Abstract

Integrated quantum photonics has recently attracted considerable attention due to the promise of realizing chip-scale quantum information processing with unprecedented capability and complexity. Their implementation relies essentially on a high-quality chip-scale photon source to support diverse quantum functionalities. Microresonator-based photon sources are a promising solution for generating bright, pure, and single-mode photons with excellent power efficiencies. However, their low Klyshko efficiency, typically around a few percentages, is a major bottleneck restricting this type of device from practical quantum applications. In this paper, we improve the Klyshko efficiency of a telecom-band heralded single-photon source from a high-Q silicon microdisk to as high as 48%. We characterize the photon antibunching properties at the same time, with a conditional self-correlation below 0.01 at a detected photon pair flux up to 0.002 counts per 5 ns gate at a repetition rate of 3 MHz. At an optical peak power of 73 μW, the photon source has a large photon flux of 0.01 counts per gate, a high Klyshko efficiency of 46%, and a strong photon antibunching with a conditional self-correlation smaller than 0.05. In particular, we find a relation between the Klyshko efficiency and high-order correlations for the first time to our knowledge. This relation contributes to the understanding of photon statistics in the heralding process and also provides a method to verify the Klyshko efficiency. The improved heralding efficiency, together with the great photon antibunching property and power efficiency, renders the microresonator-based photon source promising for diverse quantum applications, including linear-optical quantum computing and quantum key distribution.

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2016 (3)

G. Harder, T. J. Bartley, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, T. Gerrits, and C. Silberhorn, “Single-mode parametric-down-conversion states with 50 photons as a source for mesoscopic quantum optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 143601 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Lu, W. C. Jiang, J. Zhang, and Q. Lin, “Biphoton statistics of quantum light generated on a silicon chip,” ACS Photon. 3, 1626–1636 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Vernon, M. Liscidini, and J. E. Sipe, “No free lunch: the trade-off between heralding rate and efficiency in microresonator-based heralded single photon sources,” Opt. Lett. 41, 788–791 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (10)

M. Förtsch, G. Schunk, J. U. Fürst, D. Strekalov, T. Gerrits, M. J. Stevens, F. Sedlmeir, H. G. L. Schwefel, S. W. Nam, G. Leuchs, and C. Marquardt, “Highly efficient generation of single-mode photon pairs from a crystalline whispering-gallery-mode resonator source,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 023812 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. M. Gentry, J. M. Shainline, M. T. Wade, M. J. Stevens, S. D. Dyer, X. Zeng, F. Pavanello, T. Gerrits, S. Woo Nam, R. P. Mirin, and M. A. Popović, “Quantum-correlated photon pairs generated in a commercial 45  nm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor microelectronic chip,” Optica 2, 1065–1071 (2015).

D. Grassani, S. Azzini, M. Liscidini, M. Galli, M. J. Strain, M. Sorel, J. E. Sipe, and D. Bajoni, “Micrometer-scale integrated silicon source of time-energy entangled photons,” Optica 2, 88–94 (2015).

J. W. Silverstone, R. Santagati, D. Bonneau, M. J. Strain, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Qubit entanglement between ring-resonator photon-pair sources on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7948 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Wakabayashi, M. Fujiwara, K.-I. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, M. Sasaki, and T. Aoki, “Time-bin entangled photon pair generation from Si micro-ring resonator,” Opt. Express 23, 1103–1113 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. F. Preble, M. L. Fanto, J. A. Steidle, C. C. Tison, G. A. Howland, Z. Wang, and P. M. Alsing, “On-chip quantum interference from a single silicon ring resonator source,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 4, 021001 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Rogers, X. Lu, W. C. Jiang, and Q. Lin, “Twin photon pairs in a high-Q silicon microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 041102 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. C. Jiang, X. Lu, J. Zhang, O. Painter, and Q. Lin, “Silicon-chip source of bright photon pairs,” Opt. Express 23, 20884–20904 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Giustina, M. A. M. Versteegh, S. Wengerowsky, J. Handsteiner, A. Hochrainer, K. Phelan, F. Steinlechner, J. Kofler, J.-Å. Larsson, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, J. Beyer, T. Gerrits, A. E. Lita, L. K. Shalm, S. W. Nam, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, B. Wittmann, and A. Zeilinger, “Significant-loophole-free test of Bell’s theorem with entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250401 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong loophole-free test of local realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

F. Monteiro, A. Martin, B. Sanguinetti, H. Zbinden, and R. T. Thew, “Narrowband photon pair source for quantum networks,” Opt. Express 22, 4371–4378 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. B. Dixon, D. Rosenberg, V. Stelmakh, M. E. Grein, R. S. Bennink, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, and F. N. C. Wong, “Heralding efficiency and correlated-mode coupling of near-IR fiber-coupled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 043804 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (9)

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematics of photon-pair source and heralding single photons. (a) Schematic of a photon source based upon degenerate SFWM in a silicon microresonator. (b) and (c) illustrate frequency and energy diagrams of the process, respectively. (d) Schematic of heralding single photons out of a silicon microresonator through direct tapered-fiber coupling with single-photon detectors.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Experimental setup. This setup measures cross correlation, self-correlation, heralding efficiency, and conditional self-correlation at the same time. MZI, Mach–Zehnder interferometer; VOA, Variable optical attenuator; EPG, Electronic pulse generator; Coincidence counter, a multi-channel ps-resolution time-tagger for coincidence counting; SNSPDs, superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors. The inset microscope image shows the silicon microdisk with two forks located symmetrically to the microdisk. In this experiment, the coupling tapered fiber is supported by the input fork (to the right of the device) only and is not touching the device or the output fork.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Cross-correlation peak values and photon counts per gate at various optical drop powers. The laser is modulated to 5 ns square pulses with a 3 MHz repetition rate. (b) Cross-correlation trace. The lineshape is fitted by the red curve, taking into account the photon lifetimes and the detector timing jitter. The Gaussian response of the detector timing jitters of two detectors is shown in gray. (c) Self-correlation trace. The red curve shows the convolution of the ideal single-mode thermal source and the detector responses.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Improving heralding efficiency by increasing the taper coupling rate. (a) The red and blue curves are theoretical predictions of ηK for the over-coupled and under-coupled conditions, respectively. Experimental data points are from various fiber-taper coupling conditions denoted by different colors, with corresponding normalized transmission traces shown in (b). (b) The normalized cavity transmission traces in various taper coupling conditions, with the theoretical fitting in black. Tc represents the transmissivity dip. ηe stands for the photon extraction efficiency following ηe=(1±Tc)/2. The loaded optical qualities are around 1.03×104, 2.43×104, 1.90×105, and 4.06×105, from top to bottom.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Power dependence traces of preparation efficiency (ηsmf, red) and conditional self-correlation (gc(2), blue). The empty circles estimate the Klyshko efficiency, taking into account Raman noise and two-photon cases.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Experimental data of self-correlation counts, self-correlation background counts, and triple-coincidence counts shown in blue, gray, and red, respectively. (b) The ratio of triple-coincidence counts to self-correlation counts has a constant value of P(i|s1s2)=72%. The Klyshko efficiency can be extracted from this value by P(i|s1s2)=1(1ηK)2.

Equations (7)

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gsi(2)(τ)=Csi(τ)NsNi,
ηK=ηPToptηdet=ηeηtfToptηdet,
ηK=P(i|s1)=P(i|s2).
gc(2)(0)=Nis1s2NiNis1Nis2,
P(i¯|s1s2)=P(i¯|s1)P(i¯|s2),
P(i|s1s2)=P(i|s1)+P(i|s2)P(i|s1)P(i|s2),
P(i|s1s2)=2ηKηK2,

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