication region with a breakdown voltage of 10  V, a speed of 25 GHz, and a gain-bandwidth product (GBP) of 276 GHz. At 1550 nm, sensitivities of 25  dBm and 16  dBm are achieved at 12.5 Gbps and 25 Gbps, respectively. This design will enable implementation of Si–Ge APDs for optical interconnects in data centers and high-performance computers, allowing significant reductions in aggregate system laser power (and therefore cost).

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2015 (5)

Y. Dong, W. Wang, X. Xu, X. Gong, D. Lei, Q. Zhou, Z. Xu, W. K. Loke, S.-F. Yoon, G. Liang, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium-tin on Si avalanche photodiode: device design and technology demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 62, 128–135 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, B. Moeneclaey, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “25-Gb/s 1310-nm optical receiver based on a sub-5-V waveguide-coupled germanium avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 1–9 (2015).

J. S. Cheong, M. M. Hayat, X. Zhou, and J. P. David, “Relating the experimental ionization coefficients in semiconductors to the nonlocal ionization coefficients,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 62, 1946–1952 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “High sensitivity 10  Gb/s Si photonic receiver based on a low-voltage waveguide-coupled Ge avalanche photodetector,” Opt. Express 23, 815–822 (2015).

Y. Li, Y. Zhang, L. Zhang, and A. W. Poon, “Silicon and optical receiver based on hybrid silicon photonic devices for intra-datacenter applications: state of the art and perspectives [invited],” Photon. Res. 3, B10–B27 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8, 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

J. Joo, S. Kim, I. G. Kim, K.-S. Jang, and G. Kim, “High-sensitivity 10  Gbps Ge-on-Si photoreceiver operating at 1.55  μm,” Opt. Express 18, 16474–16479 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and J. D. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4, 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464, 80–84 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (5)

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340  GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3, 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration,” Appl. Phys. A 95, 989–997 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42  GHz pin germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17, 6252–6257 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

2005 (1)

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433, 725–728 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 777–787 (2004).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

R. McIntyre, “Multiplication noise in uniform avalanche diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-13, 164–168 (1966).
[Crossref]

Absil, P.

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, B. Moeneclaey, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “25-Gb/s 1310-nm optical receiver based on a sub-5-V waveguide-coupled germanium avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 1–9 (2015).

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “High sensitivity 10  Gb/s Si photonic receiver based on a low-voltage waveguide-coupled Ge avalanche photodetector,” Opt. Express 23, 815–822 (2015).

Ahn, J.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration,” Appl. Phys. A 95, 989–997 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” in Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper ITuD2.

Ahn, J. H.

J. H. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, M. McLaren, and R. S. Schreiber, “Hyperx: topology, routing, and packaging of efficient large-scale networks,” in Proceedings of the Conference on High Performance Computing Networking, Storage and Analysis (ACM, 2009), p. 41.

Asghari, M.

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Assefa, S.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464, 80–84 (2010).
[Crossref]

Baldi, D.

E. Temporiti, G. Minoia, M. Repossi, D. Baldi, A. Ghilioni, and F. Svelto, “A 3D-Integrated 25  Gbps silicon photonics receiver in PIC25G and 65  nm CMOS technologies,” in European Solid State Circuits Conference (ESSCIRC) (IEEE, 2014), pp. 131–134.

Bauwelinck, J.

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, B. Moeneclaey, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “25-Gb/s 1310-nm optical receiver based on a sub-5-V waveguide-coupled germanium avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 1–9 (2015).

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “High sensitivity 10  Gb/s Si photonic receiver based on a low-voltage waveguide-coupled Ge avalanche photodetector,” Opt. Express 23, 815–822 (2015).

Beausoleil, R. G.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration,” Appl. Phys. A 95, 989–997 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” in Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper ITuD2.

Beck, A.

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in telecommunications avalanche photodiodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 109–121 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 777–787 (2004).
[Crossref]

Beck, J. D.

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in telecommunications avalanche photodiodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 109–121 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 777–787 (2004).
[Crossref]

Beling, A.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340  GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3, 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Binkert, N.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration,” Appl. Phys. A 95, 989–997 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. H. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, M. McLaren, and R. S. Schreiber, “Hyperx: topology, routing, and packaging of efficient large-scale networks,” in Proceedings of the Conference on High Performance Computing Networking, Storage and Analysis (ACM, 2009), p. 41.

R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” in Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper ITuD2.

Boeuf, F.

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340  GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3, 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Brock, B.

M. Ware, K. Rajamani, M. Floyd, B. Brock, J. C. Rubio, F. Rawson, and J. B. Carter, “Architecting for power management: the IBM POWER7 approach,” in International Symposium on High Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–11.

Cai, P.

M. Huang, P. Cai, S. Li, L. Wang, T.-I. Su, L. Zhao, W. Chen, C.-Y. Hong, and D. Pan, “Breakthrough of 25  Gb/s germanium on silicon avalanche photodiode,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Tu2D–2.

Campbell, J. C.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340  GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3, 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in telecommunications avalanche photodiodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 109–121 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 777–787 (2004).
[Crossref]

Capellini, G.

G. Masini, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “A four-channel, 10  Gbps monolithic optical receiver in 130  nm CMOS with integrated Ge waveguide photodetectors,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper PDP31.

Carter, J. B.

M. Ware, K. Rajamani, M. Floyd, B. Brock, J. C. Rubio, F. Rawson, and J. B. Carter, “Architecting for power management: the IBM POWER7 approach,” in International Symposium on High Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–11.

Cassan, E.

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42  GHz pin germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17, 6252–6257 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chaisakul, P.

P. Chaisakul, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8, 482–488 (2014).
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K. Yu, C.-H. Chen, A. Titriku, A. Shafik, M. Fiorentino, P. Y. Chiang, and S. Palermo, “25 Gb/s hybrid-integrated silicon photonic receiver with microring wavelength stabilization,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper W3A–6.

Chen, H.

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, B. Moeneclaey, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “25-Gb/s 1310-nm optical receiver based on a sub-5-V waveguide-coupled germanium avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 1–9 (2015).

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “High sensitivity 10  Gb/s Si photonic receiver based on a low-voltage waveguide-coupled Ge avalanche photodetector,” Opt. Express 23, 815–822 (2015).

Chen, H.-W.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340  GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3, 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

M. Huang, P. Cai, S. Li, L. Wang, T.-I. Su, L. Zhao, W. Chen, C.-Y. Hong, and D. Pan, “Breakthrough of 25  Gb/s germanium on silicon avalanche photodiode,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Tu2D–2.

Cheong, J. S.

J. S. Cheong, M. M. Hayat, X. Zhou, and J. P. David, “Relating the experimental ionization coefficients in semiconductors to the nonlocal ionization coefficients,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 62, 1946–1952 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chiang, P. Y.

K. Yu, C.-H. Chen, A. Titriku, A. Shafik, M. Fiorentino, P. Y. Chiang, and S. Palermo, “25 Gb/s hybrid-integrated silicon photonic receiver with microring wavelength stabilization,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper W3A–6.

Choi, K.-S.

Cohen, O.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433, 725–728 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref]

Coldren, L. A.

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in telecommunications avalanche photodiodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 109–121 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 777–787 (2004).
[Crossref]

Crozat, P.

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42  GHz pin germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17, 6252–6257 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cunningham, J.

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Damlencourt, J.-F.

David, J. P.

J. S. Cheong, M. M. Hayat, X. Zhou, and J. P. David, “Relating the experimental ionization coefficients in semiconductors to the nonlocal ionization coefficients,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 62, 1946–1952 (2015).
[Crossref]

Davis, A.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration,” Appl. Phys. A 95, 989–997 (2009).
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J. H. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, M. McLaren, and R. S. Schreiber, “Hyperx: topology, routing, and packaging of efficient large-scale networks,” in Proceedings of the Conference on High Performance Computing Networking, Storage and Analysis (ACM, 2009), p. 41.

R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” in Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper ITuD2.

De Coster, J.

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, B. Moeneclaey, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “25-Gb/s 1310-nm optical receiver based on a sub-5-V waveguide-coupled germanium avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 1–9 (2015).

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “High sensitivity 10  Gb/s Si photonic receiver based on a low-voltage waveguide-coupled Ge avalanche photodetector,” Opt. Express 23, 815–822 (2015).

De Heyn, P.

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “High sensitivity 10  Gb/s Si photonic receiver based on a low-voltage waveguide-coupled Ge avalanche photodetector,” Opt. Express 23, 815–822 (2015).

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, B. Moeneclaey, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “25-Gb/s 1310-nm optical receiver based on a sub-5-V waveguide-coupled germanium avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 1–9 (2015).

Decobert, J.

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in telecommunications avalanche photodiodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 109–121 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 777–787 (2004).
[Crossref]

Demiguel, S.

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in telecommunications avalanche photodiodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 109–121 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 777–787 (2004).
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DeRose, C. T.

Ding, L.

Dolores-Calzadilla, V.

D. Heiss, A. Higuera-Rodriguez, V. Dolores-Calzadilla, A. Fiore, and M. Smit, “Towards efficient densely integrated lasers,” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–4.

Dong, P.

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dong, Y.

Y. Dong, W. Wang, X. Xu, X. Gong, D. Lei, Q. Zhou, Z. Xu, W. K. Loke, S.-F. Yoon, G. Liang, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium-tin on Si avalanche photodiode: device design and technology demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 62, 128–135 (2015).
[Crossref]

Duan, N.

Fang, A.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433, 725–728 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fattal, D.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration,” Appl. Phys. A 95, 989–997 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” in Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper ITuD2.

Fédéli, J.-M.

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42  GHz pin germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17, 6252–6257 (2009).
[Crossref]

Feng, D.

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Feng, N.-N.

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fiore, A.

D. Heiss, A. Higuera-Rodriguez, V. Dolores-Calzadilla, A. Fiore, and M. Smit, “Towards efficient densely integrated lasers,” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–4.

Fiorentino, M.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration,” Appl. Phys. A 95, 989–997 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” in Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper ITuD2.

K. Yu, C.-H. Chen, A. Titriku, A. Shafik, M. Fiorentino, P. Y. Chiang, and S. Palermo, “25 Gb/s hybrid-integrated silicon photonic receiver with microring wavelength stabilization,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper W3A–6.

Floyd, M.

M. Ware, K. Rajamani, M. Floyd, B. Brock, J. C. Rubio, F. Rawson, and J. B. Carter, “Architecting for power management: the IBM POWER7 approach,” in International Symposium on High Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–11.

Fong, J.

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
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Gardes, F. Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and J. D. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4, 518–526 (2010).
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Ghilioni, A.

E. Temporiti, G. Minoia, M. Repossi, D. Baldi, A. Ghilioni, and F. Svelto, “A 3D-Integrated 25  Gbps silicon photonics receiver in PIC25G and 65  nm CMOS technologies,” in European Solid State Circuits Conference (ESSCIRC) (IEEE, 2014), pp. 131–134.

Gong, X.

Y. Dong, W. Wang, X. Xu, X. Gong, D. Lei, Q. Zhou, Z. Xu, W. K. Loke, S.-F. Yoon, G. Liang, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium-tin on Si avalanche photodiode: device design and technology demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 62, 128–135 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gunn, C.

G. Masini, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “A four-channel, 10  Gbps monolithic optical receiver in 130  nm CMOS with integrated Ge waveguide photodetectors,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper PDP31.

Guo, X.

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in telecommunications avalanche photodiodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 109–121 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 777–787 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hak, D.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433, 725–728 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, J.-M.

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hayat, M. M.

J. S. Cheong, M. M. Hayat, X. Zhou, and J. P. David, “Relating the experimental ionization coefficients in semiconductors to the nonlocal ionization coefficients,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 62, 1946–1952 (2015).
[Crossref]

Heiss, D.

D. Heiss, A. Higuera-Rodriguez, V. Dolores-Calzadilla, A. Fiore, and M. Smit, “Towards efficient densely integrated lasers,” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–4.

Higuera-Rodriguez, A.

D. Heiss, A. Higuera-Rodriguez, V. Dolores-Calzadilla, A. Fiore, and M. Smit, “Towards efficient densely integrated lasers,” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–4.

Hong, C.-Y.

M. Huang, P. Cai, S. Li, L. Wang, T.-I. Su, L. Zhao, W. Chen, C.-Y. Hong, and D. Pan, “Breakthrough of 25  Gb/s germanium on silicon avalanche photodiode,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Tu2D–2.

Huang, M.

M. Huang, P. Cai, S. Li, L. Wang, T.-I. Su, L. Zhao, W. Chen, C.-Y. Hong, and D. Pan, “Breakthrough of 25  Gb/s germanium on silicon avalanche photodiode,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Tu2D–2.

Huntington, A.

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in telecommunications avalanche photodiodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 109–121 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 777–787 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jang, K.-S.

Jones, R.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433, 725–728 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref]

Joo, J.

Jouppi, N. P.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration,” Appl. Phys. A 95, 989–997 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” in Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper ITuD2.

Kang, Y.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340  GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3, 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Kang and H.-D. Liu, “Avalanche photodiode with low breakdown voltage,” U.S. patent application 13/976,379 (June 5, 2014).

Kim, G.

Kim, I. G.

Kim, S.

Kim, S. A.

Kinch, M. A.

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in telecommunications avalanche photodiodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 109–121 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 777–787 (2004).
[Crossref]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kung, C.-C.

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kuo, Y.-H.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340  GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3, 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Laval, S.

Lecunff, Y.

Lei, D.

Y. Dong, W. Wang, X. Xu, X. Gong, D. Lei, Q. Zhou, Z. Xu, W. K. Loke, S.-F. Yoon, G. Liang, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium-tin on Si avalanche photodiode: device design and technology demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 62, 128–135 (2015).
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H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, B. Moeneclaey, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “25-Gb/s 1310-nm optical receiver based on a sub-5-V waveguide-coupled germanium avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 1–9 (2015).

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “High sensitivity 10  Gb/s Si photonic receiver based on a low-voltage waveguide-coupled Ge avalanche photodetector,” Opt. Express 23, 815–822 (2015).

Li, S.

M. Huang, P. Cai, S. Li, L. Wang, T.-I. Su, L. Zhao, W. Chen, C.-Y. Hong, and D. Pan, “Breakthrough of 25  Gb/s germanium on silicon avalanche photodiode,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Tu2D–2.

Li, X.

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in telecommunications avalanche photodiodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 109–121 (2007).
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D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
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H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433, 725–728 (2005).
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A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
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Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340  GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3, 59–63 (2009).
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J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in telecommunications avalanche photodiodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 109–121 (2007).
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J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 777–787 (2004).
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Marris-Morini, D.

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Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340  GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3, 59–63 (2009).
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J. H. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, M. McLaren, and R. S. Schreiber, “Hyperx: topology, routing, and packaging of efficient large-scale networks,” in Proceedings of the Conference on High Performance Computing Networking, Storage and Analysis (ACM, 2009), p. 41.

R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” in Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper ITuD2.

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Moeneclaey, B.

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, B. Moeneclaey, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “25-Gb/s 1310-nm optical receiver based on a sub-5-V waveguide-coupled germanium avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 1–9 (2015).

Morse, M.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340  GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3, 59–63 (2009).
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Nicolaescu, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
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Oh, J. H.

Osmond, J.

Palermo, S.

K. Yu, C.-H. Chen, A. Titriku, A. Shafik, M. Fiorentino, P. Y. Chiang, and S. Palermo, “25 Gb/s hybrid-integrated silicon photonic receiver with microring wavelength stabilization,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper W3A–6.

Pan, D.

M. Huang, P. Cai, S. Li, L. Wang, T.-I. Su, L. Zhao, W. Chen, C.-Y. Hong, and D. Pan, “Breakthrough of 25  Gb/s germanium on silicon avalanche photodiode,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Tu2D–2.

Paniccia, M.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433, 725–728 (2005).
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A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
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Paniccia, M. J.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340  GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3, 59–63 (2009).
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Pauchard, A.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340  GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3, 59–63 (2009).
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M. Ware, K. Rajamani, M. Floyd, B. Brock, J. C. Rubio, F. Rawson, and J. B. Carter, “Architecting for power management: the IBM POWER7 approach,” in International Symposium on High Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–11.

Rawson, F.

M. Ware, K. Rajamani, M. Floyd, B. Brock, J. C. Rubio, F. Rawson, and J. B. Carter, “Architecting for power management: the IBM POWER7 approach,” in International Symposium on High Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–11.

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and J. D. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4, 518–526 (2010).
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Repossi, M.

E. Temporiti, G. Minoia, M. Repossi, D. Baldi, A. Ghilioni, and F. Svelto, “A 3D-Integrated 25  Gbps silicon photonics receiver in PIC25G and 65  nm CMOS technologies,” in European Solid State Circuits Conference (ESSCIRC) (IEEE, 2014), pp. 131–134.

Roelkens, G.

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, B. Moeneclaey, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “25-Gb/s 1310-nm optical receiver based on a sub-5-V waveguide-coupled germanium avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 1–9 (2015).

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “High sensitivity 10  Gb/s Si photonic receiver based on a low-voltage waveguide-coupled Ge avalanche photodetector,” Opt. Express 23, 815–822 (2015).

Rong, H.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433, 725–728 (2005).
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Rubin, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
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Rubio, J. C.

M. Ware, K. Rajamani, M. Floyd, B. Brock, J. C. Rubio, F. Rawson, and J. B. Carter, “Architecting for power management: the IBM POWER7 approach,” in International Symposium on High Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–11.

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
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R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” in Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper ITuD2.

Santori, C. M.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration,” Appl. Phys. A 95, 989–997 (2009).
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Sarid, G.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340  GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3, 59–63 (2009).
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Schmidt, B.

Schreiber, R. S.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration,” Appl. Phys. A 95, 989–997 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. H. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, M. McLaren, and R. S. Schreiber, “Hyperx: topology, routing, and packaging of efficient large-scale networks,” in Proceedings of the Conference on High Performance Computing Networking, Storage and Analysis (ACM, 2009), p. 41.

R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” in Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper ITuD2.

Shafiiha, R.

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
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Shafik, A.

K. Yu, C.-H. Chen, A. Titriku, A. Shafik, M. Fiorentino, P. Y. Chiang, and S. Palermo, “25 Gb/s hybrid-integrated silicon photonic receiver with microring wavelength stabilization,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper W3A–6.

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Smit, M.

D. Heiss, A. Higuera-Rodriguez, V. Dolores-Calzadilla, A. Fiore, and M. Smit, “Towards efficient densely integrated lasers,” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–4.

Smith, R.

R. Smith and S. Personick, “Receiver design for optical fiber communication systems,” in “Semiconductor Devices for Optical Communication,” (Springer, 1982), pp. 89–160.

Spillane, S. M.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration,” Appl. Phys. A 95, 989–997 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” in Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper ITuD2.

Su, T.-I.

M. Huang, P. Cai, S. Li, L. Wang, T.-I. Su, L. Zhao, W. Chen, C.-Y. Hong, and D. Pan, “Breakthrough of 25  Gb/s germanium on silicon avalanche photodiode,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Tu2D–2.

Svelto, F.

E. Temporiti, G. Minoia, M. Repossi, D. Baldi, A. Ghilioni, and F. Svelto, “A 3D-Integrated 25  Gbps silicon photonics receiver in PIC25G and 65  nm CMOS technologies,” in European Solid State Circuits Conference (ESSCIRC) (IEEE, 2014), pp. 131–134.

Temporiti, E.

E. Temporiti, G. Minoia, M. Repossi, D. Baldi, A. Ghilioni, and F. Svelto, “A 3D-Integrated 25  Gbps silicon photonics receiver in PIC25G and 65  nm CMOS technologies,” in European Solid State Circuits Conference (ESSCIRC) (IEEE, 2014), pp. 131–134.

Thomson, J. D.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and J. D. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4, 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Titriku, A.

K. Yu, C.-H. Chen, A. Titriku, A. Shafik, M. Fiorentino, P. Y. Chiang, and S. Palermo, “25 Gb/s hybrid-integrated silicon photonic receiver with microring wavelength stabilization,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper W3A–6.

Tscherptner, N.

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in telecommunications avalanche photodiodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 109–121 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 777–787 (2004).
[Crossref]

Van Campenhout, J.

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, B. Moeneclaey, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “25-Gb/s 1310-nm optical receiver based on a sub-5-V waveguide-coupled germanium avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 1–9 (2015).

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “High sensitivity 10  Gb/s Si photonic receiver based on a low-voltage waveguide-coupled Ge avalanche photodetector,” Opt. Express 23, 815–822 (2015).

Vantrease, D.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration,” Appl. Phys. A 95, 989–997 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” in Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper ITuD2.

Verbist, J.

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, B. Moeneclaey, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “25-Gb/s 1310-nm optical receiver based on a sub-5-V waveguide-coupled germanium avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 1–9 (2015).

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “High sensitivity 10  Gb/s Si photonic receiver based on a low-voltage waveguide-coupled Ge avalanche photodetector,” Opt. Express 23, 815–822 (2015).

Verheyen, P.

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “High sensitivity 10  Gb/s Si photonic receiver based on a low-voltage waveguide-coupled Ge avalanche photodetector,” Opt. Express 23, 815–822 (2015).

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, B. Moeneclaey, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “25-Gb/s 1310-nm optical receiver based on a sub-5-V waveguide-coupled germanium avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 1–9 (2015).

Virot, L.

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vivien, L.

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42  GHz pin germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17, 6252–6257 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vlasov, Y. A.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464, 80–84 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

M. Huang, P. Cai, S. Li, L. Wang, T.-I. Su, L. Zhao, W. Chen, C.-Y. Hong, and D. Pan, “Breakthrough of 25  Gb/s germanium on silicon avalanche photodiode,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Tu2D–2.

Wang, S.

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in telecommunications avalanche photodiodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 109–121 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 777–787 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.

Y. Dong, W. Wang, X. Xu, X. Gong, D. Lei, Q. Zhou, Z. Xu, W. K. Loke, S.-F. Yoon, G. Liang, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium-tin on Si avalanche photodiode: device design and technology demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 62, 128–135 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ware, M.

M. Ware, K. Rajamani, M. Floyd, B. Brock, J. C. Rubio, F. Rawson, and J. B. Carter, “Architecting for power management: the IBM POWER7 approach,” in International Symposium on High Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–11.

Witzens, J.

G. Masini, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “A four-channel, 10  Gbps monolithic optical receiver in 130  nm CMOS with integrated Ge waveguide photodetectors,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper PDP31.

Xia, F.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464, 80–84 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration,” Appl. Phys. A 95, 989–997 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5  Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 15, 430–436 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” in Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper ITuD2.

Xu, X.

Y. Dong, W. Wang, X. Xu, X. Gong, D. Lei, Q. Zhou, Z. Xu, W. K. Loke, S.-F. Yoon, G. Liang, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium-tin on Si avalanche photodiode: device design and technology demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 62, 128–135 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

Y. Dong, W. Wang, X. Xu, X. Gong, D. Lei, Q. Zhou, Z. Xu, W. K. Loke, S.-F. Yoon, G. Liang, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium-tin on Si avalanche photodiode: device design and technology demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 62, 128–135 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yeo, Y.-C.

Y. Dong, W. Wang, X. Xu, X. Gong, D. Lei, Q. Zhou, Z. Xu, W. K. Loke, S.-F. Yoon, G. Liang, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium-tin on Si avalanche photodiode: device design and technology demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 62, 128–135 (2015).
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H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, B. Moeneclaey, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “25-Gb/s 1310-nm optical receiver based on a sub-5-V waveguide-coupled germanium avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 1–9 (2015).

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “High sensitivity 10  Gb/s Si photonic receiver based on a low-voltage waveguide-coupled Ge avalanche photodetector,” Opt. Express 23, 815–822 (2015).

Yoon, S.-F.

Y. Dong, W. Wang, X. Xu, X. Gong, D. Lei, Q. Zhou, Z. Xu, W. K. Loke, S.-F. Yoon, G. Liang, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium-tin on Si avalanche photodiode: device design and technology demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 62, 128–135 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, K.

K. Yu, C.-H. Chen, A. Titriku, A. Shafik, M. Fiorentino, P. Y. Chiang, and S. Palermo, “25 Gb/s hybrid-integrated silicon photonic receiver with microring wavelength stabilization,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper W3A–6.

Zadka, M.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340  GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3, 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zaoui, W. S.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340  GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3, 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, L.

M. Huang, P. Cai, S. Li, L. Wang, T.-I. Su, L. Zhao, W. Chen, C.-Y. Hong, and D. Pan, “Breakthrough of 25  Gb/s germanium on silicon avalanche photodiode,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Tu2D–2.

Zheng, D.

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zheng, X.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340  GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3, 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in telecommunications avalanche photodiodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 109–121 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 777–787 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Q.

Y. Dong, W. Wang, X. Xu, X. Gong, D. Lei, Q. Zhou, Z. Xu, W. K. Loke, S.-F. Yoon, G. Liang, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium-tin on Si avalanche photodiode: device design and technology demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 62, 128–135 (2015).
[Crossref]

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J. S. Cheong, M. M. Hayat, X. Zhou, and J. P. David, “Relating the experimental ionization coefficients in semiconductors to the nonlocal ionization coefficients,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 62, 1946–1952 (2015).
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J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration,” Appl. Phys. A 95, 989–997 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 777–787 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, B. Moeneclaey, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “25-Gb/s 1310-nm optical receiver based on a sub-5-V waveguide-coupled germanium avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 1–9 (2015).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

Y. Dong, W. Wang, X. Xu, X. Gong, D. Lei, Q. Zhou, Z. Xu, W. K. Loke, S.-F. Yoon, G. Liang, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium-tin on Si avalanche photodiode: device design and technology demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 62, 128–135 (2015).
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[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nat. Commun. (1)

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (3)

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340  GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3, 59–63 (2009).
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A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
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[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

H. Chen, J. Verbist, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, J. Van Campenhout, and G. Roelkens, “High sensitivity 10  Gb/s Si photonic receiver based on a low-voltage waveguide-coupled Ge avalanche photodetector,” Opt. Express 23, 815–822 (2015).

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5  Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 15, 430–436 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42  GHz pin germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17, 6252–6257 (2009).
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M. Huang, P. Cai, S. Li, L. Wang, T.-I. Su, L. Zhao, W. Chen, C.-Y. Hong, and D. Pan, “Breakthrough of 25  Gb/s germanium on silicon avalanche photodiode,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Tu2D–2.

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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) A schematic of the low-voltage Si–Ge waveguide APD. The inset shows an optical mode profile at 10 μm away from the silicon/germanium forefront interface (blue dashed lines). (b) The simulated germanium absorption profile along the light propagation direction. (c) A SEM image of the APD cross section. (d) Current–voltage plot for a 4  μm×10  μm APD. The blue and red solid lines are dark current and photo current with their axis on the left. The green circles are the calculated APD gain assuming the unity gain occurs at 2  V, and the axis is on the right. (e) The quantum efficiency versus device length for the APDs with waveguide widths of 4, 6, and 8 μm, respectively.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Impulse response of a 4  μm×10  μm waveguide APD under various biases, hence gain conditions. The shortest pulse has a FWHM of 14 ps. (b) The bandwidth of the same APD after Fourier transform and it shows that the device has a bandwidth of 25 GHz. The green solid line and the blue dashed line are the measurement and fit data, respectively. (c) The bandwidth versus the gain for the same device. The red circles are the measured bandwidth at various gains; the red dashed line shows the highest bandwidth of 25 GHz, and the blue dashed line shows a constant gain-bandwidth product of 276 GHz. (d) The measured (blue circles) and simulated (green solid line) bandwidths versus the device length for a series of 4 μm-wide APDs. (e) 2D color plot of bandwidth for various germanium thickness and waveguide areas. The corresponding bandwidths are shown in the color bar. The red dashed line shows a constant germanium thickness of 400 nm, and the red dots are the measured bandwidths shown in Fig. 2(d).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a),(b) The measured APD eye diagrams taken from a DCA86100C sampling scope with 12.5 Gbps and 25 Gbps data rate, respectively. This 4  μm×10  μm APD were measured directly on wafer with the gain of 1, 2 and 5.9 without an external TIA. The measurement setting has a 25  ps/div on x axis and 6  mV/div on the y axis. (c) Eye diagrams measured at 30 Gbps from the same APD with gain of 5.9.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) A microscope picture of an APD receiver, made by wedge-bonding an APD with a CMOS receiver circuit on a PCB control board. (b) APD bit-error-rate versus optical power at 12.5 Gbps at gain of 5.9 and 12, with 271 NRZ PRBS input signal. The circles are the measured bit error rates and the lines are from fitting. The best sensitivity is measured at 25  dBm with 1012 BER at gain of 12. (c) Sensitivity measurement at 25 Gbps. The best sensitivity is 16  dBm with 1011 BER when the APD is bias at gain of 4. (d) Sensitivity versus APD gain. The black circles are the measured sensitivity from the same APD receiver at various biases with 1012 BER and 12.5 Gbps data rate. The solid lines are calculated from Refs. [32,33], with k values of 0.05, 0.1 and 1, respectively. The two blue dashed lines show the dominating components for the receiver sensitivity, giving k=0.05. The positive sloped dashed line is APD dark current limited, and the negative sloped dashed line is TIA noise and offset current limited.

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