Abstract

Bioinspired moth-eye surface provides broadband antireflection features, which significantly enhance performances in optical components/devices. However, their practical uses are strictly limited due to poor mechanical stability of nano-patterns. In this study, we artificially engineered moth-eye structures on polycarbonate substrate through a thin-film coating of mechanically stable dielectric materials (i.e., Al2O3, Cr2O3, ZrO2, and TiO2 etc). The geometry of Al2O3-coated moth-eye surface is designed by considering the effective medium theory and confirmed by calculation of diffraction efficiency based on a rigorous coupled-wave analysis method. The tailored Al2O3-coating on moth eye surface exhibit the improved hardness while maintaining high optical transmittance.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Suppression of light reflection at an optical interface between two materials of different refractive indices is a crucial issue in many optical components/devices including transparent windows, imaging lens, polymer optics, solar cells, and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The performance of optical components or devices is fairly limited by the Fresnel reflection loss at the top surface of optical medium. Traditionally, thin film technology is commonly used for mass production of antireflective coatings, however, there are still some drawbacks such as limited antireflection (AR) ranges, thermal mismatch, and material selection problems [110]. Beyond multilayered structures, over the past few decades, the biomimetic subwavelength structures (SWSs), originally inspired by corneal of night active insects (e.g., moth-eye), have been well developed with various nanofabrication methods including laser interference lithography, nanoimprint, metal thermal dewetting process, focused ion beam (FIB) milling, and self-assembly nanosphere lithography [1125]. These AR SWSs with broadband and omnidirectional reflection features have also been applied to various research fields such as, optical imaging, transparent windows, displays, LEDs, photovoltaic and photocatalytic devices [1315,2641].

Despite of the advantage of AR SWSs, transferring this technology from bench-top status to successful industrial level is limited due to poor mechanical stability of moth-eye nano-patterns. For instance, in practical applications such as display, windows, and eye-glasses, the AR SWSs are exposed to external physical contacts (e.g., scratches and/or pressures), which influences the AR performance. This undesired effect is particularly noticeable in the situation of using polymeric materials, which is commonly used for large area and mass production of nanostructures. As a simple route to improve hardness, dielectric materials with relatively higher hardness, such as Al2O3, Cr2O3, ZrO2, and TiO2, etc., can be additionally coated on nanostructures, however, there is another critical issue on matching of refractive index between dielectrics and polymers, based on the effective medium theory [4246]. To overcome material limitations and structural properties in nanophotonics, fine tailoring in nanostructures is required [4749].

In our previous work, we designed and optimized each SWSs for several applications with different materials using optical simulation [5055]. Based on these design schemes of SWSs, in this study, we present antireflective moth-eye structures (AMSs) with an oxide coating for hardness enhancement. AMSs are fabricated on PC substrate using hot embossing technique for large area production, and Al2O3, as a hardness enhancement layer, was coated by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Simulation results show RI profile and transmittance of AMSs for the filling fraction and thickness of Al2O3 coating layer. From these results, we propose the optimal design of Al2O3 coated AMSs. Experimentally, our fabricated sample shows hardness enhancement maintaining improved transmittance. In the process, we conducted the transmittance measurement and the scratch test in fabricated samples. Furthermore, we discuss optical properties for the morphology of AMSs with oxide coating layers.

2. Optical properties of Al2O3 coated PC films

Figure 1(a) shows the schematic illustration of antireflective moth-eye structures (AMSs) with Al2O3 monolayer coated on polycarbonate (PC) substrate for improvements of transmittance and surface hardness. The geometrical parameters such as period (Λ), height (h), and filling fraction (FF) were set to analyze optical performance depending on the parabolic moth-eye structure as shown in Fig. 1(b). The effective refractive indices were calculated with each FF factors of 60% and 100% with 75 nm Al23 thickness. In Fig. 1(c), the effective refractive indices were calculated by the volume weighted averaged refractive index between air and Al2O3 coated PC films depending on the nanostructure height [5, 56,57]. The abrupt change of effective refractive index was exhibited in FF 100% with 75 nm of Al2O3 layer, due to that Al2O3 has higher refractive index than PC film. By modifying structural parameter of FF, the effective refractive index was graded as shown in Fig. 1(c) right. In order to observe light propagations in antireflective films, the Al2O3 coated moth-eye structures were calculated at 500 nm wavelengths by rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) with varying FF [58, 59]. In E-field distribution, bare film, Al2O3 coating on bare film, moth-eye film, and Al2O3 coating on Moth-eye film were simulated for four cases. In the absence of the structure, high reflections were obtained due to the high refractive index of Al2O3. The results, on the other hand, show that the reflection of the AMSs with Al2O3 layer is significantly reduced. Transmittances of fabricated AMSs with different Al2O3 thicknesses were measured by spectrophotometer (Cary 500 Scan UV-Visible Spectrophotometer, Varian) from 400 nm to 800 nm wavelength ranges (Fig. 1(e)). The averaged transmittance (Fig. 1(e) inset) exhibited the increased transmittance of AMSs. Enhanced transmittances of AMSs on PC films were maintained with compared to the flat PC film even though of Al2O3 layer was coated.

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Schematic illustration of antireflective moth-eye structures (AMSs) with Al2O3 monolayer on polycarbonate (PC) film. (b) Geometrical parameters of period, height, and filling fraction (FF) of AMSs (c) Calculated effective refractive indices of the Al2O3 coated AMSs on PC film. (d) Real part of electric-field distributions from three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations. (e) Measured transmittances of fabricated samples with different Al2O3 coating thicknesses

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3. Fabrication methods

Figure 2(a) shows the schemes of hot-embossing process using nanostructured nickel master stamp (HT-AR-02, Temicon) to achieve AMSs on PC substrate. The nickel mold was cleaned using acetone, isopropyl alcohol (IPA), and deionized (DI) water with blowing N2 gas for self-assembled monolayer (SAM) treatment. The SAM of octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) was treated to nickel stamps for releasing a PC replica from the nickel stamp. The annealing process was subsequently performed for 5 min, at 120 °C using the hot plate. AMSs patterned PC samples were fabricated under the pressure of 20 bar, temperature of 120 °C at the glass transition temperature. Then, Al2O3 thin film was coated by using atomic layer deposition (Lucida D100 ALD system, NCD) at 80 °C. Trimethylaluminum (TMA) and H2O were used as the precursor, and oxidant, respectively. The TMA pulse, N2 purge, H2O pulse, and N2 purge cycle was repeated with base pressure of 500 mTorr and ∼0.1 nm/cycle growth rate. The fabricated samples of photographs were shown in the Fig. 2(b), the glare-less PC films were obtained in all the antireflective films. The field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM, S-4700, Hitachi) image was exhibited to figure out the uniformly coated Al2O3 on AMSs.

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. (a) Fabrication steps for Al2O3 coated moth-eye polycarbonate films (b) Photographs of flat PC, moth-eye patterned PC, and Al2O3 coated moth-eye PC. (c) SEM images of top view and cross sectioned view for fabricated samples varying Al2O3 deposition thickness (0 nm, 50 nm, 75 nm, and 100 nm). The scale bar is 250 nm.

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4. Nano-scratch testing of Al2O3 coated PC films

The mechanical property was measured by nano-scratch resistance measurement (NST3, Anton Paar) with diamond stylus as illustrated in Fig. 3(a). The optical micrographs of fabricated samples with different Al2O3 thicknesses were shown in Fig. 3(b). The AMSs on PC film without Al2O3 coating (A 0 nm) shows clear scratch marks. Also, as the thicknesses of Al2O3 are increased, gradually reduced scratch marks are observed. The scratch resistance was estimated by friction coefficient versus lateral displacement as shown in Fig. 3(c). The results show that the thicker Al2O3 increases the mechanical resistance. The average friction coefficient was reduced about 20% in A 100 nm samples compared to A 0 nm.

 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. (a) Schemes of scratch tests on samples (b) Optical microscope images of scratched Al2O3 coated moth-eye PC. (c) Frictional coefficient versus lateral displacement depending on the Al2O3 coating thickness.

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5. Optical simulations

To verify the optical properties of Al2O3/AMSs on PC films with varying geometric parameters for wide range applications, the numerical simulation was used. The rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) was exploited to obtain transmittance spectra for periodic AMSs on PC films (Diffract MOD, RSoft Design Group). In the RCWA calculation, a fifth diffraction order and periodic boundary conditions were set for the diffraction efficiency. The un-polarized light was achieved by averaging the TE/TM polarization. The normal incident plane wave was illuminated on Al2O3/PC nanostructures. Optical constants of PC and Al2O3 were measured by ellipsometer (UVISEL ER Benchtop AGAS, Horiba) and literature [57]. The material dispersion of optical constants was considered for wavelength dependent numerical simulations. Effective refractive indices were calculated by using MATLAB software (Mathworks, Inc) depending on their structural parameter (i.e., FF of AMSs and thickness of Al2O3) with the fixed factors (i.e., height of 300 nm and period of 250 nm), as shown in Fig. 4(a) and (b). Basically, the effective refractive index profile of AMSs is highly dependent on FF. The main reason is that the difference in effective refractive index between the AMSs and the PC substrate is determined by FF. Ideally, without Al2O3 coating, the closely packed AMSs (i.e., FF 100%) is the smoothest in the refractive index profile. However, since the Al2O3 coating causes an increase in the overall FF of the AMSs with Al2O3, the refractive index profile of the AMSs with Al2O3 were optimized at the Al2O3 thickness of 75 nm with FF 60% of AMSs. Figure 4(c) shows the contour plots of aforementioned geometries. In the case of AMSs without Al­2O3 coating, the highest transmittance was obtained with FF 100%. The result shows a tendency for the transmittance to increase with FF of AMSs (Fig. 4(c) left). As shown in Fig. 4(c) right, the highest transmittance was observed in the 75 nm coated Al­2O3. From these results, we note that the gradual profile of effective refractive index causes increased transmittance as suppressing surface reflection. Figure 4(d) shows the contour plot of the average transmittance of AMSs with Al2O3 thickness and FF. The result shows the correlation between Al2O3 thickness and FF in the transmittance of AMSs, which demonstrates the fact that AMSs with the lower FF require the thicker Al2O3 thickness for optimal transmittance.

 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. Calculated refractive index depending on (a) FF and (b) Al2O3 thickness. (c) Contour plots of transmittance for FF and Al2O3 thickness. (d) Calculated average transmittance depending on Al2O3 thickness and FF.

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To analyze geometrical effects, we considered the deformation of AMSs as a parabolic ratio defined by a geometrical change from the cylindrical shape (0%) to parabolic shape (100%), as shown in Fig. 5(a). With varying the parabolic ratio, we calculated the effective refractive index to form gradual profiles of effective refractive indices in Fig. 5(b). The refractive indices of AMSs without Al2O3 were varied by changing parabolic ratio (dot line). Relatively, the gradual profiles of effective refractive indices were achieved at the parabolic ratio from 60 to 100% (rigid line) with the fixed factors (i.e. Λ is 250 nm, h is 300 nm, and FF is 60%). Figure 5(c) shows the contour plots for transmittance of AMSs without and with Al2O3 coating (i.e., 75 nm). As a result, with Al2O3 coating, the improvement in transmittance was confirmed at 60 to 100%. Figure 5(d) shows the angle dependencies of Al2O3 coated moth-eye PC films, the improvement of transmittance was maintained until ∼40 degree. Figure 5(e) shows the refractive indices of different materials, and our proposed scheme can be varied by designs depending on the various applications with different materials.

 figure: Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. (a) Schematic view of nanostructures with varying parabolic ratio. (b) Refractive index profile of AMSs for the parabolic ratio with Al2O3 coating (i.e., 75 nm). (c) Contour plots of transmittance of AMSs without and with Al2O3 coating (i.e., 75 nm). (d) Calculated transmittance depending on the angle of incident light. (e) Calculated refractive index with different coating materials (i.e., Si3N4 and SiO2).

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6. Conclusion

We have designed and demonstrated the tailored Al2O3 coating on moth-eye structure for enhancing mechanical and optical performances. We confirmed that increased optical and mechanical properties were observed at uniformly coated Al2O3 monolayer by ALD deposition on the existed moth-eye antireflective structure. We calculate and modify the graded refractive index by varying structural parameter. The polycarbonate film coated with 75nm Al2O3 thickness exhibits the smoothest graph at 75% of filling fraction than 100%, with the fixed factors (period is 250nm and height is 300nm). We notice that the effective refractive index easily calculated by volume weighted averaging method through nano-structure geometric design. Additionally, our proposed structure is applicable to various nanostructures which have different refractive index materials.

Funding

Hyundai Motor Group; National Research Foundation of Korea (2019H1A2A1060954, NRF2018M3D1A1039288); Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (20183010014310).

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References

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  1. W. H. Southwell, “Gradient-index antireflection coatings,” Opt. Lett. 8(11), 584–586 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. R. Kennedy and M. J. Brett, “Porous broadband antireflection coating by glancing angle deposition,” Appl. Opt. 42(22), 4573–4579 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, “Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 133108 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Chen, H. C. Chang, A. S. Chang, S. Y. Lin, J. Q. Xi, and E. F. Schubert, “Design of optical path for wide-angle gradient-index antireflection coatings,” Appl. Opt. 46(26), 6533–6538 (2007).
    [Crossref]
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2019 (2)

V. Garg, R. G. Mote, and J. Fu, “Rapid prototyping of highly ordered subwavelength silicon nanostructures with enhanced light trapping,” Opt. Mater. 94, 75–85 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. J. Jang, Y. J. Kim, Y. J. Yoo, G. J. Lee, M. S. Kim, K. S. Chang, and Y. M. Song, “Double-Sided Anti-Reflection Nanostructures on Optical Convex Lenses for Imaging Applications,” Coatings 9(6), 404 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (2)

Y. J. Kim, G. J. Lee, S. Kim, J. W. Min, S. Y. Jeong, Y. J. Yoo, S. H. Lee, and Y. M. Song, “Efficient light absorption by GaN truncated nanocones for high performance water splitting applications,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(34), 28672–28678 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. B. Khan, H. Wu, X. Huai, S. Zou, Y. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “Mechanically robust antireflective coatings,” Nano Res. 11(3), 1699–1713 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

S. Jang, S. M. Kang, and M. Choi, “Multifunctional moth-eye TiO2/PDMS pads with high transmittance and UV filtering,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(50), 44038–44044 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Tan, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Lan, M. K. Wei, L. H. Peng, I. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Broadband antireflection film with moth-eye-like structure for flexible display applications,” Optica 4(7), 678–683 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. S. Song, Y. J. Yoo, G. J. Lee, K. S. Chang, and Y. M Song, “Optical Design of Porous ZnO/TiO2 Films for Highly Transparent Glasses with Broadband Ultraviolet Protection,” J. Nanomater. 2017, 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

W. K. Kuo, J. J. Hsu, C. K. Nien, and H. H. Yu, “Moth-eye-inspired biophotonic surfaces with antireflective and hydrophobic characteristics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(46), 32021–32030 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Qiu, W. Liu, W. Chen, G. Zhou, P. C. Hsu, R. Zhang, Z. Liang, S. Fan, Y. Zhang, and Y. Cui, “Efficient solar-driven water splitting by nanocone BiVO4-perovskite tandem cells,” Sci. Adv. 2(6), e1501764 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. D. Ou, Y. Q. Li, and J. X. Tang, “Light manipulation in organic photovoltaics,” Adv. Sci. 3(7), 1600123 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Yoo, K. S. Chang, and Y. M. Song, “Design of ZnO hollow nanosphere arrays for UV absorbing transparent glasses,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48(2), 88 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Özel and E. Vural, “The microstructure and hardness properties of plasma sprayed Cr2O3/Al2O3 coatings,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. 18(11-12), 1052–1056 (2016).

W. I. Nam, Y. J. Yoo, and Y. M. Song, “Geometrical shape design of nanophotonic surfaces for thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express 24(14), A1033–A1044 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

Y. J. Yoo, K. S. Chang, S. W. Hong, and Y. M. Song, “Design of ZnS antireflective microstructures for mid-and far-infrared applications,” Opt. Quant. Electron. 47(6), 1503–1508 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Rahman, A. Ashraf, H. Xin, X. Tong, P. Sutter, M. D. Eisaman, and C. T. Black, “Sub-50-nm self-assembled nanotextures for enhanced broadband antireflection in silicon solar cells,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 5963 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, P. Yi, L. Peng, X. Lai, and J. Ni, “Fabrication of moth-eye nanostructure arrays using roll-to-roll UV-nanoimprint lithography with an anodic aluminum oxide mold,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 14(6), 1127–1137 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

J. Zhang, S. Shen, X. X. Dong, and L. S. Chen, “Low-cost fabrication of large area sub-wavelength anti-reflective structures on polymer film using a soft PUA mold,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1842–1851 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Kurihara, Y. Saitou, N. Souma, S. Makihara, H. Kato, and T. Nakano, “Fabrication of nano-structure anti-reflective lens using platinum nanoparticles in injection moulding,” Mater. Res. Express 2(1), 015008 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, Y. Kim, H. Jang, and W. Chung, “Cr2O3 sealing of anodized aluminum alloy by heat treatment,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 243, 34–38 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

S. Ji, K. Song, T. B. Nguyen, N. Kim, and H. Lim, “Optimal moth eye nanostructure array on transparent glass towards broadband antireflection,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(21), 10731–10737 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Li, Y. Lu, P. Lan, X. Zhang, W. Xu, R. Tan, W. Song, and K. L. Choy, “Design, preparation, and durability of TiO2/SiO2 and ZrO2/SiO2 double-layer antireflective coatings in crystalline silicon solar modules,” Sol. Energy 89, 134–142 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Burghoorn, D. Roosen-Melsen, J. de Riet, S. Sabik, Z. Vroon, I. Yakimets, and P. Buskens, “Single layer broadband anti-reflective coatings for plastic substrates produced by full wafer and roll-to-roll step-and-flash nano-imprint lithography,” Materials 6(9), 3710–3726 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. W. Leem, Y. M. Song, and J. S. Yu, “Biomimetic artificial Si compound eye surface structures with broadband and wide-angle antireflection properties for Si-based optoelectronic applications,” Nanoscale 5(21), 10455–10460 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (8)

J. J. Kim, Y. Lee, H. G. Kim, K. J. Choi, H. S. Kweon, S. Park, and K. H. Jeong, “Biologically inspired LED lens from cuticular nanostructures of firefly lantern,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 109(46), 18674–18678 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Ji, J. Park, and H. Lim, “Improved antireflection properties of moth eye mimicking nanopillars on transparent glass: flat antireflection and color tuning,” Nanoscale 4(15), 4603–4610 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Song, Y. Jeong, C. I. Yeo, and Y. T. Lee, “Enhanced power generation in concentrated photovoltaics using broadband antireflective coverglasses with moth eye structures,” Opt. Express 20(S6), A916–A923 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Choi, S. H. Park, Y. M. Song, C. Cho, and H. S. Lee, “Robustly nano-tailored honeycomb structure for high-throughput antireflection polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(33), 17037–17043 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Absorption enhancement in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells with antireflection and light-trapping nanocone gratings,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1616–1619 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. C. Chang, T. Y. Oyang, F. H. Hwang, C. C. Chen, and L. P. Cheng, “Preparation of polymer/silica hybrid hard coatings with enhanced hydrophobicity on plastic substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358(1), 72–76 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Thébault, S. Niedermayer, S. Landis, N. Chaix, P. Guenoun, J. Daillant, and H. Orland, “Tailoring nanostructures using copolymer nanoimprint lithography,” Adv. Mater. 24(15), 1952–1955 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. C. Park, Y. M. Song, E. K. Kang, and Y. T. Lee, “Size-dependent optical behavior of disordered nanostructures on glass substrates,” Appl. Opt. 51(24), 5890–5896 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (6)

S. J. Jang, Y. M. Song, C. I. Yeo, C. Y. Park, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Antireflective property of thin film a-Si solar cell structures with graded refractive index structure,” Opt. Express 19(S2), A108–A117 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. J. Jang, Y. M. Song, J. S. Yu, C. I. Yeo, and Y. T. Lee, “Antireflective properties of porous Si nanocolumnar structures with graded refractive index layers,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 253–255 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Yamada, T. Ijiro, E. Okamoto, K. Hayashi, and H. Masuda, “Characterization of antireflection moth-eye film on crystalline silicon photovoltaic module,” Opt. Express 19(S2), A118–A125 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. K. Raut, V. A. Ganesh, A. S. Nair, and S. Ramakrishna, “Anti-reflective coatings: A critical, in-depth review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(10), 3779–3804 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. S. Choi, Y. M. Song, G. C. Park, and Y. T. Lee, “Disordered antireflective subwavelength structures using Ag nanoparticles for GaN-based optical device applications,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 11(2), 1342–1345 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. C. Park, Y. M. Song, J. H. Ha, and Y. T. Lee, “Broadband antireflective glasses with subwavelength structures using randomly distributed Ag nanoparticles,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 11(7), 6152–6156 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (7)

J. Tommila, V. Polojärvi, A. Aho, A. Tukiainen, J. Viheriälä, J. Salmi, A. Schramm, J. M. Konitio, A. Turtiainen, M. Niemi, and M. Guina, “Nanostructured broadband antireflection coatings on AlInP fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(10), 1845–1848 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Hung, S. L. Lee, and L. A. Coldren, “Deep and tapered silicon photonic crystals for achieving anti-reflection and enhanced absorption,” Opt. Express 18(7), 6841–6852 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Nakanishi, T. Hiraoka, A. Fujimoto, T. Okino, S. Sugimura, T. Shimada, and K. Asakawa, “Large area fabrication of moth-eye antireflection structures using self-assembled nanoparticles in combination with nanoimprinting,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 075001 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Song, S. J. Jang, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Bioinspired parabola subwavelength structures for improved broadband antireflection,” Small 6(9), 984–987 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, G. C. Park, C. Y. Park, S. J. Jang, and Y. T. Lee, “Disordered antireflective nanostructures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using Ag nanoparticles for improved light extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093110 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, Y. Tang, K. Lee, and M. Ouyang, “Tailoring light–matter–spin interactions in colloidal hetero-nanostructures,” Nature 466(7302), 91–95 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Choi, S. H. Park, Y. M. Song, Y. T. Lee, C. K. Hwangbo, H. Yang, and H. S. Lee, “Nano-tailoring the surface structure for the monolithic high-performance antireflection polymer film,” Adv. Mater. 22(33), 3713–3718 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, and S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263118 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. H. Ahn and L. J. Guo, “Large-area roll-to-roll and roll-to-plate nanoimprint lithography: a step toward high-throughput application of continuous nanoimprinting,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2304–2310 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

S. H. Ahn and L. J. Guo, “High-speed roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography on flexible plastic substrates,” Adv. Mater. 20(11), 2044–2049 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. J. Ting, M. C. Huang, H. Y. Tsai, C. P. Chou, and C. C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology 19(20), 205301 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, “Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 133108 (2008).
[Crossref]

U. Cvelbar, K. K. Ostrikov, and M. Mozetic, “Reactive oxygen plasma-enabled synthesis of nanostructured CdO: tailoring nanostructures through plasma–surface interactions,” Nanotechnology 19(40), 405605 (2008).
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2007 (1)

2006 (1)

M. M. Braun and L. Pilon, “Effective optical properties of non-absorbing nanoporous thin films,” Thin Solid Films 496(2), 505–514 (2006).
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2004 (1)

A. D. Ormonde, E. C. Hicks, J. Castillo, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanosphere Lithography: Fabrication of Large-Area Ag Nanoparticle Arrays by Convective Self-Assembly and Their Characterization by Scanning UV− Visible Extinction Spectroscopy,” Langmuir 20(16), 6927–6931 (2004).
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2003 (2)

S. R. Kennedy and M. J. Brett, “Porous broadband antireflection coating by glancing angle deposition,” Appl. Opt. 42(22), 4573–4579 (2003).
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C. W. Kuo, J. Y. Shiu, Y. H. Cho, and P. E. I. L. I. N. Chen, “Fabrication of large-area periodic nanopillar arrays for nanoimprint lithography using polymer colloid masks,” Adv. Mater. 15(13), 1065–1068 (2003).
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2002 (1)

1988 (1)

M. G. Moharam, “Coupled-wave analysis of two-dimensional dielectric gratings. In Holographic Optics: Design and Applications,” Proc. SPIE 0883, 8–12 (1988).
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1983 (1)

Abbott, S.

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, and S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263118 (2009).
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Acree, M.

Ahn, S. H.

S. H. Ahn and L. J. Guo, “Large-area roll-to-roll and roll-to-plate nanoimprint lithography: a step toward high-throughput application of continuous nanoimprinting,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2304–2310 (2009).
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S. H. Ahn and L. J. Guo, “High-speed roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography on flexible plastic substrates,” Adv. Mater. 20(11), 2044–2049 (2008).
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Aho, A.

J. Tommila, V. Polojärvi, A. Aho, A. Tukiainen, J. Viheriälä, J. Salmi, A. Schramm, J. M. Konitio, A. Turtiainen, M. Niemi, and M. Guina, “Nanostructured broadband antireflection coatings on AlInP fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(10), 1845–1848 (2010).
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Allsopp, D. W.

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, and S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263118 (2009).
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Asakawa, K.

T. Nakanishi, T. Hiraoka, A. Fujimoto, T. Okino, S. Sugimura, T. Shimada, and K. Asakawa, “Large area fabrication of moth-eye antireflection structures using self-assembled nanoparticles in combination with nanoimprinting,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 075001 (2010).
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Ashraf, A.

A. Rahman, A. Ashraf, H. Xin, X. Tong, P. Sutter, M. D. Eisaman, and C. T. Black, “Sub-50-nm self-assembled nanotextures for enhanced broadband antireflection in silicon solar cells,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 5963 (2015).
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Bagnall, D. M.

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, “Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 133108 (2008).
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Black, C. T.

A. Rahman, A. Ashraf, H. Xin, X. Tong, P. Sutter, M. D. Eisaman, and C. T. Black, “Sub-50-nm self-assembled nanotextures for enhanced broadband antireflection in silicon solar cells,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 5963 (2015).
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Boden, S. A.

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, “Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 133108 (2008).
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Braun, M. M.

M. M. Braun and L. Pilon, “Effective optical properties of non-absorbing nanoporous thin films,” Thin Solid Films 496(2), 505–514 (2006).
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Brett, M. J.

Burghoorn, M.

M. Burghoorn, D. Roosen-Melsen, J. de Riet, S. Sabik, Z. Vroon, I. Yakimets, and P. Buskens, “Single layer broadband anti-reflective coatings for plastic substrates produced by full wafer and roll-to-roll step-and-flash nano-imprint lithography,” Materials 6(9), 3710–3726 (2013).
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Buskens, P.

M. Burghoorn, D. Roosen-Melsen, J. de Riet, S. Sabik, Z. Vroon, I. Yakimets, and P. Buskens, “Single layer broadband anti-reflective coatings for plastic substrates produced by full wafer and roll-to-roll step-and-flash nano-imprint lithography,” Materials 6(9), 3710–3726 (2013).
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Castillo, J.

A. D. Ormonde, E. C. Hicks, J. Castillo, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanosphere Lithography: Fabrication of Large-Area Ag Nanoparticle Arrays by Convective Self-Assembly and Their Characterization by Scanning UV− Visible Extinction Spectroscopy,” Langmuir 20(16), 6927–6931 (2004).
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Chaix, N.

P. Thébault, S. Niedermayer, S. Landis, N. Chaix, P. Guenoun, J. Daillant, and H. Orland, “Tailoring nanostructures using copolymer nanoimprint lithography,” Adv. Mater. 24(15), 1952–1955 (2012).
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Chang, A. S.

Chang, C. C.

C. C. Chang, T. Y. Oyang, F. H. Hwang, C. C. Chen, and L. P. Cheng, “Preparation of polymer/silica hybrid hard coatings with enhanced hydrophobicity on plastic substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358(1), 72–76 (2012).
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Chang, H. C.

Chang, K. S.

H. J. Jang, Y. J. Kim, Y. J. Yoo, G. J. Lee, M. S. Kim, K. S. Chang, and Y. M. Song, “Double-Sided Anti-Reflection Nanostructures on Optical Convex Lenses for Imaging Applications,” Coatings 9(6), 404 (2019).
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H. S. Song, Y. J. Yoo, G. J. Lee, K. S. Chang, and Y. M Song, “Optical Design of Porous ZnO/TiO2 Films for Highly Transparent Glasses with Broadband Ultraviolet Protection,” J. Nanomater. 2017, 1–8 (2017).
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Y. J. Yoo, K. S. Chang, and Y. M. Song, “Design of ZnO hollow nanosphere arrays for UV absorbing transparent glasses,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48(2), 88 (2016).
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Y. J. Yoo, K. S. Chang, S. W. Hong, and Y. M. Song, “Design of ZnS antireflective microstructures for mid-and far-infrared applications,” Opt. Quant. Electron. 47(6), 1503–1508 (2015).
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Chen, C. C.

C. C. Chang, T. Y. Oyang, F. H. Hwang, C. C. Chen, and L. P. Cheng, “Preparation of polymer/silica hybrid hard coatings with enhanced hydrophobicity on plastic substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358(1), 72–76 (2012).
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Chen, L. S.

Chen, M.

Chen, P. E. I. L. I. N.

C. W. Kuo, J. Y. Shiu, Y. H. Cho, and P. E. I. L. I. N. Chen, “Fabrication of large-area periodic nanopillar arrays for nanoimprint lithography using polymer colloid masks,” Adv. Mater. 15(13), 1065–1068 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q.

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, and S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263118 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

Y. Qiu, W. Liu, W. Chen, G. Zhou, P. C. Hsu, R. Zhang, Z. Liang, S. Fan, Y. Zhang, and Y. Cui, “Efficient solar-driven water splitting by nanocone BiVO4-perovskite tandem cells,” Sci. Adv. 2(6), e1501764 (2016).
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Cheng, I. C.

Cheng, L. P.

C. C. Chang, T. Y. Oyang, F. H. Hwang, C. C. Chen, and L. P. Cheng, “Preparation of polymer/silica hybrid hard coatings with enhanced hydrophobicity on plastic substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358(1), 72–76 (2012).
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Cho, C.

K. Choi, S. H. Park, Y. M. Song, C. Cho, and H. S. Lee, “Robustly nano-tailored honeycomb structure for high-throughput antireflection polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(33), 17037–17043 (2012).
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Cho, Y. H.

C. W. Kuo, J. Y. Shiu, Y. H. Cho, and P. E. I. L. I. N. Chen, “Fabrication of large-area periodic nanopillar arrays for nanoimprint lithography using polymer colloid masks,” Adv. Mater. 15(13), 1065–1068 (2003).
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Choi, E. S.

E. S. Choi, Y. M. Song, G. C. Park, and Y. T. Lee, “Disordered antireflective subwavelength structures using Ag nanoparticles for GaN-based optical device applications,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 11(2), 1342–1345 (2011).
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Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, G. C. Park, C. Y. Park, S. J. Jang, and Y. T. Lee, “Disordered antireflective nanostructures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using Ag nanoparticles for improved light extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093110 (2010).
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Choi, K.

K. Choi, S. H. Park, Y. M. Song, C. Cho, and H. S. Lee, “Robustly nano-tailored honeycomb structure for high-throughput antireflection polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(33), 17037–17043 (2012).
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K. Choi, S. H. Park, Y. M. Song, Y. T. Lee, C. K. Hwangbo, H. Yang, and H. S. Lee, “Nano-tailoring the surface structure for the monolithic high-performance antireflection polymer film,” Adv. Mater. 22(33), 3713–3718 (2010).
[Crossref]

Choi, K. J.

J. J. Kim, Y. Lee, H. G. Kim, K. J. Choi, H. S. Kweon, S. Park, and K. H. Jeong, “Biologically inspired LED lens from cuticular nanostructures of firefly lantern,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 109(46), 18674–18678 (2012).
[Crossref]

Choi, M.

S. Jang, S. M. Kang, and M. Choi, “Multifunctional moth-eye TiO2/PDMS pads with high transmittance and UV filtering,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(50), 44038–44044 (2017).
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Chou, C. P.

C. J. Ting, M. C. Huang, H. Y. Tsai, C. P. Chou, and C. C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology 19(20), 205301 (2008).
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Choy, K. L.

J. Li, Y. Lu, P. Lan, X. Zhang, W. Xu, R. Tan, W. Song, and K. L. Choy, “Design, preparation, and durability of TiO2/SiO2 and ZrO2/SiO2 double-layer antireflective coatings in crystalline silicon solar modules,” Sol. Energy 89, 134–142 (2013).
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Chung, W.

J. Lee, Y. Kim, H. Jang, and W. Chung, “Cr2O3 sealing of anodized aluminum alloy by heat treatment,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 243, 34–38 (2014).
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Coldren, L. A.

Cui, Y.

Y. Qiu, W. Liu, W. Chen, G. Zhou, P. C. Hsu, R. Zhang, Z. Liang, S. Fan, Y. Zhang, and Y. Cui, “Efficient solar-driven water splitting by nanocone BiVO4-perovskite tandem cells,” Sci. Adv. 2(6), e1501764 (2016).
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K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Absorption enhancement in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells with antireflection and light-trapping nanocone gratings,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1616–1619 (2012).
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Cvelbar, U.

U. Cvelbar, K. K. Ostrikov, and M. Mozetic, “Reactive oxygen plasma-enabled synthesis of nanostructured CdO: tailoring nanostructures through plasma–surface interactions,” Nanotechnology 19(40), 405605 (2008).
[Crossref]

Daillant, J.

P. Thébault, S. Niedermayer, S. Landis, N. Chaix, P. Guenoun, J. Daillant, and H. Orland, “Tailoring nanostructures using copolymer nanoimprint lithography,” Adv. Mater. 24(15), 1952–1955 (2012).
[Crossref]

de Riet, J.

M. Burghoorn, D. Roosen-Melsen, J. de Riet, S. Sabik, Z. Vroon, I. Yakimets, and P. Buskens, “Single layer broadband anti-reflective coatings for plastic substrates produced by full wafer and roll-to-roll step-and-flash nano-imprint lithography,” Materials 6(9), 3710–3726 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dobrowolski, J. A.

Dong, X. X.

Eisaman, M. D.

A. Rahman, A. Ashraf, H. Xin, X. Tong, P. Sutter, M. D. Eisaman, and C. T. Black, “Sub-50-nm self-assembled nanotextures for enhanced broadband antireflection in silicon solar cells,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 5963 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fan, S.

Y. Qiu, W. Liu, W. Chen, G. Zhou, P. C. Hsu, R. Zhang, Z. Liang, S. Fan, Y. Zhang, and Y. Cui, “Efficient solar-driven water splitting by nanocone BiVO4-perovskite tandem cells,” Sci. Adv. 2(6), e1501764 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Absorption enhancement in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells with antireflection and light-trapping nanocone gratings,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1616–1619 (2012).
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Fu, C. C.

C. J. Ting, M. C. Huang, H. Y. Tsai, C. P. Chou, and C. C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology 19(20), 205301 (2008).
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Fu, J.

V. Garg, R. G. Mote, and J. Fu, “Rapid prototyping of highly ordered subwavelength silicon nanostructures with enhanced light trapping,” Opt. Mater. 94, 75–85 (2019).
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Fujimoto, A.

T. Nakanishi, T. Hiraoka, A. Fujimoto, T. Okino, S. Sugimura, T. Shimada, and K. Asakawa, “Large area fabrication of moth-eye antireflection structures using self-assembled nanoparticles in combination with nanoimprinting,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 075001 (2010).
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Ganesh, V. A.

H. K. Raut, V. A. Ganesh, A. S. Nair, and S. Ramakrishna, “Anti-reflective coatings: A critical, in-depth review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(10), 3779–3804 (2011).
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Garg, V.

V. Garg, R. G. Mote, and J. Fu, “Rapid prototyping of highly ordered subwavelength silicon nanostructures with enhanced light trapping,” Opt. Mater. 94, 75–85 (2019).
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Guenoun, P.

P. Thébault, S. Niedermayer, S. Landis, N. Chaix, P. Guenoun, J. Daillant, and H. Orland, “Tailoring nanostructures using copolymer nanoimprint lithography,” Adv. Mater. 24(15), 1952–1955 (2012).
[Crossref]

Guina, M.

J. Tommila, V. Polojärvi, A. Aho, A. Tukiainen, J. Viheriälä, J. Salmi, A. Schramm, J. M. Konitio, A. Turtiainen, M. Niemi, and M. Guina, “Nanostructured broadband antireflection coatings on AlInP fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(10), 1845–1848 (2010).
[Crossref]

Guo, L. J.

S. H. Ahn and L. J. Guo, “Large-area roll-to-roll and roll-to-plate nanoimprint lithography: a step toward high-throughput application of continuous nanoimprinting,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2304–2310 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. H. Ahn and L. J. Guo, “High-speed roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography on flexible plastic substrates,” Adv. Mater. 20(11), 2044–2049 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ha, J. H.

G. C. Park, Y. M. Song, J. H. Ha, and Y. T. Lee, “Broadband antireflective glasses with subwavelength structures using randomly distributed Ag nanoparticles,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 11(7), 6152–6156 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hayashi, K.

Hicks, E. C.

A. D. Ormonde, E. C. Hicks, J. Castillo, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanosphere Lithography: Fabrication of Large-Area Ag Nanoparticle Arrays by Convective Self-Assembly and Their Characterization by Scanning UV− Visible Extinction Spectroscopy,” Langmuir 20(16), 6927–6931 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hiraoka, T.

T. Nakanishi, T. Hiraoka, A. Fujimoto, T. Okino, S. Sugimura, T. Shimada, and K. Asakawa, “Large area fabrication of moth-eye antireflection structures using self-assembled nanoparticles in combination with nanoimprinting,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 075001 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hong, S. W.

Y. J. Yoo, K. S. Chang, S. W. Hong, and Y. M. Song, “Design of ZnS antireflective microstructures for mid-and far-infrared applications,” Opt. Quant. Electron. 47(6), 1503–1508 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hsu, J. J.

W. K. Kuo, J. J. Hsu, C. K. Nien, and H. H. Yu, “Moth-eye-inspired biophotonic surfaces with antireflective and hydrophobic characteristics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(46), 32021–32030 (2016).
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Hsu, P. C.

Y. Qiu, W. Liu, W. Chen, G. Zhou, P. C. Hsu, R. Zhang, Z. Liang, S. Fan, Y. Zhang, and Y. Cui, “Efficient solar-driven water splitting by nanocone BiVO4-perovskite tandem cells,” Sci. Adv. 2(6), e1501764 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huai, X.

S. B. Khan, H. Wu, X. Huai, S. Zou, Y. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “Mechanically robust antireflective coatings,” Nano Res. 11(3), 1699–1713 (2018).
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Huang, M. C.

C. J. Ting, M. C. Huang, H. Y. Tsai, C. P. Chou, and C. C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology 19(20), 205301 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hubbard, G.

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, and S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263118 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hung, Y. J.

Hwang, F. H.

C. C. Chang, T. Y. Oyang, F. H. Hwang, C. C. Chen, and L. P. Cheng, “Preparation of polymer/silica hybrid hard coatings with enhanced hydrophobicity on plastic substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358(1), 72–76 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hwangbo, C. K.

K. Choi, S. H. Park, Y. M. Song, Y. T. Lee, C. K. Hwangbo, H. Yang, and H. S. Lee, “Nano-tailoring the surface structure for the monolithic high-performance antireflection polymer film,” Adv. Mater. 22(33), 3713–3718 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ijiro, T.

Jang, H.

J. Lee, Y. Kim, H. Jang, and W. Chung, “Cr2O3 sealing of anodized aluminum alloy by heat treatment,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 243, 34–38 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jang, H. J.

H. J. Jang, Y. J. Kim, Y. J. Yoo, G. J. Lee, M. S. Kim, K. S. Chang, and Y. M. Song, “Double-Sided Anti-Reflection Nanostructures on Optical Convex Lenses for Imaging Applications,” Coatings 9(6), 404 (2019).
[Crossref]

Jang, S.

S. Jang, S. M. Kang, and M. Choi, “Multifunctional moth-eye TiO2/PDMS pads with high transmittance and UV filtering,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(50), 44038–44044 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jang, S. J.

S. J. Jang, Y. M. Song, C. I. Yeo, C. Y. Park, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Antireflective property of thin film a-Si solar cell structures with graded refractive index structure,” Opt. Express 19(S2), A108–A117 (2011).
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S. J. Jang, Y. M. Song, J. S. Yu, C. I. Yeo, and Y. T. Lee, “Antireflective properties of porous Si nanocolumnar structures with graded refractive index layers,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 253–255 (2011).
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Y. M. Song, S. J. Jang, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Bioinspired parabola subwavelength structures for improved broadband antireflection,” Small 6(9), 984–987 (2010).
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Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, G. C. Park, C. Y. Park, S. J. Jang, and Y. T. Lee, “Disordered antireflective nanostructures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using Ag nanoparticles for improved light extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093110 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jeong, K. H.

J. J. Kim, Y. Lee, H. G. Kim, K. J. Choi, H. S. Kweon, S. Park, and K. H. Jeong, “Biologically inspired LED lens from cuticular nanostructures of firefly lantern,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 109(46), 18674–18678 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jeong, S. Y.

Y. J. Kim, G. J. Lee, S. Kim, J. W. Min, S. Y. Jeong, Y. J. Yoo, S. H. Lee, and Y. M. Song, “Efficient light absorption by GaN truncated nanocones for high performance water splitting applications,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(34), 28672–28678 (2018).
[Crossref]

Jeong, Y.

Ji, S.

S. Ji, K. Song, T. B. Nguyen, N. Kim, and H. Lim, “Optimal moth eye nanostructure array on transparent glass towards broadband antireflection,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(21), 10731–10737 (2013).
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S. Ji, J. Park, and H. Lim, “Improved antireflection properties of moth eye mimicking nanopillars on transparent glass: flat antireflection and color tuning,” Nanoscale 4(15), 4603–4610 (2012).
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Kang, E. K.

Kang, S. M.

S. Jang, S. M. Kang, and M. Choi, “Multifunctional moth-eye TiO2/PDMS pads with high transmittance and UV filtering,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(50), 44038–44044 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kato, H.

K. Kurihara, Y. Saitou, N. Souma, S. Makihara, H. Kato, and T. Nakano, “Fabrication of nano-structure anti-reflective lens using platinum nanoparticles in injection moulding,” Mater. Res. Express 2(1), 015008 (2014).
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Kennedy, S. R.

Khan, S. B.

S. B. Khan, H. Wu, X. Huai, S. Zou, Y. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “Mechanically robust antireflective coatings,” Nano Res. 11(3), 1699–1713 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. G.

J. J. Kim, Y. Lee, H. G. Kim, K. J. Choi, H. S. Kweon, S. Park, and K. H. Jeong, “Biologically inspired LED lens from cuticular nanostructures of firefly lantern,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 109(46), 18674–18678 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. J.

J. J. Kim, Y. Lee, H. G. Kim, K. J. Choi, H. S. Kweon, S. Park, and K. H. Jeong, “Biologically inspired LED lens from cuticular nanostructures of firefly lantern,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 109(46), 18674–18678 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, M. S.

H. J. Jang, Y. J. Kim, Y. J. Yoo, G. J. Lee, M. S. Kim, K. S. Chang, and Y. M. Song, “Double-Sided Anti-Reflection Nanostructures on Optical Convex Lenses for Imaging Applications,” Coatings 9(6), 404 (2019).
[Crossref]

Kim, N.

S. Ji, K. Song, T. B. Nguyen, N. Kim, and H. Lim, “Optimal moth eye nanostructure array on transparent glass towards broadband antireflection,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(21), 10731–10737 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

Y. J. Kim, G. J. Lee, S. Kim, J. W. Min, S. Y. Jeong, Y. J. Yoo, S. H. Lee, and Y. M. Song, “Efficient light absorption by GaN truncated nanocones for high performance water splitting applications,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(34), 28672–28678 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.

J. Lee, Y. Kim, H. Jang, and W. Chung, “Cr2O3 sealing of anodized aluminum alloy by heat treatment,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 243, 34–38 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. J.

H. J. Jang, Y. J. Kim, Y. J. Yoo, G. J. Lee, M. S. Kim, K. S. Chang, and Y. M. Song, “Double-Sided Anti-Reflection Nanostructures on Optical Convex Lenses for Imaging Applications,” Coatings 9(6), 404 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Kim, G. J. Lee, S. Kim, J. W. Min, S. Y. Jeong, Y. J. Yoo, S. H. Lee, and Y. M. Song, “Efficient light absorption by GaN truncated nanocones for high performance water splitting applications,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(34), 28672–28678 (2018).
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J. W. Leem, Y. M. Song, and J. S. Yu, “Biomimetic artificial Si compound eye surface structures with broadband and wide-angle antireflection properties for Si-based optoelectronic applications,” Nanoscale 5(21), 10455–10460 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Choi, S. H. Park, Y. M. Song, C. Cho, and H. S. Lee, “Robustly nano-tailored honeycomb structure for high-throughput antireflection polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(33), 17037–17043 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. C. Park, Y. M. Song, E. K. Kang, and Y. T. Lee, “Size-dependent optical behavior of disordered nanostructures on glass substrates,” Appl. Opt. 51(24), 5890–5896 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Song, Y. Jeong, C. I. Yeo, and Y. T. Lee, “Enhanced power generation in concentrated photovoltaics using broadband antireflective coverglasses with moth eye structures,” Opt. Express 20(S6), A916–A923 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. J. Jang, Y. M. Song, J. S. Yu, C. I. Yeo, and Y. T. Lee, “Antireflective properties of porous Si nanocolumnar structures with graded refractive index layers,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 253–255 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. J. Jang, Y. M. Song, C. I. Yeo, C. Y. Park, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Antireflective property of thin film a-Si solar cell structures with graded refractive index structure,” Opt. Express 19(S2), A108–A117 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. C. Park, Y. M. Song, J. H. Ha, and Y. T. Lee, “Broadband antireflective glasses with subwavelength structures using randomly distributed Ag nanoparticles,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 11(7), 6152–6156 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. S. Choi, Y. M. Song, G. C. Park, and Y. T. Lee, “Disordered antireflective subwavelength structures using Ag nanoparticles for GaN-based optical device applications,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 11(2), 1342–1345 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Song, S. J. Jang, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Bioinspired parabola subwavelength structures for improved broadband antireflection,” Small 6(9), 984–987 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, G. C. Park, C. Y. Park, S. J. Jang, and Y. T. Lee, “Disordered antireflective nanostructures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using Ag nanoparticles for improved light extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093110 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Choi, S. H. Park, Y. M. Song, Y. T. Lee, C. K. Hwangbo, H. Yang, and H. S. Lee, “Nano-tailoring the surface structure for the monolithic high-performance antireflection polymer film,” Adv. Mater. 22(33), 3713–3718 (2010).
[Crossref]

Souma, N.

K. Kurihara, Y. Saitou, N. Souma, S. Makihara, H. Kato, and T. Nakano, “Fabrication of nano-structure anti-reflective lens using platinum nanoparticles in injection moulding,” Mater. Res. Express 2(1), 015008 (2014).
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Sugimura, S.

T. Nakanishi, T. Hiraoka, A. Fujimoto, T. Okino, S. Sugimura, T. Shimada, and K. Asakawa, “Large area fabrication of moth-eye antireflection structures using self-assembled nanoparticles in combination with nanoimprinting,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 075001 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sutter, P.

A. Rahman, A. Ashraf, H. Xin, X. Tong, P. Sutter, M. D. Eisaman, and C. T. Black, “Sub-50-nm self-assembled nanotextures for enhanced broadband antireflection in silicon solar cells,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 5963 (2015).
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Tan, R.

J. Li, Y. Lu, P. Lan, X. Zhang, W. Xu, R. Tan, W. Song, and K. L. Choy, “Design, preparation, and durability of TiO2/SiO2 and ZrO2/SiO2 double-layer antireflective coatings in crystalline silicon solar modules,” Sol. Energy 89, 134–142 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tang, J. X.

Q. D. Ou, Y. Q. Li, and J. X. Tang, “Light manipulation in organic photovoltaics,” Adv. Sci. 3(7), 1600123 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tang, Y.

J. Zhang, Y. Tang, K. Lee, and M. Ouyang, “Tailoring light–matter–spin interactions in colloidal hetero-nanostructures,” Nature 466(7302), 91–95 (2010).
[Crossref]

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P. Thébault, S. Niedermayer, S. Landis, N. Chaix, P. Guenoun, J. Daillant, and H. Orland, “Tailoring nanostructures using copolymer nanoimprint lithography,” Adv. Mater. 24(15), 1952–1955 (2012).
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C. J. Ting, M. C. Huang, H. Y. Tsai, C. P. Chou, and C. C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology 19(20), 205301 (2008).
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J. Tommila, V. Polojärvi, A. Aho, A. Tukiainen, J. Viheriälä, J. Salmi, A. Schramm, J. M. Konitio, A. Turtiainen, M. Niemi, and M. Guina, “Nanostructured broadband antireflection coatings on AlInP fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(10), 1845–1848 (2010).
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A. Rahman, A. Ashraf, H. Xin, X. Tong, P. Sutter, M. D. Eisaman, and C. T. Black, “Sub-50-nm self-assembled nanotextures for enhanced broadband antireflection in silicon solar cells,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 5963 (2015).
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C. J. Ting, M. C. Huang, H. Y. Tsai, C. P. Chou, and C. C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology 19(20), 205301 (2008).
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J. Tommila, V. Polojärvi, A. Aho, A. Tukiainen, J. Viheriälä, J. Salmi, A. Schramm, J. M. Konitio, A. Turtiainen, M. Niemi, and M. Guina, “Nanostructured broadband antireflection coatings on AlInP fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(10), 1845–1848 (2010).
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J. Tommila, V. Polojärvi, A. Aho, A. Tukiainen, J. Viheriälä, J. Salmi, A. Schramm, J. M. Konitio, A. Turtiainen, M. Niemi, and M. Guina, “Nanostructured broadband antireflection coatings on AlInP fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(10), 1845–1848 (2010).
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Vakil, H.

Van Duyne, R. P.

A. D. Ormonde, E. C. Hicks, J. Castillo, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanosphere Lithography: Fabrication of Large-Area Ag Nanoparticle Arrays by Convective Self-Assembly and Their Characterization by Scanning UV− Visible Extinction Spectroscopy,” Langmuir 20(16), 6927–6931 (2004).
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J. Tommila, V. Polojärvi, A. Aho, A. Tukiainen, J. Viheriälä, J. Salmi, A. Schramm, J. M. Konitio, A. Turtiainen, M. Niemi, and M. Guina, “Nanostructured broadband antireflection coatings on AlInP fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(10), 1845–1848 (2010).
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M. Burghoorn, D. Roosen-Melsen, J. de Riet, S. Sabik, Z. Vroon, I. Yakimets, and P. Buskens, “Single layer broadband anti-reflective coatings for plastic substrates produced by full wafer and roll-to-roll step-and-flash nano-imprint lithography,” Materials 6(9), 3710–3726 (2013).
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S. Özel and E. Vural, “The microstructure and hardness properties of plasma sprayed Cr2O3/Al2O3 coatings,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. 18(11-12), 1052–1056 (2016).

Wang, K. X.

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Absorption enhancement in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells with antireflection and light-trapping nanocone gratings,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1616–1619 (2012).
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Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, and S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263118 (2009).
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Wu, H.

S. B. Khan, H. Wu, X. Huai, S. Zou, Y. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “Mechanically robust antireflective coatings,” Nano Res. 11(3), 1699–1713 (2018).
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Wu, S. T.

Xi, J. Q.

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A. Rahman, A. Ashraf, H. Xin, X. Tong, P. Sutter, M. D. Eisaman, and C. T. Black, “Sub-50-nm self-assembled nanotextures for enhanced broadband antireflection in silicon solar cells,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 5963 (2015).
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J. Li, Y. Lu, P. Lan, X. Zhang, W. Xu, R. Tan, W. Song, and K. L. Choy, “Design, preparation, and durability of TiO2/SiO2 and ZrO2/SiO2 double-layer antireflective coatings in crystalline silicon solar modules,” Sol. Energy 89, 134–142 (2013).
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M. Burghoorn, D. Roosen-Melsen, J. de Riet, S. Sabik, Z. Vroon, I. Yakimets, and P. Buskens, “Single layer broadband anti-reflective coatings for plastic substrates produced by full wafer and roll-to-roll step-and-flash nano-imprint lithography,” Materials 6(9), 3710–3726 (2013).
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Yang, H.

K. Choi, S. H. Park, Y. M. Song, Y. T. Lee, C. K. Hwangbo, H. Yang, and H. S. Lee, “Nano-tailoring the surface structure for the monolithic high-performance antireflection polymer film,” Adv. Mater. 22(33), 3713–3718 (2010).
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Yi, P.

C. Zhang, P. Yi, L. Peng, X. Lai, and J. Ni, “Fabrication of moth-eye nanostructure arrays using roll-to-roll UV-nanoimprint lithography with an anodic aluminum oxide mold,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 14(6), 1127–1137 (2015).
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H. J. Jang, Y. J. Kim, Y. J. Yoo, G. J. Lee, M. S. Kim, K. S. Chang, and Y. M. Song, “Double-Sided Anti-Reflection Nanostructures on Optical Convex Lenses for Imaging Applications,” Coatings 9(6), 404 (2019).
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Y. J. Kim, G. J. Lee, S. Kim, J. W. Min, S. Y. Jeong, Y. J. Yoo, S. H. Lee, and Y. M. Song, “Efficient light absorption by GaN truncated nanocones for high performance water splitting applications,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(34), 28672–28678 (2018).
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H. S. Song, Y. J. Yoo, G. J. Lee, K. S. Chang, and Y. M Song, “Optical Design of Porous ZnO/TiO2 Films for Highly Transparent Glasses with Broadband Ultraviolet Protection,” J. Nanomater. 2017, 1–8 (2017).
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Y. J. Yoo, K. S. Chang, and Y. M. Song, “Design of ZnO hollow nanosphere arrays for UV absorbing transparent glasses,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48(2), 88 (2016).
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W. I. Nam, Y. J. Yoo, and Y. M. Song, “Geometrical shape design of nanophotonic surfaces for thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express 24(14), A1033–A1044 (2016).
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Y. J. Yoo, K. S. Chang, S. W. Hong, and Y. M. Song, “Design of ZnS antireflective microstructures for mid-and far-infrared applications,” Opt. Quant. Electron. 47(6), 1503–1508 (2015).
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Yu, H. H.

W. K. Kuo, J. J. Hsu, C. K. Nien, and H. H. Yu, “Moth-eye-inspired biophotonic surfaces with antireflective and hydrophobic characteristics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(46), 32021–32030 (2016).
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Yu, J. S.

J. W. Leem, Y. M. Song, and J. S. Yu, “Biomimetic artificial Si compound eye surface structures with broadband and wide-angle antireflection properties for Si-based optoelectronic applications,” Nanoscale 5(21), 10455–10460 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. J. Jang, Y. M. Song, J. S. Yu, C. I. Yeo, and Y. T. Lee, “Antireflective properties of porous Si nanocolumnar structures with graded refractive index layers,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 253–255 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. J. Jang, Y. M. Song, C. I. Yeo, C. Y. Park, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Antireflective property of thin film a-Si solar cell structures with graded refractive index structure,” Opt. Express 19(S2), A108–A117 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Song, S. J. Jang, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Bioinspired parabola subwavelength structures for improved broadband antireflection,” Small 6(9), 984–987 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yu, Z.

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Absorption enhancement in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells with antireflection and light-trapping nanocone gratings,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1616–1619 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

C. Zhang, P. Yi, L. Peng, X. Lai, and J. Ni, “Fabrication of moth-eye nanostructure arrays using roll-to-roll UV-nanoimprint lithography with an anodic aluminum oxide mold,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 14(6), 1127–1137 (2015).
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Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, S. Shen, X. X. Dong, and L. S. Chen, “Low-cost fabrication of large area sub-wavelength anti-reflective structures on polymer film using a soft PUA mold,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1842–1851 (2014).
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J. Zhang, Y. Tang, K. Lee, and M. Ouyang, “Tailoring light–matter–spin interactions in colloidal hetero-nanostructures,” Nature 466(7302), 91–95 (2010).
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Zhang, R.

Y. Qiu, W. Liu, W. Chen, G. Zhou, P. C. Hsu, R. Zhang, Z. Liang, S. Fan, Y. Zhang, and Y. Cui, “Efficient solar-driven water splitting by nanocone BiVO4-perovskite tandem cells,” Sci. Adv. 2(6), e1501764 (2016).
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Zhang, X.

J. Li, Y. Lu, P. Lan, X. Zhang, W. Xu, R. Tan, W. Song, and K. L. Choy, “Design, preparation, and durability of TiO2/SiO2 and ZrO2/SiO2 double-layer antireflective coatings in crystalline silicon solar modules,” Sol. Energy 89, 134–142 (2013).
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Zhang, Y.

Y. Qiu, W. Liu, W. Chen, G. Zhou, P. C. Hsu, R. Zhang, Z. Liang, S. Fan, Y. Zhang, and Y. Cui, “Efficient solar-driven water splitting by nanocone BiVO4-perovskite tandem cells,” Sci. Adv. 2(6), e1501764 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

S. B. Khan, H. Wu, X. Huai, S. Zou, Y. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “Mechanically robust antireflective coatings,” Nano Res. 11(3), 1699–1713 (2018).
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Zhou, G.

Y. Qiu, W. Liu, W. Chen, G. Zhou, P. C. Hsu, R. Zhang, Z. Liang, S. Fan, Y. Zhang, and Y. Cui, “Efficient solar-driven water splitting by nanocone BiVO4-perovskite tandem cells,” Sci. Adv. 2(6), e1501764 (2016).
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S. B. Khan, H. Wu, X. Huai, S. Zou, Y. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “Mechanically robust antireflective coatings,” Nano Res. 11(3), 1699–1713 (2018).
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ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (4)

W. K. Kuo, J. J. Hsu, C. K. Nien, and H. H. Yu, “Moth-eye-inspired biophotonic surfaces with antireflective and hydrophobic characteristics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(46), 32021–32030 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Kim, G. J. Lee, S. Kim, J. W. Min, S. Y. Jeong, Y. J. Yoo, S. H. Lee, and Y. M. Song, “Efficient light absorption by GaN truncated nanocones for high performance water splitting applications,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(34), 28672–28678 (2018).
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S. Ji, K. Song, T. B. Nguyen, N. Kim, and H. Lim, “Optimal moth eye nanostructure array on transparent glass towards broadband antireflection,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(21), 10731–10737 (2013).
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S. Jang, S. M. Kang, and M. Choi, “Multifunctional moth-eye TiO2/PDMS pads with high transmittance and UV filtering,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(50), 44038–44044 (2017).
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ACS Nano (1)

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Adv. Mater. (4)

C. W. Kuo, J. Y. Shiu, Y. H. Cho, and P. E. I. L. I. N. Chen, “Fabrication of large-area periodic nanopillar arrays for nanoimprint lithography using polymer colloid masks,” Adv. Mater. 15(13), 1065–1068 (2003).
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S. H. Ahn and L. J. Guo, “High-speed roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography on flexible plastic substrates,” Adv. Mater. 20(11), 2044–2049 (2008).
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P. Thébault, S. Niedermayer, S. Landis, N. Chaix, P. Guenoun, J. Daillant, and H. Orland, “Tailoring nanostructures using copolymer nanoimprint lithography,” Adv. Mater. 24(15), 1952–1955 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Choi, S. H. Park, Y. M. Song, Y. T. Lee, C. K. Hwangbo, H. Yang, and H. S. Lee, “Nano-tailoring the surface structure for the monolithic high-performance antireflection polymer film,” Adv. Mater. 22(33), 3713–3718 (2010).
[Crossref]

Adv. Sci. (1)

Q. D. Ou, Y. Q. Li, and J. X. Tang, “Light manipulation in organic photovoltaics,” Adv. Sci. 3(7), 1600123 (2016).
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Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, “Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 133108 (2008).
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Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, and S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263118 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, G. C. Park, C. Y. Park, S. J. Jang, and Y. T. Lee, “Disordered antireflective nanostructures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using Ag nanoparticles for improved light extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093110 (2010).
[Crossref]

Coatings (1)

H. J. Jang, Y. J. Kim, Y. J. Yoo, G. J. Lee, M. S. Kim, K. S. Chang, and Y. M. Song, “Double-Sided Anti-Reflection Nanostructures on Optical Convex Lenses for Imaging Applications,” Coatings 9(6), 404 (2019).
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H. K. Raut, V. A. Ganesh, A. S. Nair, and S. Ramakrishna, “Anti-reflective coatings: A critical, in-depth review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(10), 3779–3804 (2011).
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IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. (1)

C. Zhang, P. Yi, L. Peng, X. Lai, and J. Ni, “Fabrication of moth-eye nanostructure arrays using roll-to-roll UV-nanoimprint lithography with an anodic aluminum oxide mold,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 14(6), 1127–1137 (2015).
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J. Mater. Chem. (1)

K. Choi, S. H. Park, Y. M. Song, C. Cho, and H. S. Lee, “Robustly nano-tailored honeycomb structure for high-throughput antireflection polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(33), 17037–17043 (2012).
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J. Nanomater. (1)

H. S. Song, Y. J. Yoo, G. J. Lee, K. S. Chang, and Y. M Song, “Optical Design of Porous ZnO/TiO2 Films for Highly Transparent Glasses with Broadband Ultraviolet Protection,” J. Nanomater. 2017, 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (2)

G. C. Park, Y. M. Song, J. H. Ha, and Y. T. Lee, “Broadband antireflective glasses with subwavelength structures using randomly distributed Ag nanoparticles,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 11(7), 6152–6156 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. S. Choi, Y. M. Song, G. C. Park, and Y. T. Lee, “Disordered antireflective subwavelength structures using Ag nanoparticles for GaN-based optical device applications,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 11(2), 1342–1345 (2011).
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J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

C. C. Chang, T. Y. Oyang, F. H. Hwang, C. C. Chen, and L. P. Cheng, “Preparation of polymer/silica hybrid hard coatings with enhanced hydrophobicity on plastic substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358(1), 72–76 (2012).
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J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. (1)

S. Özel and E. Vural, “The microstructure and hardness properties of plasma sprayed Cr2O3/Al2O3 coatings,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. 18(11-12), 1052–1056 (2016).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Nakanishi, T. Hiraoka, A. Fujimoto, T. Okino, S. Sugimura, T. Shimada, and K. Asakawa, “Large area fabrication of moth-eye antireflection structures using self-assembled nanoparticles in combination with nanoimprinting,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 075001 (2010).
[Crossref]

Langmuir (1)

A. D. Ormonde, E. C. Hicks, J. Castillo, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanosphere Lithography: Fabrication of Large-Area Ag Nanoparticle Arrays by Convective Self-Assembly and Their Characterization by Scanning UV− Visible Extinction Spectroscopy,” Langmuir 20(16), 6927–6931 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mater. Res. Express (1)

K. Kurihara, Y. Saitou, N. Souma, S. Makihara, H. Kato, and T. Nakano, “Fabrication of nano-structure anti-reflective lens using platinum nanoparticles in injection moulding,” Mater. Res. Express 2(1), 015008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Materials (1)

M. Burghoorn, D. Roosen-Melsen, J. de Riet, S. Sabik, Z. Vroon, I. Yakimets, and P. Buskens, “Single layer broadband anti-reflective coatings for plastic substrates produced by full wafer and roll-to-roll step-and-flash nano-imprint lithography,” Materials 6(9), 3710–3726 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Absorption enhancement in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells with antireflection and light-trapping nanocone gratings,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1616–1619 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nano Res. (1)

S. B. Khan, H. Wu, X. Huai, S. Zou, Y. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “Mechanically robust antireflective coatings,” Nano Res. 11(3), 1699–1713 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nanoscale (2)

S. Ji, J. Park, and H. Lim, “Improved antireflection properties of moth eye mimicking nanopillars on transparent glass: flat antireflection and color tuning,” Nanoscale 4(15), 4603–4610 (2012).
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J. W. Leem, Y. M. Song, and J. S. Yu, “Biomimetic artificial Si compound eye surface structures with broadband and wide-angle antireflection properties for Si-based optoelectronic applications,” Nanoscale 5(21), 10455–10460 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nanotechnology (2)

C. J. Ting, M. C. Huang, H. Y. Tsai, C. P. Chou, and C. C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology 19(20), 205301 (2008).
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U. Cvelbar, K. K. Ostrikov, and M. Mozetic, “Reactive oxygen plasma-enabled synthesis of nanostructured CdO: tailoring nanostructures through plasma–surface interactions,” Nanotechnology 19(40), 405605 (2008).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

A. Rahman, A. Ashraf, H. Xin, X. Tong, P. Sutter, M. D. Eisaman, and C. T. Black, “Sub-50-nm self-assembled nanotextures for enhanced broadband antireflection in silicon solar cells,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 5963 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

J. Zhang, Y. Tang, K. Lee, and M. Ouyang, “Tailoring light–matter–spin interactions in colloidal hetero-nanostructures,” Nature 466(7302), 91–95 (2010).
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Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. (1)

V. Garg, R. G. Mote, and J. Fu, “Rapid prototyping of highly ordered subwavelength silicon nanostructures with enhanced light trapping,” Opt. Mater. 94, 75–85 (2019).
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Opt. Quant. Electron. (1)

Y. J. Yoo, K. S. Chang, S. W. Hong, and Y. M. Song, “Design of ZnS antireflective microstructures for mid-and far-infrared applications,” Opt. Quant. Electron. 47(6), 1503–1508 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. J. Yoo, K. S. Chang, and Y. M. Song, “Design of ZnO hollow nanosphere arrays for UV absorbing transparent glasses,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48(2), 88 (2016).
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Optica (1)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. (1)

J. J. Kim, Y. Lee, H. G. Kim, K. J. Choi, H. S. Kweon, S. Park, and K. H. Jeong, “Biologically inspired LED lens from cuticular nanostructures of firefly lantern,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 109(46), 18674–18678 (2012).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. G. Moharam, “Coupled-wave analysis of two-dimensional dielectric gratings. In Holographic Optics: Design and Applications,” Proc. SPIE 0883, 8–12 (1988).
[Crossref]

Sci. Adv. (1)

Y. Qiu, W. Liu, W. Chen, G. Zhou, P. C. Hsu, R. Zhang, Z. Liang, S. Fan, Y. Zhang, and Y. Cui, “Efficient solar-driven water splitting by nanocone BiVO4-perovskite tandem cells,” Sci. Adv. 2(6), e1501764 (2016).
[Crossref]

Small (1)

Y. M. Song, S. J. Jang, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Bioinspired parabola subwavelength structures for improved broadband antireflection,” Small 6(9), 984–987 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sol. Energy (1)

J. Li, Y. Lu, P. Lan, X. Zhang, W. Xu, R. Tan, W. Song, and K. L. Choy, “Design, preparation, and durability of TiO2/SiO2 and ZrO2/SiO2 double-layer antireflective coatings in crystalline silicon solar modules,” Sol. Energy 89, 134–142 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

J. Tommila, V. Polojärvi, A. Aho, A. Tukiainen, J. Viheriälä, J. Salmi, A. Schramm, J. M. Konitio, A. Turtiainen, M. Niemi, and M. Guina, “Nanostructured broadband antireflection coatings on AlInP fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(10), 1845–1848 (2010).
[Crossref]

Surf. Coat. Technol. (1)

J. Lee, Y. Kim, H. Jang, and W. Chung, “Cr2O3 sealing of anodized aluminum alloy by heat treatment,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 243, 34–38 (2014).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

M. M. Braun and L. Pilon, “Effective optical properties of non-absorbing nanoporous thin films,” Thin Solid Films 496(2), 505–514 (2006).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

E. D. Palik, “Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids,” 2nd ed. (Academic Press, 1985).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic illustration of antireflective moth-eye structures (AMSs) with Al2O3 monolayer on polycarbonate (PC) film. (b) Geometrical parameters of period, height, and filling fraction (FF) of AMSs (c) Calculated effective refractive indices of the Al2O3 coated AMSs on PC film. (d) Real part of electric-field distributions from three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations. (e) Measured transmittances of fabricated samples with different Al2O3 coating thicknesses
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Fabrication steps for Al2O3 coated moth-eye polycarbonate films (b) Photographs of flat PC, moth-eye patterned PC, and Al2O3 coated moth-eye PC. (c) SEM images of top view and cross sectioned view for fabricated samples varying Al2O3 deposition thickness (0 nm, 50 nm, 75 nm, and 100 nm). The scale bar is 250 nm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Schemes of scratch tests on samples (b) Optical microscope images of scratched Al2O3 coated moth-eye PC. (c) Frictional coefficient versus lateral displacement depending on the Al2O3 coating thickness.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Calculated refractive index depending on (a) FF and (b) Al2O3 thickness. (c) Contour plots of transmittance for FF and Al2O3 thickness. (d) Calculated average transmittance depending on Al2O3 thickness and FF.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Schematic view of nanostructures with varying parabolic ratio. (b) Refractive index profile of AMSs for the parabolic ratio with Al2O3 coating (i.e., 75 nm). (c) Contour plots of transmittance of AMSs without and with Al2O3 coating (i.e., 75 nm). (d) Calculated transmittance depending on the angle of incident light. (e) Calculated refractive index with different coating materials (i.e., Si3N4 and SiO2).

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