Abstract

In the realm of modern day optical computing prospects, plasmonics provides a unique means of consolidating electronics and photonics in a nanoscale platform. For advanced optical information processing applications, there is a pressing need for configurable plasmonic platforms that mimic the functionalities of their electrical counterparts. In such a pursuit, the ability to actively manipulate plasmonic phenomena must first be realized via an electrical stimulus. An attractive architecture is realized by incorporating magneto-optical materials into devices, as the degree of electrical control they provide is unattainable by other material systems. Properties of the material are influenced by external magnetic fields, which can be conveniently generated by current passing through nearby metallic structures. While ferromagnetic metals are far too lossy for plasmonic integration, magnetic garnets can facilitate a robust and tunable architecture in a waveguide geometry. Here, we investigate a bismuth-substituted yttrium iron garnet platform for a high bandwidth active optical phase shifter. Our device is capable of imparting a large nonreciprocal phase shift of 6.99 rad/mm, while confining 70% of the modal power to the 0.081μm2 cross-sectional area of the core. By considering the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert formalism, we show that the magnetoplasmonic phase shifter is operable in both underdamped and critically damped modes, and is fully tunable through the applied magnetic fields and pulsewidth. This magnetoplasmonic building block opens doors to a new class of nanoplasmonic devices, such as optical phase modulators, isolators, and optical clocks that will satisfy key applications in nanoscale optical information networks.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (1)

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

D. Nikolova and A. J. Fisher, “Switching and propagation of magnetoplasmon polaritons in magnetic slot waveguides and cavities,” Phys. Rev. B 88, 125136 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, V. S. Volkov, S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, T. Tekin, M. Waldow, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, N. Pleros, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components: going practical,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 938–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Armelles, A. Cebollada, A. García-Martín, and M. U. González, “Magnetoplasmonics: combining magnetic and plasmonic functionalities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 10–35 (2013).

2011 (5)

L. Wang, C. Clavero, Z. Huba, J. K. Carroll, E. E. Carpenter, D. Gu, and R. A. Lukaszew, “Plasmonics and enhanced magneto-optics in core-shell Co-Ag nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 11, 1237–1240 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. I. Belotelov, I. A. Akimov, M. Pohl, V. A. Kotov, S. Kasture, A. S. Vengurlekar, A. V. Gopal, D. R. Yakovlev, A. K. Zvezdin, and M. Bayer, “Enhanced magneto-optical effects in magnetoplasmonic crystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 370–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5, 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Lakshmanan, “The fascinating world of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation: an overview,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 369, 1280–1300 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Kurebayashi, O. Dzyapko, V. E. Demidov, D. Fang, A. J. Ferguson, and S. O. Demokritov, “Controlled enhancement of spin-current emission by three-magnon splitting,” Nat. Mater. 10, 660–664 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

2009 (1)

H. Uchida, Y. Masuda, R. Fujikawa, A. V. Baryshev, and M. Inoue, “Large enhancement of Faraday rotation by localized surface plasmon resonance in Au nanoparticles embedded in Bi:YIG film,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 321, 843–845 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 245405 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. I. Belotelov, L. L. Doskolovich, and A. K. Zvezdin, “Extraordinary magneto-optical effects and transmission through metal-dielectric plasmonic systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 077401 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. B. González-Díaz, A. García-Martín, G. Armelles, J. M. García-Martín, C. Clavero, A. Cebollada, R. A. Lukaszew, J. R. Skuza, D. P. Kumah, and R. Clarke, “Surface-magnetoplasmon nonreciprocity effects in noble-metal/ferromagnetic heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 153402 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

J. B. Khurgin, “Optical isolating action in surface plasmon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251115 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311, 189–193 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. Sepúlveda, L. M. Lechuga, and G. Armelles, “Magnetooptic effects in surface-plasmon-polaritons slab waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 945–955 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

K. J. Chau, S. E. Irvine, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “A gigahertz surface magneto-plasmon optical modulator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 571–579 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. E. Irvine and A. Y. Elezzabi, “Modeling of high-speed magnetooptic beam deflection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1428–1435 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

A. Y. Elezzabi and M. R. Freeman, “Ultrafast magneto-optic sampling of picosecond current pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3546–3548 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

M. Wallenhorst, M. Niemöller, H. Dötsch, P. Hertel, R. Gerhardt, and B. Gather, “Enhancement of the nonreciprocal magneto-optic effect of TM modes using iron garnet double layers with opposite Faraday rotation,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 2902–2905 (1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

T. Shintaku, T. Uno, and M. Kobayashi, “Magneto-optic channel waveguides in Ce-substituted yttrium iron garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4877–4881 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

1987 (1)

D. Marcuse, “Influence of position of magnetooptic layer on differential phase shift of slab waveguide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1268–1272 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

T. Mizumoto, K. Oochi, T. Harada, and Y. Naito, “Measurement of optical nonreciprocal phase shift in a Bi-substituted Gd3Fe5O12 and application to waveguide-type optical circulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 347–352 (1986).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

P. Paroli, “Magneto-optical devices based on garnet films,” Thin Solid Films 114, 187–219 (1984).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

P. K. Tien, D. P. Schinke, and S. L. Blank, “Magneto-optics and motion of the magnetization in a film-waveguide optical switch,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 3059–3068 (1974).
[Crossref]

1972 (2)

P. K. Tien, R. J. Martin, R. Wolfe, R. C. Le Craw, and S. L. Blank, “Switching and modulation of light in magneto-optic waveguides of garnet films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 394–396 (1972).
[Crossref]

K. W. Chiu and J. J. Quinn, “Magneto-plasma surface waves in solids,” Il Nuovo Cimento B 10, 1–20 (1972).

1964 (1)

1948 (1)

C. Kittel, “On the theory of ferromagnetic resonance absorption,” Phys. Rev. 73, 155–161 (1948).
[Crossref]

Acimovic, S.

Akimov, I. A.

V. I. Belotelov, I. A. Akimov, M. Pohl, V. A. Kotov, S. Kasture, A. S. Vengurlekar, A. V. Gopal, D. R. Yakovlev, A. K. Zvezdin, and M. Bayer, “Enhanced magneto-optical effects in magnetoplasmonic crystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 370–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

Alloatti, L.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Altman, C.

C. Altman and K. Suchy, Reciprocity, Spatial Mapping and Time Reversal in Electromagnetics (Springer, 2011).

Aplet, L. J.

Apostolopoulos, D.

A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, V. S. Volkov, S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, T. Tekin, M. Waldow, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, N. Pleros, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components: going practical,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 938–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

Armelles, G.

G. Armelles, A. Cebollada, A. García-Martín, and M. U. González, “Magnetoplasmonics: combining magnetic and plasmonic functionalities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 10–35 (2013).

V. V. Temnov, G. Armelles, U. Woggon, D. Guzatov, A. Cebollada, A. Garcia-Martin, J.-M. Garcia-Martin, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Active magneto-plasmonics in hybrid metal-ferromagnet structures,” Nat. Photonics 4, 107–111 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. F. Torrado, J. B. González-Díaz, M. U. González, A. García-Martín, and G. Armelles, “Magneto-optical effects in interacting localized and propagating surface plasmon modes,” Opt. Express 18, 15635–15642 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Armelles, J. B. González-Díaz, A. García-Martín, J. M. García-Martín, A. Cebollada, M. U. González, S. Acimovic, J. Cesario, R. Quidant, and G. Badenes, “Localized surface plasmon resonance effects on the magneto-optical activity of continuous Au/Co/Au trilayers,” Opt. Express 16, 16104–16112 (2008).

J. B. González-Díaz, A. García-Martín, G. Armelles, J. M. García-Martín, C. Clavero, A. Cebollada, R. A. Lukaszew, J. R. Skuza, D. P. Kumah, and R. Clarke, “Surface-magnetoplasmon nonreciprocity effects in noble-metal/ferromagnetic heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 153402 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Sepúlveda, L. M. Lechuga, and G. Armelles, “Magnetooptic effects in surface-plasmon-polaritons slab waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 945–955 (2006).
[Crossref]

Atkinson, R.

Avramopoulos, H.

A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, V. S. Volkov, S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, T. Tekin, M. Waldow, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, N. Pleros, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components: going practical,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 938–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

Badenes, G.

Bahlmann, N.

Baryshev, A. V.

H. Uchida, Y. Masuda, R. Fujikawa, A. V. Baryshev, and M. Inoue, “Large enhancement of Faraday rotation by localized surface plasmon resonance in Au nanoparticles embedded in Bi:YIG film,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 321, 843–845 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bayer, M.

V. I. Belotelov, I. A. Akimov, M. Pohl, V. A. Kotov, S. Kasture, A. S. Vengurlekar, A. V. Gopal, D. R. Yakovlev, A. K. Zvezdin, and M. Bayer, “Enhanced magneto-optical effects in magnetoplasmonic crystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 370–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

Belotelov, V. I.

V. I. Belotelov, I. A. Akimov, M. Pohl, V. A. Kotov, S. Kasture, A. S. Vengurlekar, A. V. Gopal, D. R. Yakovlev, A. K. Zvezdin, and M. Bayer, “Enhanced magneto-optical effects in magnetoplasmonic crystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 370–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. I. Belotelov, L. L. Doskolovich, and A. K. Zvezdin, “Extraordinary magneto-optical effects and transmission through metal-dielectric plasmonic systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 077401 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bi, L.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5, 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

Blank, S. L.

P. K. Tien, D. P. Schinke, and S. L. Blank, “Magneto-optics and motion of the magnetization in a film-waveguide optical switch,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 3059–3068 (1974).
[Crossref]

P. K. Tien, R. J. Martin, R. Wolfe, R. C. Le Craw, and S. L. Blank, “Switching and modulation of light in magneto-optic waveguides of garnet films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 394–396 (1972).
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, V. S. Volkov, S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, T. Tekin, M. Waldow, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, N. Pleros, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components: going practical,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 938–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 245405 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bratschitsch, R.

V. V. Temnov, G. Armelles, U. Woggon, D. Guzatov, A. Cebollada, A. Garcia-Martin, J.-M. Garcia-Martin, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Active magneto-plasmonics in hybrid metal-ferromagnet structures,” Nat. Photonics 4, 107–111 (2010).
[Crossref]

Button, K. J.

B. Lax and K. J. Button, Microwave Ferrites and Ferrimagnetics (McGraw-Hill, 1962).

Carpenter, E. E.

L. Wang, C. Clavero, Z. Huba, J. K. Carroll, E. E. Carpenter, D. Gu, and R. A. Lukaszew, “Plasmonics and enhanced magneto-optics in core-shell Co-Ag nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 11, 1237–1240 (2011).
[Crossref]

Carroll, J. K.

L. Wang, C. Clavero, Z. Huba, J. K. Carroll, E. E. Carpenter, D. Gu, and R. A. Lukaszew, “Plasmonics and enhanced magneto-optics in core-shell Co-Ag nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 11, 1237–1240 (2011).
[Crossref]

Carson, J. W.

Cebollada, A.

G. Armelles, A. Cebollada, A. García-Martín, and M. U. González, “Magnetoplasmonics: combining magnetic and plasmonic functionalities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 10–35 (2013).

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A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Muslija, A.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Naito, Y.

T. Mizumoto, K. Oochi, T. Harada, and Y. Naito, “Measurement of optical nonreciprocal phase shift in a Bi-substituted Gd3Fe5O12 and application to waveguide-type optical circulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 347–352 (1986).
[Crossref]

Niemöller, M.

M. Wallenhorst, M. Niemöller, H. Dötsch, P. Hertel, R. Gerhardt, and B. Gather, “Enhancement of the nonreciprocal magneto-optic effect of TM modes using iron garnet double layers with opposite Faraday rotation,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 2902–2905 (1995).
[Crossref]

Nikolova, D.

D. Nikolova and A. J. Fisher, “Switching and propagation of magnetoplasmon polaritons in magnetic slot waveguides and cavities,” Phys. Rev. B 88, 125136 (2013).
[Crossref]

Oochi, K.

T. Mizumoto, K. Oochi, T. Harada, and Y. Naito, “Measurement of optical nonreciprocal phase shift in a Bi-substituted Gd3Fe5O12 and application to waveguide-type optical circulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 347–352 (1986).
[Crossref]

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311, 189–193 (2006).
[Crossref]

Palmer, R.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Papaioannou, S.

A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, V. S. Volkov, S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, T. Tekin, M. Waldow, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, N. Pleros, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components: going practical,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 938–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

Paroli, P.

P. Paroli, “Magneto-optical devices based on garnet films,” Thin Solid Films 114, 187–219 (1984).
[Crossref]

Pleros, N.

A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, V. S. Volkov, S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, T. Tekin, M. Waldow, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, N. Pleros, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components: going practical,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 938–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pohl, M.

V. I. Belotelov, I. A. Akimov, M. Pohl, V. A. Kotov, S. Kasture, A. S. Vengurlekar, A. V. Gopal, D. R. Yakovlev, A. K. Zvezdin, and M. Bayer, “Enhanced magneto-optical effects in magnetoplasmonic crystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 370–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

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K. W. Chiu and J. J. Quinn, “Magneto-plasma surface waves in solids,” Il Nuovo Cimento B 10, 1–20 (1972).

Ross, C. A.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5, 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

Salz, D.

Schindler, P. C.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schinke, D. P.

P. K. Tien, D. P. Schinke, and S. L. Blank, “Magneto-optics and motion of the magnetization in a film-waveguide optical switch,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 3059–3068 (1974).
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Sepúlveda, B.

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T. Shintaku, T. Uno, and M. Kobayashi, “Magneto-optic channel waveguides in Ce-substituted yttrium iron garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4877–4881 (1993).
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C. Clavero, K. Yang, J. R. Skuza, and R. A. Lukaszew, “Magnetic-field modulation of surface plasmon polaritons on gratings,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1557–1559 (2010).
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[Crossref]

Sommer, M.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 229–233 (2014).
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A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, V. S. Volkov, S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, T. Tekin, M. Waldow, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, N. Pleros, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components: going practical,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 938–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

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V. V. Temnov, G. Armelles, U. Woggon, D. Guzatov, A. Cebollada, A. Garcia-Martin, J.-M. Garcia-Martin, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Active magneto-plasmonics in hybrid metal-ferromagnet structures,” Nat. Photonics 4, 107–111 (2010).
[Crossref]

Thomay, T.

V. V. Temnov, G. Armelles, U. Woggon, D. Guzatov, A. Cebollada, A. Garcia-Martin, J.-M. Garcia-Martin, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Active magneto-plasmonics in hybrid metal-ferromagnet structures,” Nat. Photonics 4, 107–111 (2010).
[Crossref]

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P. K. Tien, D. P. Schinke, and S. L. Blank, “Magneto-optics and motion of the magnetization in a film-waveguide optical switch,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 3059–3068 (1974).
[Crossref]

P. K. Tien, R. J. Martin, R. Wolfe, R. C. Le Craw, and S. L. Blank, “Switching and modulation of light in magneto-optic waveguides of garnet films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 394–396 (1972).
[Crossref]

Torrado, J. F.

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T. Shintaku, T. Uno, and M. Kobayashi, “Magneto-optic channel waveguides in Ce-substituted yttrium iron garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4877–4881 (1993).
[Crossref]

Van Thourhout, D.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

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V. I. Belotelov, I. A. Akimov, M. Pohl, V. A. Kotov, S. Kasture, A. S. Vengurlekar, A. V. Gopal, D. R. Yakovlev, A. K. Zvezdin, and M. Bayer, “Enhanced magneto-optical effects in magnetoplasmonic crystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 370–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

Volkov, V. S.

A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, V. S. Volkov, S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, T. Tekin, M. Waldow, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, N. Pleros, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components: going practical,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 938–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

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A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, V. S. Volkov, S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, T. Tekin, M. Waldow, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, N. Pleros, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components: going practical,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 938–951 (2013).
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A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, V. S. Volkov, S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, T. Tekin, M. Waldow, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, N. Pleros, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components: going practical,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 938–951 (2013).
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L. Wang, C. Clavero, Z. Huba, J. K. Carroll, E. E. Carpenter, D. Gu, and R. A. Lukaszew, “Plasmonics and enhanced magneto-optics in core-shell Co-Ag nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 11, 1237–1240 (2011).
[Crossref]

Weeber, J.-C.

A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, V. S. Volkov, S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, T. Tekin, M. Waldow, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, N. Pleros, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components: going practical,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 938–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wilkens, L.

Woggon, U.

V. V. Temnov, G. Armelles, U. Woggon, D. Guzatov, A. Cebollada, A. Garcia-Martin, J.-M. Garcia-Martin, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Active magneto-plasmonics in hybrid metal-ferromagnet structures,” Nat. Photonics 4, 107–111 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wolfe, R.

P. K. Tien, R. J. Martin, R. Wolfe, R. C. Le Craw, and S. L. Blank, “Switching and modulation of light in magneto-optic waveguides of garnet films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 394–396 (1972).
[Crossref]

Yakovlev, D. R.

V. I. Belotelov, I. A. Akimov, M. Pohl, V. A. Kotov, S. Kasture, A. S. Vengurlekar, A. V. Gopal, D. R. Yakovlev, A. K. Zvezdin, and M. Bayer, “Enhanced magneto-optical effects in magnetoplasmonic crystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 370–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, K.

Zhuromskyy, O.

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V. I. Belotelov, I. A. Akimov, M. Pohl, V. A. Kotov, S. Kasture, A. S. Vengurlekar, A. V. Gopal, D. R. Yakovlev, A. K. Zvezdin, and M. Bayer, “Enhanced magneto-optical effects in magnetoplasmonic crystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 370–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. I. Belotelov, L. L. Doskolovich, and A. K. Zvezdin, “Extraordinary magneto-optical effects and transmission through metal-dielectric plasmonic systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 077401 (2007).
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A. K. Zvezdin and V. A. Kotov, Modern Magnetooptics and Magnetooptical Materials (IOP Publishing, 1997).

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G. Armelles, A. Cebollada, A. García-Martín, and M. U. González, “Magnetoplasmonics: combining magnetic and plasmonic functionalities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 10–35 (2013).

Appl. Opt. (2)

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K. W. Chiu and J. J. Quinn, “Magneto-plasma surface waves in solids,” Il Nuovo Cimento B 10, 1–20 (1972).

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

P. K. Tien, D. P. Schinke, and S. L. Blank, “Magneto-optics and motion of the magnetization in a film-waveguide optical switch,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 3059–3068 (1974).
[Crossref]

M. Wallenhorst, M. Niemöller, H. Dötsch, P. Hertel, R. Gerhardt, and B. Gather, “Enhancement of the nonreciprocal magneto-optic effect of TM modes using iron garnet double layers with opposite Faraday rotation,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 2902–2905 (1995).
[Crossref]

T. Shintaku, T. Uno, and M. Kobayashi, “Magneto-optic channel waveguides in Ce-substituted yttrium iron garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4877–4881 (1993).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, V. S. Volkov, S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, T. Tekin, M. Waldow, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, N. Pleros, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components: going practical,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 938–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

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L. Wang, C. Clavero, Z. Huba, J. K. Carroll, E. E. Carpenter, D. Gu, and R. A. Lukaszew, “Plasmonics and enhanced magneto-optics in core-shell Co-Ag nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 11, 1237–1240 (2011).
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V. I. Belotelov, I. A. Akimov, M. Pohl, V. A. Kotov, S. Kasture, A. S. Vengurlekar, A. V. Gopal, D. R. Yakovlev, A. K. Zvezdin, and M. Bayer, “Enhanced magneto-optical effects in magnetoplasmonic crystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 370–376 (2011).
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L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5, 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. V. Temnov, G. Armelles, U. Woggon, D. Guzatov, A. Cebollada, A. Garcia-Martin, J.-M. Garcia-Martin, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Active magneto-plasmonics in hybrid metal-ferromagnet structures,” Nat. Photonics 4, 107–111 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 229–233 (2014).
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[Crossref]

J. B. González-Díaz, A. García-Martín, G. Armelles, J. M. García-Martín, C. Clavero, A. Cebollada, R. A. Lukaszew, J. R. Skuza, D. P. Kumah, and R. Clarke, “Surface-magnetoplasmon nonreciprocity effects in noble-metal/ferromagnetic heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 153402 (2007).
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V. I. Belotelov, L. L. Doskolovich, and A. K. Zvezdin, “Extraordinary magneto-optical effects and transmission through metal-dielectric plasmonic systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 077401 (2007).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311, 189–193 (2006).
[Crossref]

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P. Paroli, “Magneto-optical devices based on garnet films,” Thin Solid Films 114, 187–219 (1984).
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R. F. Soohoo, Microwave Magnetics (Harper & Row, 1985).

C. Altman and K. Suchy, Reciprocity, Spatial Mapping and Time Reversal in Electromagnetics (Springer, 2011).

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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic illustration of the magnetoplasmonic waveguide geometry. (b)  | E y | 2 profile and (c)  | E z | 2 profile for an exemplary waveguide having w YIG = 270 nm and d YIG = 300 nm .
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Nonreciprocal phase shift (NRPS) as a function of the waveguide dimensions. (a) shows the NRPS as a function of width for fixed waveguide heights, while (b) shows the NRPS as a function of height for several fixed widths. Both figures are calculated for M x = M S . The insets in both (a) and (b) show mode profiles at the indicated dimensions.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Total attainable NRPS as a function of the magnetoplasmonic waveguide’s (a) height and (b) width.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Active magnetoplasmonic phase shifter in (a) longitudinal (L) configuration and (b) transverse (T) configuration under consideration.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Temporal switching dynamics of the magnetization vector M . (a) Underdamped trajectory of the magnetization vector under an applied static field of 50 mT and a transient field of 40 mT with τ p = 500 ps for the L configuration. (b) Time response of M x component of the magnetization vector under the same conditions as in (a). (c) Critically damped trajectory of M for the L configuration with a static field of 47.8 mT and a τ p = 500 ps dynamic field of 54 mT. (d) Critically damped time response of M x to the conditions of (c). (e) Critically damped trajectory of M for the T configuration with a static field of 9 mT and a τ p = 500 ps transient field of 71.75 mT. (f) Critically damped time response of M x for the T configuration shown in (e).
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. OWPS time response to a single transient I ( t ) pulse. (a) L configuration with τ p = 500 ps , μ 0 | H static | = 47.8 mT , and μ 0 | h ( t ) | = 54 mT . (b) T configuration with τ p = 500 ps , μ 0 | H static | = 9 mT , and μ 0 | h ( t ) | = 71.75 mT . (c) L configuration with τ p = 100 ps , μ 0 | H static | = 239 mT , and μ 0 | h ( t ) | = 270 mT . (d) T configuration with τ p = 100 ps , μ 0 | H static | = 9 mT , and μ 0 | h ( t ) | = 361.5 mT .
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Normalized spectral power for the driving electrical signal and the resultant phase shift signal for (a)  τ p = 500 ps and (b)  τ p = 100 ps .
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Phase shift response of the magnetoplasmonic device to a random bit sequence [11010011]. (a) L configuration and (b) T configuration with τ p = 500 ps pulses at a bitrate of 1.21 Gbit/s. (c) L configuration and (d) T configuration with τ p = 100 ps pulses at a bitrate of 6.06 Gbit/s. Note that all devices are operated under critical damping conditions.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Ag Dimensions and Peak Current Requirements

Equations (3)

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ε r ( M ) = [ ε x x i g z i g y i g z ε y y i g x i g y i g x ε z z ] .
g i = λ ε π M i M S θ F ,
d M d t = μ 0 γ 0 1 + α 2 [ M × ( H static + h ( t ) ) ] μ 0 γ 0 α M S ( 1 + α 2 ) M × [ M × ( H static + h ( t ) ) ] ,

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