Abstract

The ion-implantation method can fabricate TiO2 thin films of anatase and rutile structures in an alternate sequence together so that a wide range of applications can be realized. By changing the implantation parameters, the thickness of anatase and rutile thin films can be modulated, and films with a thickness of nano-scale can be achieved. An amorphous TiO2 thin film with a thickness of 13nm was formed in a rutile TiO2 single crystal by low energy He+ ions with high fluences, and this amorphous phase transformed to an anatase and even a rutile phase with thermal treatments. SEM and AFM were used to observe the surface morphology of TiO2 thin film. TEM and Raman scattering techniques confirmed the phase transition process in TiO2 thin films with temperature increase. The design of a combination of TiO2 thin films with both anatase and rutile phases together using the ion-implantation method is also explained.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

TiO2 thin films have been extensively studied because of their interesting optical, electrical and chemical properties [1, 2]. Since a TiO2 thin film with a high refractive index is transparent in visible-light range, it can be used as an antireflection coating on SiO2 thin films [3]. TiO2 films in anatase phase could accomplish the photocatalytic degradation of organic compounds under the radiation of UV, so it has a variety of application prospects in the field of environmental protection [4, 5]. In addition, a TiO2 thin film in rutile phase is known as a good blood compatibility material and can be used as an artificial heart valve [6].

To realize these applications, it is necessary to control the phase transition in TiO2 thin films. It is well known that TiO2 exists in three different phases: anatase, rutile and brookite. Only anatase, rutile and amorphous have been observed in TiO2 thin films up to now [7]. It has been confirmed that TiO2 films consisting of anatase and rutile phases with an appropriate ratio have the best photcatalytic activity [4, 8], so it is important to optimize the preparation process to obtain TiO2 films with optimum phase composition.

Many techniques have been used to fabricate TiO2 thin films, such as sputtering, sol-gel dip coating method, evaporation, chemical vapor deposition, as well as metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) which is a prevalent epitaxial-growth technique with an advantage of large-area deposition [9–17]. However, these methods have limitations in fabricating thin films with high quality crystalline structure. These conventional epitaxial growth methods require good lattice and physical parameters matching between epitaxial film and substrate and usually accompanied by a seriously degraded performance of crystal, resulting in not qualified for practical applications. In this paper, ion-implantation method is introduced firstly to fabricate nano-scale TiO2 thin films consisting of different phases in good crystalline property.

Ion implantation as a promising technology has achieved many useful applications [18–23], and especially, thin film fabrication using implantation assisted with wafer bonding has shown potential values in optoelectronic integrated devices, well-known as “smart-cut” [24, 25], and “crystal-ion-slicing (CIS)” [26]. The principle of this method is: light ions such as H+ and He+ with fluences of 1016-1017 ions/cm2 implanted into a crystal can generate a large concentration of dislocations and defects at the end of ion range, which can trap H+/He+ into bubbles or cracks [27–29]. Subsequent wafer bonding and annealing treatments can promote implanted H+/He+ to aggregate into large cavities, and as a result, the implantation area above the damage layer can be exfoliated from bulk, as a thin film [30–33]. This layer splitting method can be applied to TiO2 to fabricate thin films, but in this paper, versatile ion-implantation method is used flexibly to realize nano-scale TiO2 thin films with different phases combining together to achieve a wide range of functions. It is known that TiO2 films in amorphous and anatase phase is thermodynamically unstable, but can transform to rutile phase via post-annealing treatment. Ion-implantation technique with characteristic of controllability and reproducibility shows its unique advantage in controlling the ratio of different phases in TiO2 films.

In this paper, low energy He+ ions with high ion fluences were implanted into rutile TiO2 single crystal and formed a thin amorphous layer at surface, and this amorphous thin film can transform to anatase thin film after annealing between 400°C~700°C, and then transform into rutile phase after further annealing [8, 34]. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to observe surface morphology and thin film properties; transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman scattering were applied to examine the inner structural modification and phase transition in thin films. How to achieve TiO2 thin films with multi-phase using ion-implantation method is also illustrated in detail.

2. Materials and methods

30keV He+ ions with fluences of 8 × 1016 to 10 × 1016 ions/cm2 were implanted into rutile TiO2 single crystals along [001] axis at room temperature, and the beam current density was kept around 1 μA/cm2 during implantation. Before implantation, all the samples with size of 5mm × 5mm × 0.5mm were optically polished and cleaned. During the implantation the ion beam was electrically scanned to ensure a uniform implantation over the samples, and samples were tilted by 7° off the beam direction in order to minimize the channeling effect.

Post-implant annealing was performed on samples at temperature from 200°C up to 1000°C in air ambient, in order to achieve phase transition. The phase transition process in TiO2 thin films with temperature increasing is shown in Table 1, which is studied by AFM, Raman scattering and TEM methods, shown in the following Results and discussion part.

Tables Icon

Table 1. Phase transformation of TiO2 thin films with temperature increasing

The TiO2 thin film in amorphous phase can be exfoliated easily from rutile TiO2 bulk and bonded on Si substrate. SEM and AFM were used to observe the morphology of TiO2 thin film, as well as the surface topography in different phase state. AFM was performed under ambient conditions on a Bruker Multi-mode VIII microscope (Bruker Corporation, Billerica, MA), operating in tapping mode at a cantilever frequency of 250 ± 10 kHz. The lattice structural modifications induced by ion implantation were detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) method in cross-section, which was performed using Tecnai G2 F20 S-Twin at 200kV with a field emission gun. TEM samples were prepared with conventional polishing and ion-beam milling techniques.

Measurements of phase state in TiO2 thin film were performed with Raman spectra on a Labram HR Evolution Raman Spectrometer under a backscattering geometry. A blue line (488 nm) of an Ar+ laser was taken as the excitation source.

3. Results and discussion

3.1. TiO2 amorphous thin film formed by ion implantation

He+-ions with low energy and high ion fluences (8 × 1016 to 10 × 1016 ions/cm2) implanted into TiO2 can directly form a thin film in amorphous phase at surface. This is because the implantation range induced by He+ ions with low energy is very shallow, the damage caused by electronic and nuclear stopping power overlap at the shallow ion implantation range. Additionally, cascading nuclear collision between target atoms and implanted He+ ions with high concentration also contribute to the totally damaged lattice in the implantation range. The relatively high concentration of vacancy or defects at the end of ion range can trap and aggregate implanted He+ ions into bubbles or cracks, so the amorphous thin film can be detached from TiO2 bulk easily through bonding on silicon substrate and thermal treatments. Referring to “smart-cut” method, ion-implanted surface of TiO2 sample was bonded on Si wafer with special epoxy resin glue, and was exposed to thermal treatment. The amorphous thin film was exfoliated after annealing at 200°C for 1hour. Actually, crevices already exist at the end of ion range after ion-implantation, and bonding can peel off the thin film through exerting mechanical stress. Schematic diagram of this process is presented in Fig. 1, which contains three steps: implanting He+-ions into rutile TiO2 single-crystal and forming bubbles or cracks at the end of ion range; spin coating epoxy resin glue on implantation surface and bonding Si substrate on the surface; imposing a series of annealing on the sample stack until TiO2 thin film is exfoliated from bulk.

 

Fig. 1 The diagram of layer splitting process using ion-implantation with wafer bonding methods

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SEM and AFM methods were used to observe the exfoliated TiO2 thin film and remaining TiO2 sample, shown in Fig. 2. Figure 2(a) presents the morphology of TiO2 thin film bonded on Si substrate and Fig. 2(b) shows the leftover of TiO2 sample with clear boundary, tested by SEM. The boundary of the thin film (top and right sides) is consistent with that in Fig. 2(b) (bottom and right sides), indicating that this thin film was exfoliated from the TiO2 sample. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) was also used to detect atomic composition of this thin film, to confirm this TiO2 thin film. After layer exfoliation, a step shape along the boundary of thin film left on the surface of TiO2 matrix, and the height of the step measured by AFM is around 13 nm. The height is corresponding to the thickness of TiO2 thin film, shown in Fig. 2(c) and (d), but lower than the ion implantation range simulated by SRIM. This is because the dynamic annealing effects induced by high ion fluences can effectively promote out-diffusion of implanted He+-ions to shallower implantation depth.

 

Fig. 2 SEM images of TiO2 thin film (a) and remaining bulk (b), and morphology of TiO2 substrate measured by AFM in three-dimension (c), as well as height graph of step (d).

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TEM was also employed to study inner-structure of He+-implanted TiO2 sample, which are presented in Fig. 3. In Fig. 3(a), amorphous TiO2 thin film can be clearly seen at sample surface with thickness of 13 nm. High-resolution TEM image is presented in Fig. 3(b), which presents disordered structure of TiO2 thin film and good single-crystalline lattice of TiO2 substrate.

 

Fig. 3 TEM images of as-implanted TiO2 sample in (a) and (b), and TEM image (c) and diffraction pattern (d) of TiO2 sample after annealing at 700°C.

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3.2. Phase transition in TiO2 thin film with temperature increase

According to previous research, amorphous phase in TiO2 thin film starts to transform to anatase when annealing at 500°C, and completely becomes anatase thin film at 700°C. After further annealing at 900-1100°C, anatase structure changes to rutile structure [8, 34]. In our present experiment, phase transition can be achieved with lower temperature in the thin amorphous TiO2 film, and amorphous phase transforms to anatase after annealing at 400°C. Raman scattering was used to detect the structural modification in 400°C thermal-treated TiO2 samples, shown in Fig. 4.

 

Fig. 4 Raman spectra of He+-implanted TiO2 sample and sample after annealing at 400°C.

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XRD is the most common used method to test structural properties. It usually reveals the long-range order of materials and gives average structural information within several unit cells. However, our TiO2 film is too thin to be available in XRD measurement. In comparison, Raman scattering as a local probe is very sensitive to crystallinity and microstructures of materials. Comparing with Raman spectrum of as-implanted TiO2 sample in Fig. 4, a clear peak at 144 cm−1 assigned as Eg arisen from the external vibration of the anatase structure was found in Raman spectrum of TiO2 sample after annealing at 400°C, which indicates that an anatase phase exists in the TiO2 thin film after thermal treatment. Therefore, amorphous structure in the thin film at surface starts to transform to anatase structure after annealing at 400°C. A strong peak at 610 cm−1 and a small peak at 450 cm−1 corresponding to Eg and A1g modes of the rutile phase come from the rutile structure of TiO2 substrate [35, 36].

The influence of annealing temperature on surface morphology of TiO2 thin film was also studied by AFM, shown in Fig. 5. Figure 5(a) presents the surface morphology of as-implanted TiO2 sample and column-like structure is found. The diameter of these column-like grains is about 30-50nm, which is consistent with the morphology of amorphous thin film [8]. After annealing at 500°C, these columns aggregate into larger grains with diameter of 50-100nm, which is in agreement with the surface property of anatase structure [34], as shown in Fig. 5(b).

 

Fig. 5 Surface morphology of TiO2 thin film in as-implanted (a) and after annealing at 500°C observed by AFM.

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Imposing further annealing on the TiO2 thin film, anatase phase can be transformed to rutile. TEM was employed to investigate the crystalline modification in the thin film, shown in Fig. 3(c) and (d). Figure 3 (c) shows the inner structure of thin film after annealing at 700°C, and amorphous structure has become ordered lattice. The area circled shows staggered crystalline structure, which is magnified in the inset. The diffraction pattern in Fig. 3(d) is in agreement with the lattice property of TiO2 (100) or (010) facet. Particularly, the diffraction points marked in red circles and magnified in the inset present two points, a major highlight and a side point, which indicate both rutile and anatase structure may co-exist in the thin film. As we know, rutile and anatase crystal both belong to tetragonal lattice system, so the image of bicrystals in Fig. 3(c) and bi-diffraction points in Fig. 3(d) indicate that both anatase and rutile phases appear in the TiO2 thin film after 700°C annealing.

3.3. Design of TiO2 thin film containing both anatase and rutile phases together using the ion-implantation method

According to the above research, we can use ion-implantation method to combine TiO2 thin films in rutile and anatase phase together, shown in Fig. 6. Multi-implantation can be applied on rutile single-crystal TiO2 sample. He+ ions with different energies are implanted into TiO2 sample, and damage layers can be formed at different depths below sample surface (as the position of anatase films in Fig. 6). If ion fluence is large enough, the lattice in damage layers would become totally disordered because of nuclear collisions. The lattice between damage layers may have some defects induced by ion-implantation, but these defects can be recovered by thermal treatments (as the rutile layer between anatase layers in Fig. 6). After a series of thermal treatments, the damage layers with amorphous structure will be transformed to anatase thin films, and there is a rutile thin film sandwiched in anatase films. Therefore, TiO2 thin films with anatase and rutile phase alternately arranged together can be obtained, as illustrated in Fig. 6.

 

Fig. 6 Diagram of combination of TiO2 thin films in rutile and anatase phase together using ion-implantation method.

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Ion-implantation technique is versatile, not only because it can generate amorphous thin films which can be transformed to anatase and even rutile films, but also, it can adjust the thickness of amorphous (anatase) thin films and the rutile thin film between the damage layers through modulating implanting energies. If the energy of implanted ions is increased, the damage layer would locate at deeper position below sample surface. Consequently, the thickness of the rutile film in the middle would increase. Meanwhile, we can also increase the energy and fluence of implanted ions to enlarge the thickness of amorphous layers that can transform to anatase films with annealing. Additionally, with ion-implantation technique, it is possible to obtain TiO2 thin films in amorphous, anatase or rutile phase with only nano-scale thickness, like the 13 nm-thick film illustrated in this paper. According to our research results illustrated above, multi-layer structure with anatase phase and rutile phase together is relatively stable, and the amorphous thin film at surface region can be exfoliated only after bonding and annealing treatments. Consequently, this proposed multi-layer system is reliable. In our future work, we will design TiO2 thin films in amorphous, anatase and rutile phase with the optimum ratio together using ion-implantation method, in order to achieve a wide range of applications.

4. Conclusion

This paper proposes firstly to use ion-implantation method to fabricate TiO2 thin films with anatase and rutile phase together in optimum ratio to achieve a variety of applications. Low energy He ions with high ion fluence were implanted into rutile TiO2 single crystal and formed an amorphous thin film with thickness of 13nm at surface. This amorphous thin film transformed to anatase film after annealing at 400°C, and rutile structure appeared in the film after annealing at 700°C. SEM and AFM were used to observe the morphology of TiO2 thin film, as well as surface topography at different phase state. TEM and raman scattering techniques were used to detect crystalline properties with temperature increasing.

Funding

National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61575129, No. 51272135 and No. 11475105); China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant Nos. 2016M602510, 2015M582408 and 2016M602511); Shenzhen Science and Technology Planning (Grant No. JCYJ20170302142929402, JCYJ20160328144942069, JCYJ20170302142547533 and JCYJ20160422103744090); Guangdong Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 2016A030310059 and 2017A030310316); State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University.

References and links

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4. D. Dumitriu, A. R. Bally, C. Ballif, P. Hones, P. E. Schmid, R. Sanjinés, F. Lévy, and V. I. Pârvulescu, “Photocatalytic degradation of phenol by TiO2 thin films prepared by sputtering,” Appl. Catal. B 25(2-3), 83–92 (2000). [CrossRef]  

5. S. Takeda, S. Suzuki, H. Odaka, and H. Hosono, “Photocatalytic TiO2 thin film deposited onto glass by DC magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 392(2), 338–344 (2001). [CrossRef]  

6. F. Zhang, N. Huang, P. Yang, X. L. Zeng, Y. J. Mao, Z. H. Zheng, Z. Y. Zhou, and X. H. Liu, “Blood compatibility of titanium oxide prepared by ion-beam-enhanced deposition,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 84(1-3), 476–479 (1996). [CrossRef]  

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References

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  1. S. K. Zheng, T. M. Wang, G. Xiang, and C. Wang, “Photocatalytic activity of nanostructured TiO2 thin films prepared by dc magnetron sputtering method,” Vacuum 62(4), 361–366 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. Radecka, K. Zakrzewska, H. Czternastek, T. Stapiński, and S. Debrus, “The influence of thermal annealing on the structural, electrical and optical properties of TiO2-x thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 65–66, 227–234 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  3. C. Martinet, V. Paillard, A. Gagnaire, and J. Joseph, “Deposition of SiO2 and TiO2 thin films by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition for antireflection coating,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 216, 77–82 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  4. D. Dumitriu, A. R. Bally, C. Ballif, P. Hones, P. E. Schmid, R. Sanjinés, F. Lévy, and V. I. Pârvulescu, “Photocatalytic degradation of phenol by TiO2 thin films prepared by sputtering,” Appl. Catal. B 25(2-3), 83–92 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. Takeda, S. Suzuki, H. Odaka, and H. Hosono, “Photocatalytic TiO2 thin film deposited onto glass by DC magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 392(2), 338–344 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  6. F. Zhang, N. Huang, P. Yang, X. L. Zeng, Y. J. Mao, Z. H. Zheng, Z. Y. Zhou, and X. H. Liu, “Blood compatibility of titanium oxide prepared by ion-beam-enhanced deposition,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 84(1-3), 476–479 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  7. P. Löbl, M. Huppertz, and D. Mergel, “Nucleation and growth in TiO2 films prepared by sputtering and evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 251(1), 72–79 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  8. Y.-Q. Hou, D.-M. Zhuang, G. Zhang, M. Zhao, and M.-S. Wu, “Influence of annealing temperature on the properties of titanium oxide thin film,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 218(1-4), 98–106 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. Wicaksana, A. Kobayashi, and A. Kinbara, “Process effects on structural properties of TiO2 thin films by reactive sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10(4), 1479–1482 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. D. Wiggins, M. C. Nelson, and C. R. Aita, “Phase development in sputter deposited titanium dioxide,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14(3), 772–776 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. H. Suhail, G. Mohan Rao, and S. Mohan, “dc reactive magnetron sputtering of titanium-structural and optical characterization of TiO2 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(3), 1421–1427 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  12. K. N. Rao, M. A. Murthy, and S. Mohan, “Optical properties of electron-beam-evaporated TiO2 films,” Thin Solid Films 176(2), 181–186 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  13. K. N. Rao and S. Mohan, “Optical properties of electron-beam evaporated TiO2 films deposited in an ionized oxygen medium,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8(4), 3260–3264 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  14. H. Y. Lee and H. G. Kim, “The role of gas-phase nucleation in the preparation of TiO2 films by chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 229(2), 187–191 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  15. G. A. Battiston, R. Gerbasi, M. Porchia, and A. Marigo, “Influence of substrate on structural properties of TiO2 thin films obtained via MOCVD,” Thin Solid Films 239(2), 186–191 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  16. L. M. Williams and D. W. Hess, “Structural properties of titanium dioxide films deposited in an rf glow discharge,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 1(4), 1810–1819 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  17. A. Ranjitha, N. Muthukumarasamy, M. Thambidurai, R. Balasundaraprabhu, and S. Agilan, “Effect of annealing temperature on nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films prepared by sol-gel dip coating method,” Optik (Stuttg.) 124(23), 6201–6204 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  18. Y.-J. Ma, F. Lu, J.-J. Yin, and C.-D. Ma, “Radiation damage study of MeV ions-implanted Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 178(20), 1464–1468 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  19. Y.-J. Ma, P. Mota Santiago, M. D. Rodriguez, F. Kremer, D. Schauries, B. Afra, T. Bierschenk, D. J. Llewellyn, F. Lu, M. C. Ridgway, and P. Kluth, “Orientation dependence of swift heavy ion track formation in potassium titanyl phosphate,” J. Mater. Res. 31(15), 2329–2336 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  20. Y.-J. Ma, F. Lu, X.-B. Ming, M. Chen, X.-H. Liu, and J.-J. Yin, “Analysis of Si+-implanted Nd:YVO4 crystal: the relation between lattice damage and waveguide formation,” Appl. Opt. 51(23), 5657–5663 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. Y.-J. Ma, F. Lu, J.-J. Yin, and X.-H. Liu, “Refractive index profile in ion-implanted neodymium-doped yttrium vanadate waveguide: the relation between index change and lattice damage,” Opt. Engineering 52 (9), 097101 (1–6) (2013).
  22. A. Stepanov, “Applications of ion implantation for modification of TiO2: A review,” Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 30, 150–165 (2012).
  23. B.-X. Xiang, Y. Jiao, J. Guan, and L. Wang, “Ion implantation induced blistering of rutile single crystals,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 354, 255–258 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  24. M. Bruel, “Application of hydrogen ion beams to silicon on insulator material technology,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 108(3), 313–319 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  25. P. Rabiei and W. H. Steier, “Lithium niobate ridge waveguides and modulators fabricated using smart guide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161115 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  26. M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single-crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  27. Y.-J. Ma, F. Lu, C.-D. Ma, B. Xu, and R. Fan, “Analysis of layer splitting in x and z-cut KTiOPO4 implanted by H+ ions,” Opt. Mater. 54, 1–5 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  28. Y.-J. Ma, F. Lu, M. C. Ridgway, C.-D. Ma, and B. Xu, “Micro-structure analysis of He+ ion implanted KTP by TEM,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(5), 986–995 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  29. Y.-J. Ma, F. Lu, B.-X. Xiang, J.-L. Zhao, and S.-C. Ruan, “Twinning and defect formation mechanism in He+/H+-implanted KTiOPO4,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(9), 3204–3213 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  30. T. Izuhara, R. M. Osgood, M. Levy, M. E. Reeves, Y. G. Wang, A. N. Roy, and H. Bakhru, “Low-loss crystal-ion-sliced single-crystal potassium tantalate films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 1046–1048 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  31. A. M. Radojevic, M. Levy, H. Kwak, and R. M. Osgood., “Strong nonlinear optical response in epitaxial liftoff single-crystal LiNbO3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2888–2890 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  32. P. Olivero, S. Rubanov, P. Reichart, B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, J. R. Rabeau, A. D. Greentree, J. Salzman, D. Moore, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Characterization of three-dimensional microstructures in single-crystal diamond,” Diamond Related Materials 15(10), 1614–1621 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  33. T. A. Ramadan, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood., “Electro-optic modulation in crystal-ion-sliced z-cut LiNbO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(11), 1407–1409 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  34. D. J. Won, C. H. Wang, H. K. Jang, and D. J. Choi, “Effects of thermally induced anatase-to-rutil phase transition in MOCVD-grown TiO2 films on structural and optical properties,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 73(5), 595–600 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  35. V. H. Castrejón-Sánchez, E. Camps, and M. Camacho-López, “Quantification of phase content in TiO2 thin films by Raman spectroscopy,” Superf. Vacio 27(3), 88–92 (2014).
  36. U. Balachandran and N. G. Eror, “Raman Spectra of Titanium Dioxide,” J. of Sol. St. Chem 42(3), 276–282 (1982).
    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

2016 (2)

Y.-J. Ma, F. Lu, C.-D. Ma, B. Xu, and R. Fan, “Analysis of layer splitting in x and z-cut KTiOPO4 implanted by H+ ions,” Opt. Mater. 54, 1–5 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Ma, P. Mota Santiago, M. D. Rodriguez, F. Kremer, D. Schauries, B. Afra, T. Bierschenk, D. J. Llewellyn, F. Lu, M. C. Ridgway, and P. Kluth, “Orientation dependence of swift heavy ion track formation in potassium titanyl phosphate,” J. Mater. Res. 31(15), 2329–2336 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

B.-X. Xiang, Y. Jiao, J. Guan, and L. Wang, “Ion implantation induced blistering of rutile single crystals,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 354, 255–258 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Ma, F. Lu, M. C. Ridgway, C.-D. Ma, and B. Xu, “Micro-structure analysis of He+ ion implanted KTP by TEM,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(5), 986–995 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

V. H. Castrejón-Sánchez, E. Camps, and M. Camacho-López, “Quantification of phase content in TiO2 thin films by Raman spectroscopy,” Superf. Vacio 27(3), 88–92 (2014).

2013 (3)

Y.-J. Ma, F. Lu, J.-J. Yin, and X.-H. Liu, “Refractive index profile in ion-implanted neodymium-doped yttrium vanadate waveguide: the relation between index change and lattice damage,” Opt. Engineering 52 (9), 097101 (1–6) (2013).

A. Ranjitha, N. Muthukumarasamy, M. Thambidurai, R. Balasundaraprabhu, and S. Agilan, “Effect of annealing temperature on nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films prepared by sol-gel dip coating method,” Optik (Stuttg.) 124(23), 6201–6204 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Ma, F. Lu, J.-J. Yin, and C.-D. Ma, “Radiation damage study of MeV ions-implanted Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 178(20), 1464–1468 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

2006 (1)

P. Olivero, S. Rubanov, P. Reichart, B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, J. R. Rabeau, A. D. Greentree, J. Salzman, D. Moore, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Characterization of three-dimensional microstructures in single-crystal diamond,” Diamond Related Materials 15(10), 1614–1621 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

P. Rabiei and W. H. Steier, “Lithium niobate ridge waveguides and modulators fabricated using smart guide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161115 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

Y.-Q. Hou, D.-M. Zhuang, G. Zhang, M. Zhao, and M.-S. Wu, “Influence of annealing temperature on the properties of titanium oxide thin film,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 218(1-4), 98–106 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

T. Izuhara, R. M. Osgood, M. Levy, M. E. Reeves, Y. G. Wang, A. N. Roy, and H. Bakhru, “Low-loss crystal-ion-sliced single-crystal potassium tantalate films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 1046–1048 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

S. Takeda, S. Suzuki, H. Odaka, and H. Hosono, “Photocatalytic TiO2 thin film deposited onto glass by DC magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 392(2), 338–344 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. K. Zheng, T. M. Wang, G. Xiang, and C. Wang, “Photocatalytic activity of nanostructured TiO2 thin films prepared by dc magnetron sputtering method,” Vacuum 62(4), 361–366 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. J. Won, C. H. Wang, H. K. Jang, and D. J. Choi, “Effects of thermally induced anatase-to-rutil phase transition in MOCVD-grown TiO2 films on structural and optical properties,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 73(5), 595–600 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

D. Dumitriu, A. R. Bally, C. Ballif, P. Hones, P. E. Schmid, R. Sanjinés, F. Lévy, and V. I. Pârvulescu, “Photocatalytic degradation of phenol by TiO2 thin films prepared by sputtering,” Appl. Catal. B 25(2-3), 83–92 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. A. Ramadan, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood., “Electro-optic modulation in crystal-ion-sliced z-cut LiNbO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(11), 1407–1409 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

A. M. Radojevic, M. Levy, H. Kwak, and R. M. Osgood., “Strong nonlinear optical response in epitaxial liftoff single-crystal LiNbO3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2888–2890 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single-crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

C. Martinet, V. Paillard, A. Gagnaire, and J. Joseph, “Deposition of SiO2 and TiO2 thin films by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition for antireflection coating,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 216, 77–82 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (3)

F. Zhang, N. Huang, P. Yang, X. L. Zeng, Y. J. Mao, Z. H. Zheng, Z. Y. Zhou, and X. H. Liu, “Blood compatibility of titanium oxide prepared by ion-beam-enhanced deposition,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 84(1-3), 476–479 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. D. Wiggins, M. C. Nelson, and C. R. Aita, “Phase development in sputter deposited titanium dioxide,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14(3), 772–776 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. Bruel, “Application of hydrogen ion beams to silicon on insulator material technology,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 108(3), 313–319 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

G. A. Battiston, R. Gerbasi, M. Porchia, and A. Marigo, “Influence of substrate on structural properties of TiO2 thin films obtained via MOCVD,” Thin Solid Films 239(2), 186–191 (1994).
[Crossref]

P. Löbl, M. Huppertz, and D. Mergel, “Nucleation and growth in TiO2 films prepared by sputtering and evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 251(1), 72–79 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

M. Radecka, K. Zakrzewska, H. Czternastek, T. Stapiński, and S. Debrus, “The influence of thermal annealing on the structural, electrical and optical properties of TiO2-x thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 65–66, 227–234 (1993).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Lee and H. G. Kim, “The role of gas-phase nucleation in the preparation of TiO2 films by chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 229(2), 187–191 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (2)

M. H. Suhail, G. Mohan Rao, and S. Mohan, “dc reactive magnetron sputtering of titanium-structural and optical characterization of TiO2 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(3), 1421–1427 (1992).
[Crossref]

D. Wicaksana, A. Kobayashi, and A. Kinbara, “Process effects on structural properties of TiO2 thin films by reactive sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10(4), 1479–1482 (1992).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

K. N. Rao and S. Mohan, “Optical properties of electron-beam evaporated TiO2 films deposited in an ionized oxygen medium,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8(4), 3260–3264 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

K. N. Rao, M. A. Murthy, and S. Mohan, “Optical properties of electron-beam-evaporated TiO2 films,” Thin Solid Films 176(2), 181–186 (1989).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

L. M. Williams and D. W. Hess, “Structural properties of titanium dioxide films deposited in an rf glow discharge,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 1(4), 1810–1819 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

U. Balachandran and N. G. Eror, “Raman Spectra of Titanium Dioxide,” J. of Sol. St. Chem 42(3), 276–282 (1982).
[Crossref]

Afra, B.

Y.-J. Ma, P. Mota Santiago, M. D. Rodriguez, F. Kremer, D. Schauries, B. Afra, T. Bierschenk, D. J. Llewellyn, F. Lu, M. C. Ridgway, and P. Kluth, “Orientation dependence of swift heavy ion track formation in potassium titanyl phosphate,” J. Mater. Res. 31(15), 2329–2336 (2016).
[Crossref]

Agilan, S.

A. Ranjitha, N. Muthukumarasamy, M. Thambidurai, R. Balasundaraprabhu, and S. Agilan, “Effect of annealing temperature on nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films prepared by sol-gel dip coating method,” Optik (Stuttg.) 124(23), 6201–6204 (2013).
[Crossref]

Aita, C. R.

M. D. Wiggins, M. C. Nelson, and C. R. Aita, “Phase development in sputter deposited titanium dioxide,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14(3), 772–776 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bakhru, H.

T. Izuhara, R. M. Osgood, M. Levy, M. E. Reeves, Y. G. Wang, A. N. Roy, and H. Bakhru, “Low-loss crystal-ion-sliced single-crystal potassium tantalate films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 1046–1048 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single-crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).
[Crossref]

Balachandran, U.

U. Balachandran and N. G. Eror, “Raman Spectra of Titanium Dioxide,” J. of Sol. St. Chem 42(3), 276–282 (1982).
[Crossref]

Balasundaraprabhu, R.

A. Ranjitha, N. Muthukumarasamy, M. Thambidurai, R. Balasundaraprabhu, and S. Agilan, “Effect of annealing temperature on nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films prepared by sol-gel dip coating method,” Optik (Stuttg.) 124(23), 6201–6204 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ballif, C.

D. Dumitriu, A. R. Bally, C. Ballif, P. Hones, P. E. Schmid, R. Sanjinés, F. Lévy, and V. I. Pârvulescu, “Photocatalytic degradation of phenol by TiO2 thin films prepared by sputtering,” Appl. Catal. B 25(2-3), 83–92 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bally, A. R.

D. Dumitriu, A. R. Bally, C. Ballif, P. Hones, P. E. Schmid, R. Sanjinés, F. Lévy, and V. I. Pârvulescu, “Photocatalytic degradation of phenol by TiO2 thin films prepared by sputtering,” Appl. Catal. B 25(2-3), 83–92 (2000).
[Crossref]

Battiston, G. A.

G. A. Battiston, R. Gerbasi, M. Porchia, and A. Marigo, “Influence of substrate on structural properties of TiO2 thin films obtained via MOCVD,” Thin Solid Films 239(2), 186–191 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bierschenk, T.

Y.-J. Ma, P. Mota Santiago, M. D. Rodriguez, F. Kremer, D. Schauries, B. Afra, T. Bierschenk, D. J. Llewellyn, F. Lu, M. C. Ridgway, and P. Kluth, “Orientation dependence of swift heavy ion track formation in potassium titanyl phosphate,” J. Mater. Res. 31(15), 2329–2336 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bruel, M.

M. Bruel, “Application of hydrogen ion beams to silicon on insulator material technology,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 108(3), 313–319 (1996).
[Crossref]

Camacho-López, M.

V. H. Castrejón-Sánchez, E. Camps, and M. Camacho-López, “Quantification of phase content in TiO2 thin films by Raman spectroscopy,” Superf. Vacio 27(3), 88–92 (2014).

Camps, E.

V. H. Castrejón-Sánchez, E. Camps, and M. Camacho-López, “Quantification of phase content in TiO2 thin films by Raman spectroscopy,” Superf. Vacio 27(3), 88–92 (2014).

Cargill, G. S.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single-crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).
[Crossref]

Castrejón-Sánchez, V. H.

V. H. Castrejón-Sánchez, E. Camps, and M. Camacho-López, “Quantification of phase content in TiO2 thin films by Raman spectroscopy,” Superf. Vacio 27(3), 88–92 (2014).

Chen, M.

Choi, D. J.

D. J. Won, C. H. Wang, H. K. Jang, and D. J. Choi, “Effects of thermally induced anatase-to-rutil phase transition in MOCVD-grown TiO2 films on structural and optical properties,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 73(5), 595–600 (2001).
[Crossref]

Cross, L. E.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single-crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).
[Crossref]

Czternastek, H.

M. Radecka, K. Zakrzewska, H. Czternastek, T. Stapiński, and S. Debrus, “The influence of thermal annealing on the structural, electrical and optical properties of TiO2-x thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 65–66, 227–234 (1993).
[Crossref]

Debrus, S.

M. Radecka, K. Zakrzewska, H. Czternastek, T. Stapiński, and S. Debrus, “The influence of thermal annealing on the structural, electrical and optical properties of TiO2-x thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 65–66, 227–234 (1993).
[Crossref]

Dumitriu, D.

D. Dumitriu, A. R. Bally, C. Ballif, P. Hones, P. E. Schmid, R. Sanjinés, F. Lévy, and V. I. Pârvulescu, “Photocatalytic degradation of phenol by TiO2 thin films prepared by sputtering,” Appl. Catal. B 25(2-3), 83–92 (2000).
[Crossref]

Eror, N. G.

U. Balachandran and N. G. Eror, “Raman Spectra of Titanium Dioxide,” J. of Sol. St. Chem 42(3), 276–282 (1982).
[Crossref]

Fan, R.

Y.-J. Ma, F. Lu, C.-D. Ma, B. Xu, and R. Fan, “Analysis of layer splitting in x and z-cut KTiOPO4 implanted by H+ ions,” Opt. Mater. 54, 1–5 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gagnaire, A.

C. Martinet, V. Paillard, A. Gagnaire, and J. Joseph, “Deposition of SiO2 and TiO2 thin films by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition for antireflection coating,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 216, 77–82 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gerbasi, R.

G. A. Battiston, R. Gerbasi, M. Porchia, and A. Marigo, “Influence of substrate on structural properties of TiO2 thin films obtained via MOCVD,” Thin Solid Films 239(2), 186–191 (1994).
[Crossref]

Gibson, B. C.

P. Olivero, S. Rubanov, P. Reichart, B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, J. R. Rabeau, A. D. Greentree, J. Salzman, D. Moore, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Characterization of three-dimensional microstructures in single-crystal diamond,” Diamond Related Materials 15(10), 1614–1621 (2006).
[Crossref]

Greentree, A. D.

P. Olivero, S. Rubanov, P. Reichart, B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, J. R. Rabeau, A. D. Greentree, J. Salzman, D. Moore, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Characterization of three-dimensional microstructures in single-crystal diamond,” Diamond Related Materials 15(10), 1614–1621 (2006).
[Crossref]

Guan, J.

B.-X. Xiang, Y. Jiao, J. Guan, and L. Wang, “Ion implantation induced blistering of rutile single crystals,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 354, 255–258 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hess, D. W.

L. M. Williams and D. W. Hess, “Structural properties of titanium dioxide films deposited in an rf glow discharge,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 1(4), 1810–1819 (1983).
[Crossref]

Hones, P.

D. Dumitriu, A. R. Bally, C. Ballif, P. Hones, P. E. Schmid, R. Sanjinés, F. Lévy, and V. I. Pârvulescu, “Photocatalytic degradation of phenol by TiO2 thin films prepared by sputtering,” Appl. Catal. B 25(2-3), 83–92 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hosono, H.

S. Takeda, S. Suzuki, H. Odaka, and H. Hosono, “Photocatalytic TiO2 thin film deposited onto glass by DC magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 392(2), 338–344 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hou, Y.-Q.

Y.-Q. Hou, D.-M. Zhuang, G. Zhang, M. Zhao, and M.-S. Wu, “Influence of annealing temperature on the properties of titanium oxide thin film,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 218(1-4), 98–106 (2003).
[Crossref]

Huang, N.

F. Zhang, N. Huang, P. Yang, X. L. Zeng, Y. J. Mao, Z. H. Zheng, Z. Y. Zhou, and X. H. Liu, “Blood compatibility of titanium oxide prepared by ion-beam-enhanced deposition,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 84(1-3), 476–479 (1996).
[Crossref]

Huntington, S. T.

P. Olivero, S. Rubanov, P. Reichart, B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, J. R. Rabeau, A. D. Greentree, J. Salzman, D. Moore, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Characterization of three-dimensional microstructures in single-crystal diamond,” Diamond Related Materials 15(10), 1614–1621 (2006).
[Crossref]

Huppertz, M.

P. Löbl, M. Huppertz, and D. Mergel, “Nucleation and growth in TiO2 films prepared by sputtering and evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 251(1), 72–79 (1994).
[Crossref]

Izuhara, T.

T. Izuhara, R. M. Osgood, M. Levy, M. E. Reeves, Y. G. Wang, A. N. Roy, and H. Bakhru, “Low-loss crystal-ion-sliced single-crystal potassium tantalate films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 1046–1048 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jamieson, D. N.

P. Olivero, S. Rubanov, P. Reichart, B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, J. R. Rabeau, A. D. Greentree, J. Salzman, D. Moore, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Characterization of three-dimensional microstructures in single-crystal diamond,” Diamond Related Materials 15(10), 1614–1621 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jang, H. K.

D. J. Won, C. H. Wang, H. K. Jang, and D. J. Choi, “Effects of thermally induced anatase-to-rutil phase transition in MOCVD-grown TiO2 films on structural and optical properties,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 73(5), 595–600 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jiao, Y.

B.-X. Xiang, Y. Jiao, J. Guan, and L. Wang, “Ion implantation induced blistering of rutile single crystals,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 354, 255–258 (2015).
[Crossref]

Joseph, J.

C. Martinet, V. Paillard, A. Gagnaire, and J. Joseph, “Deposition of SiO2 and TiO2 thin films by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition for antireflection coating,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 216, 77–82 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. G.

H. Y. Lee and H. G. Kim, “The role of gas-phase nucleation in the preparation of TiO2 films by chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 229(2), 187–191 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kinbara, A.

D. Wicaksana, A. Kobayashi, and A. Kinbara, “Process effects on structural properties of TiO2 thin films by reactive sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10(4), 1479–1482 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kluth, P.

Y.-J. Ma, P. Mota Santiago, M. D. Rodriguez, F. Kremer, D. Schauries, B. Afra, T. Bierschenk, D. J. Llewellyn, F. Lu, M. C. Ridgway, and P. Kluth, “Orientation dependence of swift heavy ion track formation in potassium titanyl phosphate,” J. Mater. Res. 31(15), 2329–2336 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, A.

D. Wicaksana, A. Kobayashi, and A. Kinbara, “Process effects on structural properties of TiO2 thin films by reactive sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10(4), 1479–1482 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kremer, F.

Y.-J. Ma, P. Mota Santiago, M. D. Rodriguez, F. Kremer, D. Schauries, B. Afra, T. Bierschenk, D. J. Llewellyn, F. Lu, M. C. Ridgway, and P. Kluth, “Orientation dependence of swift heavy ion track formation in potassium titanyl phosphate,” J. Mater. Res. 31(15), 2329–2336 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kumar, A.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single-crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kwak, H.

A. M. Radojevic, M. Levy, H. Kwak, and R. M. Osgood., “Strong nonlinear optical response in epitaxial liftoff single-crystal LiNbO3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2888–2890 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. Y.

H. Y. Lee and H. G. Kim, “The role of gas-phase nucleation in the preparation of TiO2 films by chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 229(2), 187–191 (1993).
[Crossref]

Levy, M.

T. Izuhara, R. M. Osgood, M. Levy, M. E. Reeves, Y. G. Wang, A. N. Roy, and H. Bakhru, “Low-loss crystal-ion-sliced single-crystal potassium tantalate films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 1046–1048 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. A. Ramadan, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood., “Electro-optic modulation in crystal-ion-sliced z-cut LiNbO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(11), 1407–1409 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. M. Radojevic, M. Levy, H. Kwak, and R. M. Osgood., “Strong nonlinear optical response in epitaxial liftoff single-crystal LiNbO3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2888–2890 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single-crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lévy, F.

D. Dumitriu, A. R. Bally, C. Ballif, P. Hones, P. E. Schmid, R. Sanjinés, F. Lévy, and V. I. Pârvulescu, “Photocatalytic degradation of phenol by TiO2 thin films prepared by sputtering,” Appl. Catal. B 25(2-3), 83–92 (2000).
[Crossref]

Liu, R.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single-crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).
[Crossref]

Liu, X. H.

F. Zhang, N. Huang, P. Yang, X. L. Zeng, Y. J. Mao, Z. H. Zheng, Z. Y. Zhou, and X. H. Liu, “Blood compatibility of titanium oxide prepared by ion-beam-enhanced deposition,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 84(1-3), 476–479 (1996).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.-H.

Y.-J. Ma, F. Lu, J.-J. Yin, and X.-H. Liu, “Refractive index profile in ion-implanted neodymium-doped yttrium vanadate waveguide: the relation between index change and lattice damage,” Opt. Engineering 52 (9), 097101 (1–6) (2013).

Y.-J. Ma, F. Lu, X.-B. Ming, M. Chen, X.-H. Liu, and J.-J. Yin, “Analysis of Si+-implanted Nd:YVO4 crystal: the relation between lattice damage and waveguide formation,” Appl. Opt. 51(23), 5657–5663 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Llewellyn, D. J.

Y.-J. Ma, P. Mota Santiago, M. D. Rodriguez, F. Kremer, D. Schauries, B. Afra, T. Bierschenk, D. J. Llewellyn, F. Lu, M. C. Ridgway, and P. Kluth, “Orientation dependence of swift heavy ion track formation in potassium titanyl phosphate,” J. Mater. Res. 31(15), 2329–2336 (2016).
[Crossref]

Löbl, P.

P. Löbl, M. Huppertz, and D. Mergel, “Nucleation and growth in TiO2 films prepared by sputtering and evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 251(1), 72–79 (1994).
[Crossref]

Lu, F.

Y.-J. Ma, F. Lu, B.-X. Xiang, J.-L. Zhao, and S.-C. Ruan, “Twinning and defect formation mechanism in He+/H+-implanted KTiOPO4,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(9), 3204–3213 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Ma, F. Lu, C.-D. Ma, B. Xu, and R. Fan, “Analysis of layer splitting in x and z-cut KTiOPO4 implanted by H+ ions,” Opt. Mater. 54, 1–5 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Ma, P. Mota Santiago, M. D. Rodriguez, F. Kremer, D. Schauries, B. Afra, T. Bierschenk, D. J. Llewellyn, F. Lu, M. C. Ridgway, and P. Kluth, “Orientation dependence of swift heavy ion track formation in potassium titanyl phosphate,” J. Mater. Res. 31(15), 2329–2336 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Ma, F. Lu, M. C. Ridgway, C.-D. Ma, and B. Xu, “Micro-structure analysis of He+ ion implanted KTP by TEM,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(5), 986–995 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Ma, F. Lu, J.-J. Yin, and X.-H. Liu, “Refractive index profile in ion-implanted neodymium-doped yttrium vanadate waveguide: the relation between index change and lattice damage,” Opt. Engineering 52 (9), 097101 (1–6) (2013).

Y.-J. Ma, F. Lu, J.-J. Yin, and C.-D. Ma, “Radiation damage study of MeV ions-implanted Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 178(20), 1464–1468 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Ma, F. Lu, X.-B. Ming, M. Chen, X.-H. Liu, and J.-J. Yin, “Analysis of Si+-implanted Nd:YVO4 crystal: the relation between lattice damage and waveguide formation,” Appl. Opt. 51(23), 5657–5663 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, C.-D.

Y.-J. Ma, F. Lu, C.-D. Ma, B. Xu, and R. Fan, “Analysis of layer splitting in x and z-cut KTiOPO4 implanted by H+ ions,” Opt. Mater. 54, 1–5 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Ma, F. Lu, M. C. Ridgway, C.-D. Ma, and B. Xu, “Micro-structure analysis of He+ ion implanted KTP by TEM,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(5), 986–995 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Ma, F. Lu, J.-J. Yin, and C.-D. Ma, “Radiation damage study of MeV ions-implanted Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 178(20), 1464–1468 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ma, Y.-J.

Y.-J. Ma, F. Lu, B.-X. Xiang, J.-L. Zhao, and S.-C. Ruan, “Twinning and defect formation mechanism in He+/H+-implanted KTiOPO4,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(9), 3204–3213 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Ma, F. Lu, C.-D. Ma, B. Xu, and R. Fan, “Analysis of layer splitting in x and z-cut KTiOPO4 implanted by H+ ions,” Opt. Mater. 54, 1–5 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Ma, P. Mota Santiago, M. D. Rodriguez, F. Kremer, D. Schauries, B. Afra, T. Bierschenk, D. J. Llewellyn, F. Lu, M. C. Ridgway, and P. Kluth, “Orientation dependence of swift heavy ion track formation in potassium titanyl phosphate,” J. Mater. Res. 31(15), 2329–2336 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Ma, F. Lu, M. C. Ridgway, C.-D. Ma, and B. Xu, “Micro-structure analysis of He+ ion implanted KTP by TEM,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(5), 986–995 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Ma, F. Lu, J.-J. Yin, and X.-H. Liu, “Refractive index profile in ion-implanted neodymium-doped yttrium vanadate waveguide: the relation between index change and lattice damage,” Opt. Engineering 52 (9), 097101 (1–6) (2013).

Y.-J. Ma, F. Lu, J.-J. Yin, and C.-D. Ma, “Radiation damage study of MeV ions-implanted Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 178(20), 1464–1468 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Ma, F. Lu, X.-B. Ming, M. Chen, X.-H. Liu, and J.-J. Yin, “Analysis of Si+-implanted Nd:YVO4 crystal: the relation between lattice damage and waveguide formation,” Appl. Opt. 51(23), 5657–5663 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mao, Y. J.

F. Zhang, N. Huang, P. Yang, X. L. Zeng, Y. J. Mao, Z. H. Zheng, Z. Y. Zhou, and X. H. Liu, “Blood compatibility of titanium oxide prepared by ion-beam-enhanced deposition,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 84(1-3), 476–479 (1996).
[Crossref]

Marigo, A.

G. A. Battiston, R. Gerbasi, M. Porchia, and A. Marigo, “Influence of substrate on structural properties of TiO2 thin films obtained via MOCVD,” Thin Solid Films 239(2), 186–191 (1994).
[Crossref]

Martinet, C.

C. Martinet, V. Paillard, A. Gagnaire, and J. Joseph, “Deposition of SiO2 and TiO2 thin films by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition for antireflection coating,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 216, 77–82 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mergel, D.

P. Löbl, M. Huppertz, and D. Mergel, “Nucleation and growth in TiO2 films prepared by sputtering and evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 251(1), 72–79 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ming, X.-B.

Mohan, S.

M. H. Suhail, G. Mohan Rao, and S. Mohan, “dc reactive magnetron sputtering of titanium-structural and optical characterization of TiO2 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(3), 1421–1427 (1992).
[Crossref]

K. N. Rao and S. Mohan, “Optical properties of electron-beam evaporated TiO2 films deposited in an ionized oxygen medium,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8(4), 3260–3264 (1990).
[Crossref]

K. N. Rao, M. A. Murthy, and S. Mohan, “Optical properties of electron-beam-evaporated TiO2 films,” Thin Solid Films 176(2), 181–186 (1989).
[Crossref]

Mohan Rao, G.

M. H. Suhail, G. Mohan Rao, and S. Mohan, “dc reactive magnetron sputtering of titanium-structural and optical characterization of TiO2 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(3), 1421–1427 (1992).
[Crossref]

Moore, D.

P. Olivero, S. Rubanov, P. Reichart, B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, J. R. Rabeau, A. D. Greentree, J. Salzman, D. Moore, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Characterization of three-dimensional microstructures in single-crystal diamond,” Diamond Related Materials 15(10), 1614–1621 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mota Santiago, P.

Y.-J. Ma, P. Mota Santiago, M. D. Rodriguez, F. Kremer, D. Schauries, B. Afra, T. Bierschenk, D. J. Llewellyn, F. Lu, M. C. Ridgway, and P. Kluth, “Orientation dependence of swift heavy ion track formation in potassium titanyl phosphate,” J. Mater. Res. 31(15), 2329–2336 (2016).
[Crossref]

Murthy, M. A.

K. N. Rao, M. A. Murthy, and S. Mohan, “Optical properties of electron-beam-evaporated TiO2 films,” Thin Solid Films 176(2), 181–186 (1989).
[Crossref]

Muthukumarasamy, N.

A. Ranjitha, N. Muthukumarasamy, M. Thambidurai, R. Balasundaraprabhu, and S. Agilan, “Effect of annealing temperature on nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films prepared by sol-gel dip coating method,” Optik (Stuttg.) 124(23), 6201–6204 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nelson, M. C.

M. D. Wiggins, M. C. Nelson, and C. R. Aita, “Phase development in sputter deposited titanium dioxide,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14(3), 772–776 (1996).
[Crossref]

Odaka, H.

S. Takeda, S. Suzuki, H. Odaka, and H. Hosono, “Photocatalytic TiO2 thin film deposited onto glass by DC magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 392(2), 338–344 (2001).
[Crossref]

Olivero, P.

P. Olivero, S. Rubanov, P. Reichart, B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, J. R. Rabeau, A. D. Greentree, J. Salzman, D. Moore, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Characterization of three-dimensional microstructures in single-crystal diamond,” Diamond Related Materials 15(10), 1614–1621 (2006).
[Crossref]

Osgood, R. M.

T. Izuhara, R. M. Osgood, M. Levy, M. E. Reeves, Y. G. Wang, A. N. Roy, and H. Bakhru, “Low-loss crystal-ion-sliced single-crystal potassium tantalate films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 1046–1048 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. A. Ramadan, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood., “Electro-optic modulation in crystal-ion-sliced z-cut LiNbO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(11), 1407–1409 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. M. Radojevic, M. Levy, H. Kwak, and R. M. Osgood., “Strong nonlinear optical response in epitaxial liftoff single-crystal LiNbO3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2888–2890 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single-crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).
[Crossref]

Paillard, V.

C. Martinet, V. Paillard, A. Gagnaire, and J. Joseph, “Deposition of SiO2 and TiO2 thin films by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition for antireflection coating,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 216, 77–82 (1997).
[Crossref]

Pârvulescu, V. I.

D. Dumitriu, A. R. Bally, C. Ballif, P. Hones, P. E. Schmid, R. Sanjinés, F. Lévy, and V. I. Pârvulescu, “Photocatalytic degradation of phenol by TiO2 thin films prepared by sputtering,” Appl. Catal. B 25(2-3), 83–92 (2000).
[Crossref]

Porchia, M.

G. A. Battiston, R. Gerbasi, M. Porchia, and A. Marigo, “Influence of substrate on structural properties of TiO2 thin films obtained via MOCVD,” Thin Solid Films 239(2), 186–191 (1994).
[Crossref]

Prawer, S.

P. Olivero, S. Rubanov, P. Reichart, B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, J. R. Rabeau, A. D. Greentree, J. Salzman, D. Moore, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Characterization of three-dimensional microstructures in single-crystal diamond,” Diamond Related Materials 15(10), 1614–1621 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rabeau, J. R.

P. Olivero, S. Rubanov, P. Reichart, B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, J. R. Rabeau, A. D. Greentree, J. Salzman, D. Moore, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Characterization of three-dimensional microstructures in single-crystal diamond,” Diamond Related Materials 15(10), 1614–1621 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rabiei, P.

P. Rabiei and W. H. Steier, “Lithium niobate ridge waveguides and modulators fabricated using smart guide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161115 (2005).
[Crossref]

Radecka, M.

M. Radecka, K. Zakrzewska, H. Czternastek, T. Stapiński, and S. Debrus, “The influence of thermal annealing on the structural, electrical and optical properties of TiO2-x thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 65–66, 227–234 (1993).
[Crossref]

Radojevic, A. M.

A. M. Radojevic, M. Levy, H. Kwak, and R. M. Osgood., “Strong nonlinear optical response in epitaxial liftoff single-crystal LiNbO3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2888–2890 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ramadan, T. A.

T. A. Ramadan, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood., “Electro-optic modulation in crystal-ion-sliced z-cut LiNbO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(11), 1407–1409 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ranjitha, A.

A. Ranjitha, N. Muthukumarasamy, M. Thambidurai, R. Balasundaraprabhu, and S. Agilan, “Effect of annealing temperature on nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films prepared by sol-gel dip coating method,” Optik (Stuttg.) 124(23), 6201–6204 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rao, K. N.

K. N. Rao and S. Mohan, “Optical properties of electron-beam evaporated TiO2 films deposited in an ionized oxygen medium,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8(4), 3260–3264 (1990).
[Crossref]

K. N. Rao, M. A. Murthy, and S. Mohan, “Optical properties of electron-beam-evaporated TiO2 films,” Thin Solid Films 176(2), 181–186 (1989).
[Crossref]

Reeves, M. E.

T. Izuhara, R. M. Osgood, M. Levy, M. E. Reeves, Y. G. Wang, A. N. Roy, and H. Bakhru, “Low-loss crystal-ion-sliced single-crystal potassium tantalate films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 1046–1048 (2002).
[Crossref]

Reichart, P.

P. Olivero, S. Rubanov, P. Reichart, B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, J. R. Rabeau, A. D. Greentree, J. Salzman, D. Moore, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Characterization of three-dimensional microstructures in single-crystal diamond,” Diamond Related Materials 15(10), 1614–1621 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ridgway, M. C.

Y.-J. Ma, P. Mota Santiago, M. D. Rodriguez, F. Kremer, D. Schauries, B. Afra, T. Bierschenk, D. J. Llewellyn, F. Lu, M. C. Ridgway, and P. Kluth, “Orientation dependence of swift heavy ion track formation in potassium titanyl phosphate,” J. Mater. Res. 31(15), 2329–2336 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Ma, F. Lu, M. C. Ridgway, C.-D. Ma, and B. Xu, “Micro-structure analysis of He+ ion implanted KTP by TEM,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(5), 986–995 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rodriguez, M. D.

Y.-J. Ma, P. Mota Santiago, M. D. Rodriguez, F. Kremer, D. Schauries, B. Afra, T. Bierschenk, D. J. Llewellyn, F. Lu, M. C. Ridgway, and P. Kluth, “Orientation dependence of swift heavy ion track formation in potassium titanyl phosphate,” J. Mater. Res. 31(15), 2329–2336 (2016).
[Crossref]

Roy, A. N.

T. Izuhara, R. M. Osgood, M. Levy, M. E. Reeves, Y. G. Wang, A. N. Roy, and H. Bakhru, “Low-loss crystal-ion-sliced single-crystal potassium tantalate films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 1046–1048 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ruan, S.-C.

Rubanov, S.

P. Olivero, S. Rubanov, P. Reichart, B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, J. R. Rabeau, A. D. Greentree, J. Salzman, D. Moore, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Characterization of three-dimensional microstructures in single-crystal diamond,” Diamond Related Materials 15(10), 1614–1621 (2006).
[Crossref]

Salzman, J.

P. Olivero, S. Rubanov, P. Reichart, B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, J. R. Rabeau, A. D. Greentree, J. Salzman, D. Moore, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Characterization of three-dimensional microstructures in single-crystal diamond,” Diamond Related Materials 15(10), 1614–1621 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sanjinés, R.

D. Dumitriu, A. R. Bally, C. Ballif, P. Hones, P. E. Schmid, R. Sanjinés, F. Lévy, and V. I. Pârvulescu, “Photocatalytic degradation of phenol by TiO2 thin films prepared by sputtering,” Appl. Catal. B 25(2-3), 83–92 (2000).
[Crossref]

Schauries, D.

Y.-J. Ma, P. Mota Santiago, M. D. Rodriguez, F. Kremer, D. Schauries, B. Afra, T. Bierschenk, D. J. Llewellyn, F. Lu, M. C. Ridgway, and P. Kluth, “Orientation dependence of swift heavy ion track formation in potassium titanyl phosphate,” J. Mater. Res. 31(15), 2329–2336 (2016).
[Crossref]

Schmid, P. E.

D. Dumitriu, A. R. Bally, C. Ballif, P. Hones, P. E. Schmid, R. Sanjinés, F. Lévy, and V. I. Pârvulescu, “Photocatalytic degradation of phenol by TiO2 thin films prepared by sputtering,” Appl. Catal. B 25(2-3), 83–92 (2000).
[Crossref]

Stapinski, T.

M. Radecka, K. Zakrzewska, H. Czternastek, T. Stapiński, and S. Debrus, “The influence of thermal annealing on the structural, electrical and optical properties of TiO2-x thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 65–66, 227–234 (1993).
[Crossref]

Steier, W. H.

P. Rabiei and W. H. Steier, “Lithium niobate ridge waveguides and modulators fabricated using smart guide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161115 (2005).
[Crossref]

Stepanov, A.

A. Stepanov, “Applications of ion implantation for modification of TiO2: A review,” Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 30, 150–165 (2012).

Suhail, M. H.

M. H. Suhail, G. Mohan Rao, and S. Mohan, “dc reactive magnetron sputtering of titanium-structural and optical characterization of TiO2 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(3), 1421–1427 (1992).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, S.

S. Takeda, S. Suzuki, H. Odaka, and H. Hosono, “Photocatalytic TiO2 thin film deposited onto glass by DC magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 392(2), 338–344 (2001).
[Crossref]

Takeda, S.

S. Takeda, S. Suzuki, H. Odaka, and H. Hosono, “Photocatalytic TiO2 thin film deposited onto glass by DC magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 392(2), 338–344 (2001).
[Crossref]

Thambidurai, M.

A. Ranjitha, N. Muthukumarasamy, M. Thambidurai, R. Balasundaraprabhu, and S. Agilan, “Effect of annealing temperature on nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films prepared by sol-gel dip coating method,” Optik (Stuttg.) 124(23), 6201–6204 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

S. K. Zheng, T. M. Wang, G. Xiang, and C. Wang, “Photocatalytic activity of nanostructured TiO2 thin films prepared by dc magnetron sputtering method,” Vacuum 62(4), 361–366 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. H.

D. J. Won, C. H. Wang, H. K. Jang, and D. J. Choi, “Effects of thermally induced anatase-to-rutil phase transition in MOCVD-grown TiO2 films on structural and optical properties,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 73(5), 595–600 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

B.-X. Xiang, Y. Jiao, J. Guan, and L. Wang, “Ion implantation induced blistering of rutile single crystals,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 354, 255–258 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, T. M.

S. K. Zheng, T. M. Wang, G. Xiang, and C. Wang, “Photocatalytic activity of nanostructured TiO2 thin films prepared by dc magnetron sputtering method,” Vacuum 62(4), 361–366 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. G.

T. Izuhara, R. M. Osgood, M. Levy, M. E. Reeves, Y. G. Wang, A. N. Roy, and H. Bakhru, “Low-loss crystal-ion-sliced single-crystal potassium tantalate films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 1046–1048 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wicaksana, D.

D. Wicaksana, A. Kobayashi, and A. Kinbara, “Process effects on structural properties of TiO2 thin films by reactive sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10(4), 1479–1482 (1992).
[Crossref]

Wiggins, M. D.

M. D. Wiggins, M. C. Nelson, and C. R. Aita, “Phase development in sputter deposited titanium dioxide,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14(3), 772–776 (1996).
[Crossref]

Williams, L. M.

L. M. Williams and D. W. Hess, “Structural properties of titanium dioxide films deposited in an rf glow discharge,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 1(4), 1810–1819 (1983).
[Crossref]

Won, D. J.

D. J. Won, C. H. Wang, H. K. Jang, and D. J. Choi, “Effects of thermally induced anatase-to-rutil phase transition in MOCVD-grown TiO2 films on structural and optical properties,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 73(5), 595–600 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wu, M.-S.

Y.-Q. Hou, D.-M. Zhuang, G. Zhang, M. Zhao, and M.-S. Wu, “Influence of annealing temperature on the properties of titanium oxide thin film,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 218(1-4), 98–106 (2003).
[Crossref]

Xiang, B.-X.

Y.-J. Ma, F. Lu, B.-X. Xiang, J.-L. Zhao, and S.-C. Ruan, “Twinning and defect formation mechanism in He+/H+-implanted KTiOPO4,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(9), 3204–3213 (2017).
[Crossref]

B.-X. Xiang, Y. Jiao, J. Guan, and L. Wang, “Ion implantation induced blistering of rutile single crystals,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 354, 255–258 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xiang, G.

S. K. Zheng, T. M. Wang, G. Xiang, and C. Wang, “Photocatalytic activity of nanostructured TiO2 thin films prepared by dc magnetron sputtering method,” Vacuum 62(4), 361–366 (2001).
[Crossref]

Xu, B.

Y.-J. Ma, F. Lu, C.-D. Ma, B. Xu, and R. Fan, “Analysis of layer splitting in x and z-cut KTiOPO4 implanted by H+ ions,” Opt. Mater. 54, 1–5 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Ma, F. Lu, M. C. Ridgway, C.-D. Ma, and B. Xu, “Micro-structure analysis of He+ ion implanted KTP by TEM,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(5), 986–995 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, P.

F. Zhang, N. Huang, P. Yang, X. L. Zeng, Y. J. Mao, Z. H. Zheng, Z. Y. Zhou, and X. H. Liu, “Blood compatibility of titanium oxide prepared by ion-beam-enhanced deposition,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 84(1-3), 476–479 (1996).
[Crossref]

Yin, J.-J.

Y.-J. Ma, F. Lu, J.-J. Yin, and C.-D. Ma, “Radiation damage study of MeV ions-implanted Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 178(20), 1464–1468 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Ma, F. Lu, J.-J. Yin, and X.-H. Liu, “Refractive index profile in ion-implanted neodymium-doped yttrium vanadate waveguide: the relation between index change and lattice damage,” Opt. Engineering 52 (9), 097101 (1–6) (2013).

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S. K. Zheng, T. M. Wang, G. Xiang, and C. Wang, “Photocatalytic activity of nanostructured TiO2 thin films prepared by dc magnetron sputtering method,” Vacuum 62(4), 361–366 (2001).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The diagram of layer splitting process using ion-implantation with wafer bonding methods
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 SEM images of TiO2 thin film (a) and remaining bulk (b), and morphology of TiO2 substrate measured by AFM in three-dimension (c), as well as height graph of step (d).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 TEM images of as-implanted TiO2 sample in (a) and (b), and TEM image (c) and diffraction pattern (d) of TiO2 sample after annealing at 700°C.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Raman spectra of He+-implanted TiO2 sample and sample after annealing at 400°C.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Surface morphology of TiO2 thin film in as-implanted (a) and after annealing at 500°C observed by AFM.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Diagram of combination of TiO2 thin films in rutile and anatase phase together using ion-implantation method.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Phase transformation of TiO2 thin films with temperature increasing

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