Abstract

The spectral optimization for maximizing limited luminous efficacy (LLE) of correlated color temperature (CCT) tunable white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with two, three and four color perovskite quantum dots (QDs) excited by a blue chip was investigated under the constraint of designated ultrahigh color rendering index (CRI) and color quality scale (CQS). The results show that high quality white lights with CRIs of 96-97, CQSs of 95-96, and LLEs of 243-225 lm/W at CCTs of 2700 K to 6500 K could be realized by the QDs-converted white LEDs (QD-WLEDs) using a blue chip and different combinations of perovskite quantum dots. The luminous efficacies of QD-WLEDs are expected to reach 114 to 122 lm/W at CCTs of 2700 K to 6500 K, if the radiant efficiency of a blue chip is 60% and the real PLQY values of perovskite QDs are 75%. These results demonstrate that perovskite QD-based LEDs are expected to be promising in next generation display and lighting technologies.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

In the past decade, the metal halide perovskite nanocrystals have attracted great attention from scientists in various areas due to its remarkable optoelectronic properties, such as the high absorption coefficient, high photoluminescence quantum yield (PL QY), narrow emission, and convenient bandgap tunability [1–6]. Specifically, the perovskite quantum dots (QDs) have been successfully applied in the fields of solar energy [7], lasers [8-9], and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) [7, 10-11]. As illumination becomes the second largest energy consumption factor taking up approximately 20% of global electrical energy production [12], it imposes increasing demands of both energy-efficiency and light quality on light sources. QDs-converted white LED (QD-WLED) is considered as one of the most promising lighting techniques in addressing such challenges of reducing the energy consumption and achieving qualified performance. Currently, the most popular commercial WLEDs are mainly based on the integration of traditional yellow phosphors (YAG:Ce) which perform weak emission in the red spectra region with blue InGaN/GaN chips [13]. This trend presents challenges for this type of LEDs to achieve a high luminous efficacy (LE) as well as a high color rendering.

As new-generation phosphor materials, semiconductor nanocrystals or colloidal QDs have tunable and relatively narrow emission across the visible spectral range and small overlap between their emission and absorption spectra in comparison with traditional phosphors. It was reported that many QD-WLEDs using II-VI [14–19], III-V [20–22], and I-III-VI [23–30] type QDs can attain good color quality white lights with CRI over 90. However, they are not preferable in terms of efficiency — most commonly, with LEs less than 80 lm/W. Compared with II−VI group semiconductors, lead halide perovskite nanocrystals have higher absorption coefficient and have narrow emission of relatively longer excited-state lifetime. Additionally, the energy loss introduced by interference of surface or trap states is less in these devices than in traditional QDs [3]. In this circumstance, inorganic cesium lead halide (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I) perovskite QDs, as a promising alternative approach, began to attract a great deal of scientific attention.

To obtain a well-designed QD-WLED suitable for lighting applications, some evaluation metrics must be carefully considered and optimized at many levels of spectrum design to satisfy certain criteria. Examples of these metrics are color rendering index (CRI) or color quality scale (CQS), LE, and correlated color temperature (CCT) [31, 32]. A good white light source must render the real colors of the objects that it illuminates. This feature of light sources has great importance for indoor lighting applications. The CIE CRI is widely used and the only internationally accepted metric for assessing the color-rendering performance of light sources. Recent momentum to commercialize lamps using LEDs for general illumination is exposing some short comings of the CRI. Considering these problems with the CRI, a new metric, CQS, for color rendering evaluation of light sources is developed, which is especially useful for narrow-band emitters such as QDs. In our previous work, optimization of QD-WLEDs was studied under the constraint of both a designated CCT and CRI for high radiation LE [33]. The challenge in the design of QD-WLEDs with a tunable CCT consists of achieving excellent colorimetric properties over a reasonable range of CCTs, while at the same time maximizing LE. According to the results presented in [33], QD-WLEDs using the blue chip and RGB CdTe QDs could realize CCT tunable white lights with CRIs of 95–96, CQSs of 93–94, and limited luminous efficacy (LLEs) of 256–272 lm/W, which increase by 12–21%, compared with those of optimal phosphor-coated white LEDs (pc-WLEDs) [34]. Nevertheless, the photometric optimization of CCT tunable perovskite QD-WLEDs with excellent color rendition has not been explored until now. In this work, the photometric optimization for maximizing LLE of CCT tunable perovskite QD-WLEDs, including down-conversion energy loss, was developed under the constraint of the designated color rendering properties. The CCT was tuned by changing power density ratios of light components while keeping chromaticity coordinates on the Planckian locus for CCT below 5000 K, or the daylight locus for CCT above 5000 K. That is, the chromaticity difference from the Planckian or daylight locus on the CIE 1960 uv chromaticity diagram (Duv) is equal to zero. The reason for this constraint (Duv = 0) is to avoid being out of the range of the chromaticity tolerance quadrangles of white-light sources [35, 36] due to the deviations of peak wavelengths (WLs) of LEDs and QDs. In our experiments, all-inorganic perovskite QDs, which roughly meet the requirement of the optimal peak WLs, have been prepared. Besides, the simulation shows that all-inorganic perovskite QD-WLED could achieve the expected colorimetric properties.

2. Experimental

The all-inorganic perovskite QDs explored in this work were synthesized by typical hot-injection methods with a minor modification based on the previous studies [37, 38].

2.1. Chemicals

Lead chloride (PbCl2, 99.999% trace metals basis), lead bromide (PbBr2, 99.999% trace metals basis), lead iodide (PbI2, 99.999% trace metals basis), and cesium carbonate (Cs2CO3, Reagent Plus, 99%) were purchased from Aladdin. Hexane (97%, Analytical grade) was purchased from Shanghai Lingfeng Chemical Reagent Co., Ltd. Octadecene (ODE, technical grade, 90%), oleylamine (OLA, 90%), and oleic acid (OA, 90%) were purchased from Aladdin. All reagents were used as received without further purification.

2.2. Preparation of Cs-Oleate

Cs2CO3 (0.080 g) was loaded into a 100 ml, 3-neck flask along with ODE (30 ml) and oleic acid (2.5 ml), and the mixture was dried for 1 h at 120oC under vacuum. After degassing, the temperature of reaction solution was then raised to 150oC and kept under N2 atmosphere until it became clear (i.e., until all Cs2CO3 was dissolved).

2.3. Synthesis of CsPbX3 QDs

In a typical synthesis of CsPbX3 QDs, CsPb(Br1.4/l1.6) QDs, 0.066 g PbBr2 and 0.088 g PbI2 with 10 ml ODE were loaded into a 50 ml 3-neck flask and dried under vacuum for 1 h at 120°C. Then 1 ml oleylamine (OLA) and 1 ml OA were injected into the flask. After the mixture was completely dissolved, the reaction temperature was raised to 150°C under N2 and 1ml, the as-prepared Cs-oleate solution was swiftly injected into the flask. Five seconds later, the reaction mixture was cooled down to room temperature by an ice-water bath. The as-synthesized perovskite QDs could be purified via high-speed centrifugation (at 15 000 rpm for 15 min). After centrifugation, the supernatant was discarded and the particles were re-dissolved in hexane. The similar synthetic processes were adopted to prepare violet, blue, cyan, green, yellow, and red emitting QDs. The optical properties of perovskite QDs were monitored through the temporal evolution of UV-Visible and PL spectra. The absorption and PL spectra of QDs were collected at room temperature by ultraviolet spectrophotometer (Shimadzu, UV-3600) and fluorescence spectrophotometer (Shimadzu RF-5301PC), respectively. The PL QY of perovskite QDs was calculated by using the relative quantum efficiency of the QDs compared to the reference of Rhodamine 6G (RD6, QY = 95% dissolved in ethanol [38]- [39], using the following equation.

QYQDs=QYRD6×(IQDs/IRD6)×(ARD6/AQDs)×(nQDs/nRD6)2
where QYQDs and QYRD6 are the PL QY for the QDs and the standard Rhodamine 6G, respectively; IQDs and IRD6 represent the integral PL intensity of QDs and the standard Rhodamine 6G at a specified wavelength; AQDs and ARD6 respectively show the absorption intensities at the same excitation wavelength; nQDs and nRD6 are the refractive indices of the solvents for dissolution. To reduce the re-absorption impact, the absorbance of the sample solutions was maintained less than 0.1 by dilution. The PLQY data are respectively shown in the PL spectra of the corresponding QDs.

The as-obtained perovskite QDs are obviously composition-dependent and the PL properties can also be tuned by varying the anion element composition. When chloride ions were introduced into the reaction system, the CsPb(Cl1-xBrx)3 nanocrystals were prepared. The PL peak shifts to the higher energy direction as the chloride ion content is increased. In contrast, the iodine ions can shift the PL peak to the lower energy direction. According to the PL spectra shown in Figure. 1(a) (Fig. 1(a)), it can be clearly seen that the luminescence can be effectively tuned from 402 to 704 nm by introducing the chloride ions and iodine ions. Figure 1(a) also presents typical normalized PL spectra of perovskite QDs under 360 nm excitation wavelength, from which narrow full-widths at half-maximum (FWHMs) of perovskite QDs can be seen, indicating that all the as-obtained QDs possess a reasonably narrow size distribution. Seven typical color photographs of samples in solution under UV exposure are shown in Fig. 1(b). The TEM images of the yellow emitting perovskite QDs were shown in Fig. 2(c), which suggested that the perovskite QDs perform high monodispersity which agrees well with the narrow FWHM of PL spectra in Fig. 1(a). Figure 1(d) demonstrates that the size distribution of aforementioned QDs have an average size of 9.28 nm.

 

Fig. 1 Composition-dependent PL spectra of CsPbX3 QDs (a) and seven typical color photographs of samples in solution under UV exposure (violet, blue, cyan, green, yellow, orange, and red from left to right) (b), the TEM images and size distribution of the yellow emitting perovskite QDs are shown in (c) and (d) respectively.

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Fig. 2 Real emission spectra of twenty-four CsPbX3 QDs.

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3. Optimization of CCT Tunable QD-WLEDs

To analyze the possible properties of QD-WLED with blue chip and CsPbX3 QDs, the simulation program is developed according to the principle of additive color mixture and CIE method of measuring and specifying color rendering properties of light sources [40]. Considering a spectral power distribution (SPD) that contains emission spectrum from a blue chip, four color CsPbX3 QDs in the QD-WLED, the relative SPD of QD-WLED, SQD-WLED(λ), is given by,

SQD-WLED(λ)=qbSb(λ,λ0b,Δλb)+i=14qiSi(λ,λ0i)
where Sb, qb, λ0b and ∆λb refer to the relative SPD, proportion of the relative SPD, WL, FWHM, respectively, for a blue chip. The subscripts i = 1, 2, 3, and 4 refer to cyan, green, yellow and red CsPbX3 QDs, respectively. Si, qi, and λ0i refer to the relative SPD, proportion of the relative SPD, peak WL, respectively, for each perovskite QD. Twenty four color perovskite QDs (486 nm-704 nm) are used in optimization. The real emission spectra of these CsPbX3 QDs are shown in Fig. 2.

For the blue chip, the chosen WL is varied between 450 nm and 470 nm, while the FWHM is varied between 25 nm and 35 nm. We employ Ohon’s model [41] of SPD for the blue chip. Because of three mixed constraints, 11-dimensional space will be reduced to 8-dimensional space for a particular CCT (Duv = 0) [42]. Unity quantum efficiency is adopted for the ideal case in this model. Thus, LLE, including down-conversion energy loss, can be calculated by [34],

LLE=683λV(λ)SQD-W(λ)dλλ(qb+qab)Sb(λ,λob,Δλb)dλ
where qab=i=14qiλSi(λ,λ0i)λdλ/λSb(λ,λ0b,Δλb)λdλ, and V(λ) is 1988 CIE photopic luminous efficiency function. In order to optimize spectra of the CCT tunable QD-WLEDs with excellent color rendering, we introduce an objective function
F=j=08LLEj(qb,qc,λ0b,λ0c,λ0g,λ0y,λ0r,Δλb)(underconditionsofCRImandCQSn)
where (m, n) = (90, 82), (95, 93) and (96, 95), the subscripts j = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 refer to 2700 K, 3000 K, 3500 K, 4000 K, 4500 K, 5000 K, 5700 K and 6500 K of CCTs (Duv ≤ 0.0054), respectively. Hence, the optimization problem is simplified to find the maximum of the objective functions (F). To solve the above optimization problem, we apply a fast Pareto genetic algorithm [43] due to its capability of exploring a vast set of solutions independently from the starting solution, its efficiency and scalability in addressing complex optimization problems, and its customizability to different kinds of optimization criteria

4. Results and discussion

4.1 Simulation of CCT Tunable QD-WLEDs with two color perovskite QDs

The optimal peak WLs and FWHMs, as well as their photometric and colorimetric properties of CCT tunable QD-WLEDs with CRI ≥ 90 and CQS ≥ 82 at CCTs of 2700 K to 6500 K (Duv = 0) have been obtained by nonlinear program for maximizing F. The simulation results show that CCT tunable QD-WLEDs with CRI ≥ 90 and CQS ≥ 82 at CCTs of 2700 K to 6500 K (Duv = 0) consist of the blue chip (465 nm, 25 nm), green CsPb(Br0.7I0.3)3 (542 nm, 38 nm), and red CsPb(Br0.4I0.6)3 (617 nm, 59 nm) QDs.(As shown in Fig. 3)

 

Fig. 3 Measured UV-Vis absorption and normalized PL spectra of green CsPb(Br0.7I0.3)3, and red CsPb(Br0.4I0.6)3 QDs under 360 nm excitation wavelength. Inset is fluorescence photograph of corresponding QDs.

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The photometric and colorimetric properties of the optimal CCT tunable QD-WLEDs is shown in Table 1. R(9-12) in the table is the average of the special CRI R9 to R12 of the four saturated colors (red, yellow, green and blue). The simulation results show that the optimal QD-WLEDs with two CsPbX3 QDs could realize CCT tunable white-lights with CRIs of 90-92, R(9-12)s of 66-73, CQSs of 82-86 and LLEs of 273-294 lm/W at CCTs of 2700 K to 6500 K (Duv = 0). Furthermore, their special CRIs of R13 and R15 corresponding to the colors of the skin on the face of European and Chinese women are also very high. Both R13 and R15 are especially important for interior lighting. The optimal SPDs of CCT tunable QD-WLEDs with the blue chip (465 nm, 25 nm), green CsPb(Br0.7I0.3)3 (542 nm, 38 nm), and red CsPb(Br0.4I0.6)3 (617 nm, 59 nm) QDs at CCTs of 2700 K to 6500 K are shown in Fig. 4.

Tables Icon

Table 1. Simulated relative radiant flux (Φe%) of each color component, photometric and colorimetric properties of CCT tunable QD-WLEDs with the blue chip, green CsPb(Br0.7I0.3)3, and red CsPb(Br0.4I0.6)3 QDs for CRI ≥ 90 and CQS ≥ 82 at CCTs of 2700 K to 6500 K (Duv = 0).

 

Fig. 4 Optimal SPDs of CCT tunable QD-WLEDs with the blue chip, green CsPb(Br0.7I0.3)3, and red CsPb(Br0.4I0.6)3 QDs at CCTs of 2700 K to 6500 K (Duv = 0).

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4.2 Simulation of CCT Tunable QD-WLED with three color perovskite QDs

Under conditions of CRI ≥ 95 and CQS ≥ 93, the simulation results show that CCT tunable QD-WLEDs at CCTs of 2700 K to 6500 K (Duv ≤ 0.0054) consist of the blue chip (457 nm, 25 nm), green CsPbBr3 (516 nm, 21 nm), yellow CsPb(Br0.5I0.5)3 (572 nm, 25 nm), and red CsPb(Br0.2I0.8)3 (636 nm, 42 nm) QDs (As shown in Fig. 5).

 

Fig. 5 Measured UV-Vis absorption and normalized PL spectra of the green CsPbBr3, the yellow CsPb(Br0.5I0.6)3, and red CsPb(Br0.2I0.8)3 QDs under 360 nm excitation wavelength. Inset in each case is the digital photo of the emission under UV light for each sample.

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The photometric and colorimetric properties of the optimal CCT tunable QD-WLEDs with three CsPbX3 QDs is shown in Table 2. The optimal QD-WLEDs with three CsPbX3 QDs could realize CCT tunable white-lights with CRIs of 95, R(9-12)s of 85-90, R13s of 91-95, R15s of 90-93,CQSs of 93 and LLEs of 250-260 lm/W at CCTs of 2700 K to 6500 K (Duv ≤ 0.0054). The optimal SPDs of CCT tunable QD-WLEDs with the blue chip (457 nm, 25 nm), the green CsPbBr3 (516 nm, 21 nm), the yellow CsPb(Br0.5I0.5)3 (572 nm, 25 nm), and red CsPb(Br0.2I0.8)3 (636 nm, 42 nm) QDs at CCTs of 2700 K to 6500 K are shown in Fig. 6.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Simulated relative radiant flux (Φe%) of each color component, photometric and colorimetric properties of CCT tunable QD-WLEDs with the blue chip, green CsPbBr3, the yellow CsPb(Br0.5I0.5)3, and red CsPb(Br0.2I0.8)3 QDs for CRI ≥ 95 and CQS ≥ 93 at CCTs of 2700 K to 6500 K (Duv ≤ 0.0054).

 

Fig. 6 Optimal SPDs of CCT tunable QD-WLEDs with the blue chip, green CsPbBr3, yellow CsPb(Br0.5I0.6)3, and red CsPb(Br0.2I0.8)3 QDs at CCTs of 2700 K to 6500 K (Duv ≤ 0.0054).

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4.3 Simulation of CCT tunable QD-WLED with four color perovskite QDs

Under conditions of CRI ≥ 96 and CQS ≥ 95, the simulation results show that CCT tunable QD-WLEDs at CCTs of 2700 K to 6500 K (Duv ≤ 0.0054) consist of the blue chip (448 nm, 25 nm), cyan CsPb(Cl0.1Br0.9)3 (501 nm, 34 nm), green CsPb(Br0.9I0.1)3 (526 nm, 27 nm), yellow CsPb(Br5I6)3 (572 nm, 25 nm), and red CsPb(Br0.2I0.8)3 (636 nm, 42 nm) QDs (As shown in Fig. 7).

 

Fig. 7 Measured UV-Vis absorption and normalized PL spectra of the cyan CsPb(Cl0.1Br0.9)3, green CsPb(Br0.9I0.1)3, yellow CsPb(Br0.5I0.5)3, and red CsPb(Br0.2I0.8)3 QDs under 360 nm excitation wavelength. Inset in each case is the digital photo of the emission under UV light for each sample.

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The photometric and colorimetric properties of the optimal CCT tunable QD-WLEDs with four color CsPbX3 QDs are shown in Table 3. The optimal QD-WLEDs with four color CsPbX3 QDs could realize CCT tunable white-lights with CRIs of 96-97, R(9-12)s of 94-97, R13s of 90-93, R15s of 92-95, CQSs of 95-96 and LLEs of 243-254 lm/W at CCTs of 2700 K to 6500 K (Duv ≤ 0.0054). The optimal SPDs of CCT tunable QD-WLEDs with the blue chip (448 nm, 25 nm), cyan CsPb(Cl0.1Br0.9)3 (501 nm, 34 nm), green CsPb(Br0.9I0.1)3 (526 nm, 27 nm), yellow CsPb(Br0.5I0.5)3 (572 nm, 25 nm), and red CsPb(Br0.2I0.8)3 (636 nm, 42 nm) QDs at CCTs of 2700 K to 6500 K are shown in Fig. 8.

Tables Icon

Table 3. Simulated relative radiant flux (Φe%) of each color component, photometric and colorimetric properties of CCT tunable QD-WLEDs with the blue chip, cyan CsPb(Cl0.1Br0.9)3, green CsPb(Br0.9I0.1)3, yellow CsPb(Br0.5I0.5)3, and red CsPb(Br0.2I0.8)3 QDs for CRI ≥ 96 and CQS ≥ 95 at CCTs of 2700 K to 6500 K (Duv ≤ 0.0054).

 

Fig. 8 Optimal SPDs of CCT tunable QD-WLEDs with the blue chip, cyan CsPb(Cl0.1Br0.9)3, green CsPb(Br0.9I0.1)3, yellow CsPb(Br0.5I0.5)3, and red CsPb(Br0.2I0.8)3 QDs at CCTs of 2700 K to 6500 K (Duv ≤ 0.0054).

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For the real blue chip and CsPbX3 QDs, we chose that the radiant efficiency (ηeB) of a blue chip is 60%, the real PLQY values of CsPbX3 QDs are about 75%. The luminous efficacy (LE) can be estimated by

LE=683ηeBλV(λ)SWLED(λ)dλλ(qB+qab)S(λ,λob,ΔλB)dλ
where qab=i=14qiλSi(λ,λ0i)λdλ/PLQYλSb(λ,λ0b,Δλb)λdλ. The LEs of QD-WLEDs with two, three, and four CsPbX3 QDs by excited blue chip at CCTs of 2700 K to 6500 K. are shown in Table 4. The results show that LEs of CCT tunable QD-WLEDs with the blue chip (465 nm, 25 nm), green CsPb(Br0.7I0.3)3 (542 nm, 38 nm), and red CsPb(Br0.4I0.6)3 QDs for CRI ≥ 90 and CQS ≥ 82 are expected to reach 133 to 137 lm/W, with the blue chip (457 nm, 25 nm), the green CsPbBr3 (516 nm, 21 nm), the yellow CsPb(Br0.5I0.5)3 (572 nm, 25 nm), and red CsPb(Br0.2I0.8)3 (636 nm, 42 nm) QDs for CRI ≥ 95 and CQS ≥ 93 are expected to reach 114 to 122 lm/W, and with the blue chip (448 nm, 25 nm), cyan CsPb(Cl0.1Br0.9)3 (501 nm, 34 nm), green CsPb(Br0.9I0.1)3 (526 nm, 27 nm), yellow CsPb(Br0.5I0.5)3 (572 nm, 25 nm), and red CsPb(Br0.2I0.8)3 (636 nm, 42 nm) QDs for CRI ≥ 95 and CQS ≥ 93 are expected to reach 114 to 122 lm/W at CCTs of 2700 K to 6500 K, assuming ηeB = 60% and PLQY = 75%.

Tables Icon

Table 4. Estimated LES (lm/W) of the QD-WLEDs with two, three, and four CsPbX3 QDs (PLQY = 75%) by excited blue chip (ηeB = 60%) at CCTs of 2700 K to 6500 K.

5. Conclusions

In this work, the spectral optimization for maximizing LLE of CCT tunable QD-WLEDs with two, three and four color perovskite QDs excited by the blue chip, including down-conversion energy loss, was investigated under the constraint of the designated ultrahigh color rendition. The results show that white lights with CRIs of 90-92, R(9-12)s of 66-73, CQSs of 82-86 and LLEs of 273-294 lm/W at CCTs of 2700 K to 6500 K could be realized by the QD-WLEDs using the blue chip (465 nm, 25 nm), green CsPb(Br0.7I0.3)3 (542 nm, 38 nm), and red CsPb(Br0.4I0.6)3 (617 nm, 59 nm), with CRIs of 95, R(9-12)s of 85-90, R13s of 91-95, R15s of 90-93, CQSs of 93 and LLEs of 250-260 lm/W by the QD-WLEDs using the blue chip (457 nm, 25 nm), green CsPbBr3 (516 nm, 21 nm), yellow CsPb(Br0.5I0.5)3 (572 nm, 25 nm), and red CsPb(Br0.2I0.8)3 (636 nm, 42 nm) QDs, as well as with CRIs of 96-97, R(9-12)s of 94-97, R13s of 90-93, R15s of 92-95, CQSs of 95-96 and LLEs of 243-254 lm/W by the QD-WLEDs using the blue chip (448 nm, 25 nm), cyan CsPb(Cl0.1Br0.9)3 (501 nm, 34 nm), green CsPb(Br0.9I0.1)3 (526 nm, 27 nm), yellow CsPb(Br0.5I0.5)3 (572 nm, 25 nm), and red CsPb(Br0.2I0.8)3 (636 nm, 42 nm) QDs at CCTs of 2700 K to 6500 K. The luminous efficacies of QD-WLEDs are expected to reach 114 to 122 lm/W at CCTs of 2700 K to 6500 K, if the radiant efficiency of a blue chip is 60% and the real PLQY values of perovskite QDs are 75%. These results demonstrate that perovskite QD-based LEDs are expected to be promising in next generation display and lighting technologies, also provide an important basis for the design and manufacture of CCT tunable QD-WLEDs with high properties.

Funding

National Natural Science Foundation of China (61675049, 61377046, 61177021, and 51575099), and Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai (15ZR1401700).

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14. C. Shen, “CdSe/ZnS/CdS core/shell quantum dots for white LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 7138, 71382E (2008). [CrossRef]  

15. H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5: Ce3+, Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater. 20(14), 2696–2702 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

16. J. D. Gosnell, S. J. Rosenthal, and S. M. Weiss, “White light emission characteristics of polymer-encapsulated CdSe nanocrystal films,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(8), 541–543 (2010). [CrossRef]  

17. C. Chen, J. Chu, F. Qian, X. Zou, C. Zhong, K. Li, and S. Jin, “High color rendering Index white LED based on nano-YAG:Ce3+ phosphor hybrid with CdSe/CdS/ZnS core/shell/shell quantum dots,” J. Mod. Opt. 59(14), 1199–1203 (2012). [CrossRef]  

18. R. Liang, D. Yan, R. Tian, X. Yu, W. Shi, C. Li, M. Wei, D. G. Evans, and X. Duan, “Quantum dots-based flexible films and their application as the phosphor in white light-emitting diodes,” Chem. Mater. 26(8), 2595–2600 (2014). [CrossRef]  

19. M. Adam, T. Erdem, G. M. Stachowski, Z. Soran-Erdem, J. F. L. Lox, C. Bauer, J. Poppe, H. V. Demir, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüller, “Implementation of high-quality warm-white light-emitting diodes by a model-experimental feedback approach using quantum dot-salt mixed crystals,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(41), 23364–23371 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

20. W. S. Song, S. H. Lee, and H. Yang, “Fabrication of warm, high CRI white LED using non-cadmium quantum dots,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1468–1473 (2013). [CrossRef]  

21. J. H. Kim and H. Yang, “White lighting device from composite films embedded with hydrophilic Cu(In, Ga)S2/ZnS and hydrophobic InP/ZnS quantum dots,” Nanotechnology 25(22), 225601 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

22. H. Y. Lin, S. W. Wang, C. C. Lin, K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, Z. Y. Tu, H. H. Tu, T. M. Chen, M. H. Shih, P. T. Lee, H.-M. P. Chen, and H.-C. Kuo, “Excellent color quality of white-light-emitting diodes by embedding quantum dots in polymers material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(1), 2000107 (2016). [CrossRef]  

23. B. Chen, H. Zhong, M. Wang, R. Liu, and B. Zou, “Integration of CuInS2-based nanocrystals for high efficiency and high colour rendering white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale 5(8), 3514–3519 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

24. B. Chen, Q. Zhou, J. Li, F. Zhang, R. Liu, H. Zhong, and B. Zou, “Red emissive CuInS2-based nanocrystals: a potential phosphor for warm white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10105–10110 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

25. P. H. Chuang, C. C. Lin, and R. S. Liu, “Emission-tunable CuInS2/ZnS quantum dots: structure, optical properties, and application in white light-emitting diodes with high color rendering index,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(17), 15379–15387 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

26. C. Sun, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Liu, S. Kalytchuk, S. V. Kershaw, T. Zhang, X. Zhang, J. Zhao, W. W. Yu, and A. L. Rogach, “High color rendering index white light emitting diodes fabricated from a combination of carbon dots and zinc copper indium sulfide quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(26), 261106 (2014). [CrossRef]  

27. D. Y. Jo and H. Yang, “Spectral broadening of Cu-In-Zn-S quantum dot color converters for high color rendering white lighting device,” J. Lumin. 166, 227–232 (2015). [CrossRef]  

28. X. Yuan, R. Ma, W. Zhang, J. Hua, X. Meng, X. Zhong, J. Zhang, J. Zhao, and H. Li, “Dual emissive manganese and copper Co-doped Zn-In-S quantum dots as a single color-converter for high color rendering white-light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(16), 8659–8666 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

29. S. J. Yang, J. H. Oh, S. Kim, H. Yang, and Y. R. Do, “Realization of InP/ZnS quantum dots for green, amber and red down-converted LEDs and their color-tunable, four-package white LEDs,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(15), 3582–3591 (2015). [CrossRef]  

30. H. C. Yoon, J. H. Oh, M. Ko, H. Yoo, and Y. R. Do, “Synthesis and characterization of G ZnAgInS and R ZnCuInS QDs for ultrahigh color quality of down-converted WLEDs,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(13), 7342–7350 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

31. International Commission on Illumination, Method of Specifying and Measuring Color Rendering Properties of Light Sources (CIE, 1995).

32. W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010). [CrossRef]  

33. P. Zhong, G. He, and M. Zhang, “Optimal spectra of white light-emitting diodes using quantum dot nanophosphors,” Opt. Express 20(8), 9122–9134 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

34. W. Yang, P. Zhong, S. Mei, Q. Chen, W. Zhang, J. Zhu, R. Guo, and G. He, “Photometric optimization of color temperature tunable quantum dots converted whitE LEDs for excellent color rendition,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 1–11 (2016). [CrossRef]  

35. ENERGY STAR for SSL Luminaries ver. 1.1, 2008.

36. American National Standards Institute, American National Standard for Electric Lamps, ANSIC78.377 (ANSI, 2008).

37. L. Protesescu, S. Yakunin, M. I. Bodnarchuk, F. Krieg, R. Caputo, C. H. Hendon, R. X. Yang, A. Walsh, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Nanocrystals of cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, and I): novel optoelectronic materials showing bright emission with wide color gamut,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 3692–3696 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

38. P. Wang, X. Bai, C. Sun, X. Y. Zhang, T. G. Zhang, and Y. Zhang, “Multicolor fluorescent light-emitting diodes based on cesium lead halide perovskite quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(6), 5635 (2016). [CrossRef]  

39. P. V. Kamat, “Quantum Dot Solar Cells. Semiconductor Nanocrystals as Light Harvesters,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(48), 18737–18753 (2008). [CrossRef]  

40. G. He and J. Tang, “Spectral optimization of color temperature tunable white LEDs with excellent color rendering and luminous efficacy,” Opt. Lett. 39(19), 5570–5573 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

41. Y. Ohno, “Spectral design considerations for white LED color rendering,” Opt. Eng. 44(11), 111302 (2005). [CrossRef]  

42. I. Moreno and U. Contreras, “Color distribution from multicolor LED arrays,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3607–3618 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

43. E. Hamidreza and D. G. Christopher, “A fast Pareto genetic algorithm approach for solving expensive multiobjective optimization problems,” J. Heuristics 14(3), 203–241 (2008). [CrossRef]  

References

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  1. D. Zhang, S. W. Eaton, Y. Yu, L. Dou, and P. Yang, “Solution-phase synthesis of cesium lead halide perovskite nanowires,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(29), 9230–9233 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. H. Huang, A. S. Susha, S. V. Kershaw, T. F. Hung, and A. L. Rogach, “Control of emission color of high quantum yield CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite quantum dots by precipitation temperature,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 2(9), 1500194 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. X. Li, Y. Wu, S. Zhang, B. Cai, Y. Gu, J. Song, and H. B. Zeng, “CsPbX3 quantum dots for lighting and displays: room-temperature synthesis, photoluminescence superiorities, underlying origins and white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(19), 2435–2445 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. Swarnkar, V. K. Ravi, and A. Nag, “Beyond colloidal cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals: analogous metal halides and doping,” ACS Energy Lett. 2(5), 1089–1098 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. Berry, T. Buonassisi, D. A. Egger, G. Hodes, L. Kronik, Y. L. Loo, I. Lubomirsky, S. R. Marder, Y. Mastai, J. S. Miller, D. B. Mitzi, Y. Paz, A. M. Rappe, I. Riess, B. Rybtchinski, O. Stafsudd, V. Stevanovic, M. F. Toney, D. Zitoun, A. Kahn, D. Ginley, and D. Cahen, “Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOIPs): opportunities and challenges,” Adv. Mater. 27(35), 5102–5112 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. P. Docampo and T. Bein, “A long-term view on perovskite optoelectronics,” Acc. Chem. Res. 49(2), 339–346 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. S. D. Stranks and H. J. Snaith, “Metal-halide perovskites for photovoltaic and light-emitting devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(5), 391–402 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Xu, Q. Chen, C. Zhang, R. Wang, H. Wu, X. Zhang, G. Xing, W. W. Yu, X. Wang, Y. Zhang, and M. Xiao, W. W., “Two-photon-pumped perovskite semiconductor nanocrystal lasers with remarkable low thresholds,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138(11), 3761–3768 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. J. Xing, X. F. Liu, Q. Zhang, S. T. Ha, Y. W. Yuan, C. Shen, T. C. Sum, and Q. Xiong, “Vapor phase synthesis of organometal halide perovskite nanowires for tunable room-temperature nanolasers,” Nano Lett. 15(7), 4571–4577 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. J. Song, J. Li, X. Li, L. Xu, Y. Dong, and H. Zeng, “Quantum dot light-emitting diodes based on inorganic perovskite cesium lead halides (CsPbX3 ),” Adv. Mater. 27(44), 7162–7167 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. X. Zhang, H. Lin, H. Huang, C. Reckmeier, Y. Zhang, W. C. Choy, and A. L. Rogach, “Enhancing the brightness of cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystal based green light-emitting devices through the interface engineering with perfluorinated ionomer,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1415–1420 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. Q. Dai, C. E. Duty, and M. Z. Hu, “Semiconductor-nanocrystals-based white light-emitting diodes,” Small 6(15), 1577–1588 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. A. Tsukamoto and T. Isobe, “Characterization and biological application of YAG:Ce3+ nanophosphor modified with mercaptopropyl trimethoxy silane,” J. Mater. Sci. 44(5), 1344–1350 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  14. C. Shen, “CdSe/ZnS/CdS core/shell quantum dots for white LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 7138, 71382E (2008).
    [Crossref]
  15. H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5: Ce3+, Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater. 20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. J. D. Gosnell, S. J. Rosenthal, and S. M. Weiss, “White light emission characteristics of polymer-encapsulated CdSe nanocrystal films,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(8), 541–543 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  17. C. Chen, J. Chu, F. Qian, X. Zou, C. Zhong, K. Li, and S. Jin, “High color rendering Index white LED based on nano-YAG:Ce3+ phosphor hybrid with CdSe/CdS/ZnS core/shell/shell quantum dots,” J. Mod. Opt. 59(14), 1199–1203 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  18. R. Liang, D. Yan, R. Tian, X. Yu, W. Shi, C. Li, M. Wei, D. G. Evans, and X. Duan, “Quantum dots-based flexible films and their application as the phosphor in white light-emitting diodes,” Chem. Mater. 26(8), 2595–2600 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  19. M. Adam, T. Erdem, G. M. Stachowski, Z. Soran-Erdem, J. F. L. Lox, C. Bauer, J. Poppe, H. V. Demir, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüller, “Implementation of high-quality warm-white light-emitting diodes by a model-experimental feedback approach using quantum dot-salt mixed crystals,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(41), 23364–23371 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. W. S. Song, S. H. Lee, and H. Yang, “Fabrication of warm, high CRI white LED using non-cadmium quantum dots,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1468–1473 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  21. J. H. Kim and H. Yang, “White lighting device from composite films embedded with hydrophilic Cu(In, Ga)S2/ZnS and hydrophobic InP/ZnS quantum dots,” Nanotechnology 25(22), 225601 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. H. Y. Lin, S. W. Wang, C. C. Lin, K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, Z. Y. Tu, H. H. Tu, T. M. Chen, M. H. Shih, P. T. Lee, H.-M. P. Chen, and H.-C. Kuo, “Excellent color quality of white-light-emitting diodes by embedding quantum dots in polymers material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(1), 2000107 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  23. B. Chen, H. Zhong, M. Wang, R. Liu, and B. Zou, “Integration of CuInS2-based nanocrystals for high efficiency and high colour rendering white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale 5(8), 3514–3519 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. B. Chen, Q. Zhou, J. Li, F. Zhang, R. Liu, H. Zhong, and B. Zou, “Red emissive CuInS2-based nanocrystals: a potential phosphor for warm white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10105–10110 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. P. H. Chuang, C. C. Lin, and R. S. Liu, “Emission-tunable CuInS2/ZnS quantum dots: structure, optical properties, and application in white light-emitting diodes with high color rendering index,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(17), 15379–15387 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. C. Sun, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Liu, S. Kalytchuk, S. V. Kershaw, T. Zhang, X. Zhang, J. Zhao, W. W. Yu, and A. L. Rogach, “High color rendering index white light emitting diodes fabricated from a combination of carbon dots and zinc copper indium sulfide quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(26), 261106 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  27. D. Y. Jo and H. Yang, “Spectral broadening of Cu-In-Zn-S quantum dot color converters for high color rendering white lighting device,” J. Lumin. 166, 227–232 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  28. X. Yuan, R. Ma, W. Zhang, J. Hua, X. Meng, X. Zhong, J. Zhang, J. Zhao, and H. Li, “Dual emissive manganese and copper Co-doped Zn-In-S quantum dots as a single color-converter for high color rendering white-light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(16), 8659–8666 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. S. J. Yang, J. H. Oh, S. Kim, H. Yang, and Y. R. Do, “Realization of InP/ZnS quantum dots for green, amber and red down-converted LEDs and their color-tunable, four-package white LEDs,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(15), 3582–3591 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  30. H. C. Yoon, J. H. Oh, M. Ko, H. Yoo, and Y. R. Do, “Synthesis and characterization of G ZnAgInS and R ZnCuInS QDs for ultrahigh color quality of down-converted WLEDs,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(13), 7342–7350 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. International Commission on Illumination, Method of Specifying and Measuring Color Rendering Properties of Light Sources (CIE, 1995).
  32. W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  33. P. Zhong, G. He, and M. Zhang, “Optimal spectra of white light-emitting diodes using quantum dot nanophosphors,” Opt. Express 20(8), 9122–9134 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. W. Yang, P. Zhong, S. Mei, Q. Chen, W. Zhang, J. Zhu, R. Guo, and G. He, “Photometric optimization of color temperature tunable quantum dots converted whitE LEDs for excellent color rendition,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 1–11 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  35. ENERGY STAR for SSL Luminaries ver. 1.1, 2008.
  36. American National Standards Institute, American National Standard for Electric Lamps, ANSIC78.377 (ANSI, 2008).
  37. L. Protesescu, S. Yakunin, M. I. Bodnarchuk, F. Krieg, R. Caputo, C. H. Hendon, R. X. Yang, A. Walsh, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Nanocrystals of cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, and I): novel optoelectronic materials showing bright emission with wide color gamut,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 3692–3696 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. P. Wang, X. Bai, C. Sun, X. Y. Zhang, T. G. Zhang, and Y. Zhang, “Multicolor fluorescent light-emitting diodes based on cesium lead halide perovskite quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(6), 5635 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  39. P. V. Kamat, “Quantum Dot Solar Cells. Semiconductor Nanocrystals as Light Harvesters,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(48), 18737–18753 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  40. G. He and J. Tang, “Spectral optimization of color temperature tunable white LEDs with excellent color rendering and luminous efficacy,” Opt. Lett. 39(19), 5570–5573 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  41. Y. Ohno, “Spectral design considerations for white LED color rendering,” Opt. Eng. 44(11), 111302 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  42. I. Moreno and U. Contreras, “Color distribution from multicolor LED arrays,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3607–3618 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  43. E. Hamidreza and D. G. Christopher, “A fast Pareto genetic algorithm approach for solving expensive multiobjective optimization problems,” J. Heuristics 14(3), 203–241 (2008).
    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

A. Swarnkar, V. K. Ravi, and A. Nag, “Beyond colloidal cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals: analogous metal halides and doping,” ACS Energy Lett. 2(5), 1089–1098 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (7)

P. Docampo and T. Bein, “A long-term view on perovskite optoelectronics,” Acc. Chem. Res. 49(2), 339–346 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, Q. Chen, C. Zhang, R. Wang, H. Wu, X. Zhang, G. Xing, W. W. Yu, X. Wang, Y. Zhang, and M. Xiao, W. W., “Two-photon-pumped perovskite semiconductor nanocrystal lasers with remarkable low thresholds,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138(11), 3761–3768 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, H. Lin, H. Huang, C. Reckmeier, Y. Zhang, W. C. Choy, and A. L. Rogach, “Enhancing the brightness of cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystal based green light-emitting devices through the interface engineering with perfluorinated ionomer,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1415–1420 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Li, Y. Wu, S. Zhang, B. Cai, Y. Gu, J. Song, and H. B. Zeng, “CsPbX3 quantum dots for lighting and displays: room-temperature synthesis, photoluminescence superiorities, underlying origins and white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(19), 2435–2445 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Lin, S. W. Wang, C. C. Lin, K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, Z. Y. Tu, H. H. Tu, T. M. Chen, M. H. Shih, P. T. Lee, H.-M. P. Chen, and H.-C. Kuo, “Excellent color quality of white-light-emitting diodes by embedding quantum dots in polymers material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(1), 2000107 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Yang, P. Zhong, S. Mei, Q. Chen, W. Zhang, J. Zhu, R. Guo, and G. He, “Photometric optimization of color temperature tunable quantum dots converted whitE LEDs for excellent color rendition,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 1–11 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Wang, X. Bai, C. Sun, X. Y. Zhang, T. G. Zhang, and Y. Zhang, “Multicolor fluorescent light-emitting diodes based on cesium lead halide perovskite quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(6), 5635 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (12)

L. Protesescu, S. Yakunin, M. I. Bodnarchuk, F. Krieg, R. Caputo, C. H. Hendon, R. X. Yang, A. Walsh, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Nanocrystals of cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, and I): novel optoelectronic materials showing bright emission with wide color gamut,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 3692–3696 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Adam, T. Erdem, G. M. Stachowski, Z. Soran-Erdem, J. F. L. Lox, C. Bauer, J. Poppe, H. V. Demir, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüller, “Implementation of high-quality warm-white light-emitting diodes by a model-experimental feedback approach using quantum dot-salt mixed crystals,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(41), 23364–23371 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Jo and H. Yang, “Spectral broadening of Cu-In-Zn-S quantum dot color converters for high color rendering white lighting device,” J. Lumin. 166, 227–232 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Yuan, R. Ma, W. Zhang, J. Hua, X. Meng, X. Zhong, J. Zhang, J. Zhao, and H. Li, “Dual emissive manganese and copper Co-doped Zn-In-S quantum dots as a single color-converter for high color rendering white-light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(16), 8659–8666 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Yang, J. H. Oh, S. Kim, H. Yang, and Y. R. Do, “Realization of InP/ZnS quantum dots for green, amber and red down-converted LEDs and their color-tunable, four-package white LEDs,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(15), 3582–3591 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. C. Yoon, J. H. Oh, M. Ko, H. Yoo, and Y. R. Do, “Synthesis and characterization of G ZnAgInS and R ZnCuInS QDs for ultrahigh color quality of down-converted WLEDs,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(13), 7342–7350 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xing, X. F. Liu, Q. Zhang, S. T. Ha, Y. W. Yuan, C. Shen, T. C. Sum, and Q. Xiong, “Vapor phase synthesis of organometal halide perovskite nanowires for tunable room-temperature nanolasers,” Nano Lett. 15(7), 4571–4577 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Song, J. Li, X. Li, L. Xu, Y. Dong, and H. Zeng, “Quantum dot light-emitting diodes based on inorganic perovskite cesium lead halides (CsPbX3 ),” Adv. Mater. 27(44), 7162–7167 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. D. Stranks and H. J. Snaith, “Metal-halide perovskites for photovoltaic and light-emitting devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(5), 391–402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Berry, T. Buonassisi, D. A. Egger, G. Hodes, L. Kronik, Y. L. Loo, I. Lubomirsky, S. R. Marder, Y. Mastai, J. S. Miller, D. B. Mitzi, Y. Paz, A. M. Rappe, I. Riess, B. Rybtchinski, O. Stafsudd, V. Stevanovic, M. F. Toney, D. Zitoun, A. Kahn, D. Ginley, and D. Cahen, “Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOIPs): opportunities and challenges,” Adv. Mater. 27(35), 5102–5112 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Zhang, S. W. Eaton, Y. Yu, L. Dou, and P. Yang, “Solution-phase synthesis of cesium lead halide perovskite nanowires,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(29), 9230–9233 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, A. S. Susha, S. V. Kershaw, T. F. Hung, and A. L. Rogach, “Control of emission color of high quantum yield CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite quantum dots by precipitation temperature,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 2(9), 1500194 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

R. Liang, D. Yan, R. Tian, X. Yu, W. Shi, C. Li, M. Wei, D. G. Evans, and X. Duan, “Quantum dots-based flexible films and their application as the phosphor in white light-emitting diodes,” Chem. Mater. 26(8), 2595–2600 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. H. Chuang, C. C. Lin, and R. S. Liu, “Emission-tunable CuInS2/ZnS quantum dots: structure, optical properties, and application in white light-emitting diodes with high color rendering index,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(17), 15379–15387 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Sun, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Liu, S. Kalytchuk, S. V. Kershaw, T. Zhang, X. Zhang, J. Zhao, W. W. Yu, and A. L. Rogach, “High color rendering index white light emitting diodes fabricated from a combination of carbon dots and zinc copper indium sulfide quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(26), 261106 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. H. Kim and H. Yang, “White lighting device from composite films embedded with hydrophilic Cu(In, Ga)S2/ZnS and hydrophobic InP/ZnS quantum dots,” Nanotechnology 25(22), 225601 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. He and J. Tang, “Spectral optimization of color temperature tunable white LEDs with excellent color rendering and luminous efficacy,” Opt. Lett. 39(19), 5570–5573 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

2012 (2)

P. Zhong, G. He, and M. Zhang, “Optimal spectra of white light-emitting diodes using quantum dot nanophosphors,” Opt. Express 20(8), 9122–9134 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Chen, J. Chu, F. Qian, X. Zou, C. Zhong, K. Li, and S. Jin, “High color rendering Index white LED based on nano-YAG:Ce3+ phosphor hybrid with CdSe/CdS/ZnS core/shell/shell quantum dots,” J. Mod. Opt. 59(14), 1199–1203 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

J. D. Gosnell, S. J. Rosenthal, and S. M. Weiss, “White light emission characteristics of polymer-encapsulated CdSe nanocrystal films,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(8), 541–543 (2010).
[Crossref]

Q. Dai, C. E. Duty, and M. Z. Hu, “Semiconductor-nanocrystals-based white light-emitting diodes,” Small 6(15), 1577–1588 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

A. Tsukamoto and T. Isobe, “Characterization and biological application of YAG:Ce3+ nanophosphor modified with mercaptopropyl trimethoxy silane,” J. Mater. Sci. 44(5), 1344–1350 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

C. Shen, “CdSe/ZnS/CdS core/shell quantum dots for white LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 7138, 71382E (2008).
[Crossref]

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5: Ce3+, Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater. 20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. V. Kamat, “Quantum Dot Solar Cells. Semiconductor Nanocrystals as Light Harvesters,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(48), 18737–18753 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Hamidreza and D. G. Christopher, “A fast Pareto genetic algorithm approach for solving expensive multiobjective optimization problems,” J. Heuristics 14(3), 203–241 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

Y. Ohno, “Spectral design considerations for white LED color rendering,” Opt. Eng. 44(11), 111302 (2005).
[Crossref]

Adam, M.

M. Adam, T. Erdem, G. M. Stachowski, Z. Soran-Erdem, J. F. L. Lox, C. Bauer, J. Poppe, H. V. Demir, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüller, “Implementation of high-quality warm-white light-emitting diodes by a model-experimental feedback approach using quantum dot-salt mixed crystals,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(41), 23364–23371 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, X.

P. Wang, X. Bai, C. Sun, X. Y. Zhang, T. G. Zhang, and Y. Zhang, “Multicolor fluorescent light-emitting diodes based on cesium lead halide perovskite quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(6), 5635 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bauer, C.

M. Adam, T. Erdem, G. M. Stachowski, Z. Soran-Erdem, J. F. L. Lox, C. Bauer, J. Poppe, H. V. Demir, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüller, “Implementation of high-quality warm-white light-emitting diodes by a model-experimental feedback approach using quantum dot-salt mixed crystals,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(41), 23364–23371 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bein, T.

P. Docampo and T. Bein, “A long-term view on perovskite optoelectronics,” Acc. Chem. Res. 49(2), 339–346 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berry, J.

J. Berry, T. Buonassisi, D. A. Egger, G. Hodes, L. Kronik, Y. L. Loo, I. Lubomirsky, S. R. Marder, Y. Mastai, J. S. Miller, D. B. Mitzi, Y. Paz, A. M. Rappe, I. Riess, B. Rybtchinski, O. Stafsudd, V. Stevanovic, M. F. Toney, D. Zitoun, A. Kahn, D. Ginley, and D. Cahen, “Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOIPs): opportunities and challenges,” Adv. Mater. 27(35), 5102–5112 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bodnarchuk, M. I.

L. Protesescu, S. Yakunin, M. I. Bodnarchuk, F. Krieg, R. Caputo, C. H. Hendon, R. X. Yang, A. Walsh, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Nanocrystals of cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, and I): novel optoelectronic materials showing bright emission with wide color gamut,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 3692–3696 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buonassisi, T.

J. Berry, T. Buonassisi, D. A. Egger, G. Hodes, L. Kronik, Y. L. Loo, I. Lubomirsky, S. R. Marder, Y. Mastai, J. S. Miller, D. B. Mitzi, Y. Paz, A. M. Rappe, I. Riess, B. Rybtchinski, O. Stafsudd, V. Stevanovic, M. F. Toney, D. Zitoun, A. Kahn, D. Ginley, and D. Cahen, “Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOIPs): opportunities and challenges,” Adv. Mater. 27(35), 5102–5112 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cahen, D.

J. Berry, T. Buonassisi, D. A. Egger, G. Hodes, L. Kronik, Y. L. Loo, I. Lubomirsky, S. R. Marder, Y. Mastai, J. S. Miller, D. B. Mitzi, Y. Paz, A. M. Rappe, I. Riess, B. Rybtchinski, O. Stafsudd, V. Stevanovic, M. F. Toney, D. Zitoun, A. Kahn, D. Ginley, and D. Cahen, “Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOIPs): opportunities and challenges,” Adv. Mater. 27(35), 5102–5112 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, B.

X. Li, Y. Wu, S. Zhang, B. Cai, Y. Gu, J. Song, and H. B. Zeng, “CsPbX3 quantum dots for lighting and displays: room-temperature synthesis, photoluminescence superiorities, underlying origins and white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(19), 2435–2445 (2016).
[Crossref]

Caputo, R.

L. Protesescu, S. Yakunin, M. I. Bodnarchuk, F. Krieg, R. Caputo, C. H. Hendon, R. X. Yang, A. Walsh, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Nanocrystals of cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, and I): novel optoelectronic materials showing bright emission with wide color gamut,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 3692–3696 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, B.

B. Chen, Q. Zhou, J. Li, F. Zhang, R. Liu, H. Zhong, and B. Zou, “Red emissive CuInS2-based nanocrystals: a potential phosphor for warm white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10105–10110 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Chen, H. Zhong, M. Wang, R. Liu, and B. Zou, “Integration of CuInS2-based nanocrystals for high efficiency and high colour rendering white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale 5(8), 3514–3519 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C.

C. Chen, J. Chu, F. Qian, X. Zou, C. Zhong, K. Li, and S. Jin, “High color rendering Index white LED based on nano-YAG:Ce3+ phosphor hybrid with CdSe/CdS/ZnS core/shell/shell quantum dots,” J. Mod. Opt. 59(14), 1199–1203 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.-M. P.

H. Y. Lin, S. W. Wang, C. C. Lin, K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, Z. Y. Tu, H. H. Tu, T. M. Chen, M. H. Shih, P. T. Lee, H.-M. P. Chen, and H.-C. Kuo, “Excellent color quality of white-light-emitting diodes by embedding quantum dots in polymers material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(1), 2000107 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, K. J.

H. Y. Lin, S. W. Wang, C. C. Lin, K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, Z. Y. Tu, H. H. Tu, T. M. Chen, M. H. Shih, P. T. Lee, H.-M. P. Chen, and H.-C. Kuo, “Excellent color quality of white-light-emitting diodes by embedding quantum dots in polymers material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(1), 2000107 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q.

Y. Xu, Q. Chen, C. Zhang, R. Wang, H. Wu, X. Zhang, G. Xing, W. W. Yu, X. Wang, Y. Zhang, and M. Xiao, W. W., “Two-photon-pumped perovskite semiconductor nanocrystal lasers with remarkable low thresholds,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138(11), 3761–3768 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Yang, P. Zhong, S. Mei, Q. Chen, W. Zhang, J. Zhu, R. Guo, and G. He, “Photometric optimization of color temperature tunable quantum dots converted whitE LEDs for excellent color rendition,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 1–11 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, T. M.

H. Y. Lin, S. W. Wang, C. C. Lin, K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, Z. Y. Tu, H. H. Tu, T. M. Chen, M. H. Shih, P. T. Lee, H.-M. P. Chen, and H.-C. Kuo, “Excellent color quality of white-light-emitting diodes by embedding quantum dots in polymers material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(1), 2000107 (2016).
[Crossref]

Choy, W. C.

X. Zhang, H. Lin, H. Huang, C. Reckmeier, Y. Zhang, W. C. Choy, and A. L. Rogach, “Enhancing the brightness of cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystal based green light-emitting devices through the interface engineering with perfluorinated ionomer,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1415–1420 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Christopher, D. G.

E. Hamidreza and D. G. Christopher, “A fast Pareto genetic algorithm approach for solving expensive multiobjective optimization problems,” J. Heuristics 14(3), 203–241 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chu, J.

C. Chen, J. Chu, F. Qian, X. Zou, C. Zhong, K. Li, and S. Jin, “High color rendering Index white LED based on nano-YAG:Ce3+ phosphor hybrid with CdSe/CdS/ZnS core/shell/shell quantum dots,” J. Mod. Opt. 59(14), 1199–1203 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chuang, P. H.

P. H. Chuang, C. C. Lin, and R. S. Liu, “Emission-tunable CuInS2/ZnS quantum dots: structure, optical properties, and application in white light-emitting diodes with high color rendering index,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(17), 15379–15387 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Contreras, U.

Dai, Q.

Q. Dai, C. E. Duty, and M. Z. Hu, “Semiconductor-nanocrystals-based white light-emitting diodes,” Small 6(15), 1577–1588 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davis, W.

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
[Crossref]

Demir, H. V.

M. Adam, T. Erdem, G. M. Stachowski, Z. Soran-Erdem, J. F. L. Lox, C. Bauer, J. Poppe, H. V. Demir, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüller, “Implementation of high-quality warm-white light-emitting diodes by a model-experimental feedback approach using quantum dot-salt mixed crystals,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(41), 23364–23371 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Do, Y. R.

H. C. Yoon, J. H. Oh, M. Ko, H. Yoo, and Y. R. Do, “Synthesis and characterization of G ZnAgInS and R ZnCuInS QDs for ultrahigh color quality of down-converted WLEDs,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(13), 7342–7350 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Yang, J. H. Oh, S. Kim, H. Yang, and Y. R. Do, “Realization of InP/ZnS quantum dots for green, amber and red down-converted LEDs and their color-tunable, four-package white LEDs,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(15), 3582–3591 (2015).
[Crossref]

Docampo, P.

P. Docampo and T. Bein, “A long-term view on perovskite optoelectronics,” Acc. Chem. Res. 49(2), 339–346 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, Y.

J. Song, J. Li, X. Li, L. Xu, Y. Dong, and H. Zeng, “Quantum dot light-emitting diodes based on inorganic perovskite cesium lead halides (CsPbX3 ),” Adv. Mater. 27(44), 7162–7167 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dou, L.

D. Zhang, S. W. Eaton, Y. Yu, L. Dou, and P. Yang, “Solution-phase synthesis of cesium lead halide perovskite nanowires,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(29), 9230–9233 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duan, X.

R. Liang, D. Yan, R. Tian, X. Yu, W. Shi, C. Li, M. Wei, D. G. Evans, and X. Duan, “Quantum dots-based flexible films and their application as the phosphor in white light-emitting diodes,” Chem. Mater. 26(8), 2595–2600 (2014).
[Crossref]

Duty, C. E.

Q. Dai, C. E. Duty, and M. Z. Hu, “Semiconductor-nanocrystals-based white light-emitting diodes,” Small 6(15), 1577–1588 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eaton, S. W.

D. Zhang, S. W. Eaton, Y. Yu, L. Dou, and P. Yang, “Solution-phase synthesis of cesium lead halide perovskite nanowires,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(29), 9230–9233 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Egger, D. A.

J. Berry, T. Buonassisi, D. A. Egger, G. Hodes, L. Kronik, Y. L. Loo, I. Lubomirsky, S. R. Marder, Y. Mastai, J. S. Miller, D. B. Mitzi, Y. Paz, A. M. Rappe, I. Riess, B. Rybtchinski, O. Stafsudd, V. Stevanovic, M. F. Toney, D. Zitoun, A. Kahn, D. Ginley, and D. Cahen, “Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOIPs): opportunities and challenges,” Adv. Mater. 27(35), 5102–5112 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Erdem, T.

M. Adam, T. Erdem, G. M. Stachowski, Z. Soran-Erdem, J. F. L. Lox, C. Bauer, J. Poppe, H. V. Demir, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüller, “Implementation of high-quality warm-white light-emitting diodes by a model-experimental feedback approach using quantum dot-salt mixed crystals,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(41), 23364–23371 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Evans, D. G.

R. Liang, D. Yan, R. Tian, X. Yu, W. Shi, C. Li, M. Wei, D. G. Evans, and X. Duan, “Quantum dots-based flexible films and their application as the phosphor in white light-emitting diodes,” Chem. Mater. 26(8), 2595–2600 (2014).
[Crossref]

Eychmüller, A.

M. Adam, T. Erdem, G. M. Stachowski, Z. Soran-Erdem, J. F. L. Lox, C. Bauer, J. Poppe, H. V. Demir, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüller, “Implementation of high-quality warm-white light-emitting diodes by a model-experimental feedback approach using quantum dot-salt mixed crystals,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(41), 23364–23371 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaponik, N.

M. Adam, T. Erdem, G. M. Stachowski, Z. Soran-Erdem, J. F. L. Lox, C. Bauer, J. Poppe, H. V. Demir, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüller, “Implementation of high-quality warm-white light-emitting diodes by a model-experimental feedback approach using quantum dot-salt mixed crystals,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(41), 23364–23371 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ginley, D.

J. Berry, T. Buonassisi, D. A. Egger, G. Hodes, L. Kronik, Y. L. Loo, I. Lubomirsky, S. R. Marder, Y. Mastai, J. S. Miller, D. B. Mitzi, Y. Paz, A. M. Rappe, I. Riess, B. Rybtchinski, O. Stafsudd, V. Stevanovic, M. F. Toney, D. Zitoun, A. Kahn, D. Ginley, and D. Cahen, “Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOIPs): opportunities and challenges,” Adv. Mater. 27(35), 5102–5112 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gosnell, J. D.

J. D. Gosnell, S. J. Rosenthal, and S. M. Weiss, “White light emission characteristics of polymer-encapsulated CdSe nanocrystal films,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(8), 541–543 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gu, Y.

X. Li, Y. Wu, S. Zhang, B. Cai, Y. Gu, J. Song, and H. B. Zeng, “CsPbX3 quantum dots for lighting and displays: room-temperature synthesis, photoluminescence superiorities, underlying origins and white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(19), 2435–2445 (2016).
[Crossref]

Guo, R.

W. Yang, P. Zhong, S. Mei, Q. Chen, W. Zhang, J. Zhu, R. Guo, and G. He, “Photometric optimization of color temperature tunable quantum dots converted whitE LEDs for excellent color rendition,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 1–11 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ha, S. T.

J. Xing, X. F. Liu, Q. Zhang, S. T. Ha, Y. W. Yuan, C. Shen, T. C. Sum, and Q. Xiong, “Vapor phase synthesis of organometal halide perovskite nanowires for tunable room-temperature nanolasers,” Nano Lett. 15(7), 4571–4577 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hamidreza, E.

E. Hamidreza and D. G. Christopher, “A fast Pareto genetic algorithm approach for solving expensive multiobjective optimization problems,” J. Heuristics 14(3), 203–241 (2008).
[Crossref]

Han, H. V.

H. Y. Lin, S. W. Wang, C. C. Lin, K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, Z. Y. Tu, H. H. Tu, T. M. Chen, M. H. Shih, P. T. Lee, H.-M. P. Chen, and H.-C. Kuo, “Excellent color quality of white-light-emitting diodes by embedding quantum dots in polymers material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(1), 2000107 (2016).
[Crossref]

Han, J. Y.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5: Ce3+, Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater. 20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, G.

Hendon, C. H.

L. Protesescu, S. Yakunin, M. I. Bodnarchuk, F. Krieg, R. Caputo, C. H. Hendon, R. X. Yang, A. Walsh, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Nanocrystals of cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, and I): novel optoelectronic materials showing bright emission with wide color gamut,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 3692–3696 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hodes, G.

J. Berry, T. Buonassisi, D. A. Egger, G. Hodes, L. Kronik, Y. L. Loo, I. Lubomirsky, S. R. Marder, Y. Mastai, J. S. Miller, D. B. Mitzi, Y. Paz, A. M. Rappe, I. Riess, B. Rybtchinski, O. Stafsudd, V. Stevanovic, M. F. Toney, D. Zitoun, A. Kahn, D. Ginley, and D. Cahen, “Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOIPs): opportunities and challenges,” Adv. Mater. 27(35), 5102–5112 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, M. Z.

Q. Dai, C. E. Duty, and M. Z. Hu, “Semiconductor-nanocrystals-based white light-emitting diodes,” Small 6(15), 1577–1588 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hua, J.

X. Yuan, R. Ma, W. Zhang, J. Hua, X. Meng, X. Zhong, J. Zhang, J. Zhao, and H. Li, “Dual emissive manganese and copper Co-doped Zn-In-S quantum dots as a single color-converter for high color rendering white-light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(16), 8659–8666 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, H.

X. Zhang, H. Lin, H. Huang, C. Reckmeier, Y. Zhang, W. C. Choy, and A. L. Rogach, “Enhancing the brightness of cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystal based green light-emitting devices through the interface engineering with perfluorinated ionomer,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1415–1420 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, A. S. Susha, S. V. Kershaw, T. F. Hung, and A. L. Rogach, “Control of emission color of high quantum yield CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite quantum dots by precipitation temperature,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 2(9), 1500194 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hung, T. F.

H. Huang, A. S. Susha, S. V. Kershaw, T. F. Hung, and A. L. Rogach, “Control of emission color of high quantum yield CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite quantum dots by precipitation temperature,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 2(9), 1500194 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Isobe, T.

A. Tsukamoto and T. Isobe, “Characterization and biological application of YAG:Ce3+ nanophosphor modified with mercaptopropyl trimethoxy silane,” J. Mater. Sci. 44(5), 1344–1350 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jang, H. S.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5: Ce3+, Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater. 20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeon, D. Y.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5: Ce3+, Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater. 20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, S.

C. Chen, J. Chu, F. Qian, X. Zou, C. Zhong, K. Li, and S. Jin, “High color rendering Index white LED based on nano-YAG:Ce3+ phosphor hybrid with CdSe/CdS/ZnS core/shell/shell quantum dots,” J. Mod. Opt. 59(14), 1199–1203 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jo, D. Y.

D. Y. Jo and H. Yang, “Spectral broadening of Cu-In-Zn-S quantum dot color converters for high color rendering white lighting device,” J. Lumin. 166, 227–232 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kahn, A.

J. Berry, T. Buonassisi, D. A. Egger, G. Hodes, L. Kronik, Y. L. Loo, I. Lubomirsky, S. R. Marder, Y. Mastai, J. S. Miller, D. B. Mitzi, Y. Paz, A. M. Rappe, I. Riess, B. Rybtchinski, O. Stafsudd, V. Stevanovic, M. F. Toney, D. Zitoun, A. Kahn, D. Ginley, and D. Cahen, “Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOIPs): opportunities and challenges,” Adv. Mater. 27(35), 5102–5112 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kalytchuk, S.

C. Sun, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Liu, S. Kalytchuk, S. V. Kershaw, T. Zhang, X. Zhang, J. Zhao, W. W. Yu, and A. L. Rogach, “High color rendering index white light emitting diodes fabricated from a combination of carbon dots and zinc copper indium sulfide quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(26), 261106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kamat, P. V.

P. V. Kamat, “Quantum Dot Solar Cells. Semiconductor Nanocrystals as Light Harvesters,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(48), 18737–18753 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kershaw, S. V.

H. Huang, A. S. Susha, S. V. Kershaw, T. F. Hung, and A. L. Rogach, “Control of emission color of high quantum yield CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite quantum dots by precipitation temperature,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 2(9), 1500194 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Sun, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Liu, S. Kalytchuk, S. V. Kershaw, T. Zhang, X. Zhang, J. Zhao, W. W. Yu, and A. L. Rogach, “High color rendering index white light emitting diodes fabricated from a combination of carbon dots and zinc copper indium sulfide quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(26), 261106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. H.

J. H. Kim and H. Yang, “White lighting device from composite films embedded with hydrophilic Cu(In, Ga)S2/ZnS and hydrophobic InP/ZnS quantum dots,” Nanotechnology 25(22), 225601 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

S. J. Yang, J. H. Oh, S. Kim, H. Yang, and Y. R. Do, “Realization of InP/ZnS quantum dots for green, amber and red down-converted LEDs and their color-tunable, four-package white LEDs,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(15), 3582–3591 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. W.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5: Ce3+, Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater. 20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ko, M.

H. C. Yoon, J. H. Oh, M. Ko, H. Yoo, and Y. R. Do, “Synthesis and characterization of G ZnAgInS and R ZnCuInS QDs for ultrahigh color quality of down-converted WLEDs,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(13), 7342–7350 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kovalenko, M. V.

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C. Chen, J. Chu, F. Qian, X. Zou, C. Zhong, K. Li, and S. Jin, “High color rendering Index white LED based on nano-YAG:Ce3+ phosphor hybrid with CdSe/CdS/ZnS core/shell/shell quantum dots,” J. Mod. Opt. 59(14), 1199–1203 (2012).
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J. Berry, T. Buonassisi, D. A. Egger, G. Hodes, L. Kronik, Y. L. Loo, I. Lubomirsky, S. R. Marder, Y. Mastai, J. S. Miller, D. B. Mitzi, Y. Paz, A. M. Rappe, I. Riess, B. Rybtchinski, O. Stafsudd, V. Stevanovic, M. F. Toney, D. Zitoun, A. Kahn, D. Ginley, and D. Cahen, “Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOIPs): opportunities and challenges,” Adv. Mater. 27(35), 5102–5112 (2015).
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A. Swarnkar, V. K. Ravi, and A. Nag, “Beyond colloidal cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals: analogous metal halides and doping,” ACS Energy Lett. 2(5), 1089–1098 (2017).
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H. Y. Lin, S. W. Wang, C. C. Lin, K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, Z. Y. Tu, H. H. Tu, T. M. Chen, M. H. Shih, P. T. Lee, H.-M. P. Chen, and H.-C. Kuo, “Excellent color quality of white-light-emitting diodes by embedding quantum dots in polymers material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(1), 2000107 (2016).
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S. D. Stranks and H. J. Snaith, “Metal-halide perovskites for photovoltaic and light-emitting devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(5), 391–402 (2015).
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Soran-Erdem, Z.

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J. Berry, T. Buonassisi, D. A. Egger, G. Hodes, L. Kronik, Y. L. Loo, I. Lubomirsky, S. R. Marder, Y. Mastai, J. S. Miller, D. B. Mitzi, Y. Paz, A. M. Rappe, I. Riess, B. Rybtchinski, O. Stafsudd, V. Stevanovic, M. F. Toney, D. Zitoun, A. Kahn, D. Ginley, and D. Cahen, “Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOIPs): opportunities and challenges,” Adv. Mater. 27(35), 5102–5112 (2015).
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S. D. Stranks and H. J. Snaith, “Metal-halide perovskites for photovoltaic and light-emitting devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(5), 391–402 (2015).
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J. Xing, X. F. Liu, Q. Zhang, S. T. Ha, Y. W. Yuan, C. Shen, T. C. Sum, and Q. Xiong, “Vapor phase synthesis of organometal halide perovskite nanowires for tunable room-temperature nanolasers,” Nano Lett. 15(7), 4571–4577 (2015).
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H. Huang, A. S. Susha, S. V. Kershaw, T. F. Hung, and A. L. Rogach, “Control of emission color of high quantum yield CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite quantum dots by precipitation temperature,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 2(9), 1500194 (2015).
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A. Swarnkar, V. K. Ravi, and A. Nag, “Beyond colloidal cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals: analogous metal halides and doping,” ACS Energy Lett. 2(5), 1089–1098 (2017).
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C. Sun, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Liu, S. Kalytchuk, S. V. Kershaw, T. Zhang, X. Zhang, J. Zhao, W. W. Yu, and A. L. Rogach, “High color rendering index white light emitting diodes fabricated from a combination of carbon dots and zinc copper indium sulfide quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(26), 261106 (2014).
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Yu, X.

R. Liang, D. Yan, R. Tian, X. Yu, W. Shi, C. Li, M. Wei, D. G. Evans, and X. Duan, “Quantum dots-based flexible films and their application as the phosphor in white light-emitting diodes,” Chem. Mater. 26(8), 2595–2600 (2014).
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C. Sun, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Liu, S. Kalytchuk, S. V. Kershaw, T. Zhang, X. Zhang, J. Zhao, W. W. Yu, and A. L. Rogach, “High color rendering index white light emitting diodes fabricated from a combination of carbon dots and zinc copper indium sulfide quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(26), 261106 (2014).
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P. Wang, X. Bai, C. Sun, X. Y. Zhang, T. G. Zhang, and Y. Zhang, “Multicolor fluorescent light-emitting diodes based on cesium lead halide perovskite quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(6), 5635 (2016).
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Zhang, W.

W. Yang, P. Zhong, S. Mei, Q. Chen, W. Zhang, J. Zhu, R. Guo, and G. He, “Photometric optimization of color temperature tunable quantum dots converted whitE LEDs for excellent color rendition,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 1–11 (2016).
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X. Yuan, R. Ma, W. Zhang, J. Hua, X. Meng, X. Zhong, J. Zhang, J. Zhao, and H. Li, “Dual emissive manganese and copper Co-doped Zn-In-S quantum dots as a single color-converter for high color rendering white-light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(16), 8659–8666 (2015).
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P. Wang, X. Bai, C. Sun, X. Y. Zhang, T. G. Zhang, and Y. Zhang, “Multicolor fluorescent light-emitting diodes based on cesium lead halide perovskite quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(6), 5635 (2016).
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P. Wang, X. Bai, C. Sun, X. Y. Zhang, T. G. Zhang, and Y. Zhang, “Multicolor fluorescent light-emitting diodes based on cesium lead halide perovskite quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(6), 5635 (2016).
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Zhao, J.

X. Yuan, R. Ma, W. Zhang, J. Hua, X. Meng, X. Zhong, J. Zhang, J. Zhao, and H. Li, “Dual emissive manganese and copper Co-doped Zn-In-S quantum dots as a single color-converter for high color rendering white-light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(16), 8659–8666 (2015).
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C. Sun, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Liu, S. Kalytchuk, S. V. Kershaw, T. Zhang, X. Zhang, J. Zhao, W. W. Yu, and A. L. Rogach, “High color rendering index white light emitting diodes fabricated from a combination of carbon dots and zinc copper indium sulfide quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(26), 261106 (2014).
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Zhong, C.

C. Chen, J. Chu, F. Qian, X. Zou, C. Zhong, K. Li, and S. Jin, “High color rendering Index white LED based on nano-YAG:Ce3+ phosphor hybrid with CdSe/CdS/ZnS core/shell/shell quantum dots,” J. Mod. Opt. 59(14), 1199–1203 (2012).
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Zhong, H.

B. Chen, H. Zhong, M. Wang, R. Liu, and B. Zou, “Integration of CuInS2-based nanocrystals for high efficiency and high colour rendering white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale 5(8), 3514–3519 (2013).
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B. Chen, Q. Zhou, J. Li, F. Zhang, R. Liu, H. Zhong, and B. Zou, “Red emissive CuInS2-based nanocrystals: a potential phosphor for warm white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10105–10110 (2013).
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Zhong, P.

W. Yang, P. Zhong, S. Mei, Q. Chen, W. Zhang, J. Zhu, R. Guo, and G. He, “Photometric optimization of color temperature tunable quantum dots converted whitE LEDs for excellent color rendition,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 1–11 (2016).
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Zhu, J.

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Zitoun, D.

J. Berry, T. Buonassisi, D. A. Egger, G. Hodes, L. Kronik, Y. L. Loo, I. Lubomirsky, S. R. Marder, Y. Mastai, J. S. Miller, D. B. Mitzi, Y. Paz, A. M. Rappe, I. Riess, B. Rybtchinski, O. Stafsudd, V. Stevanovic, M. F. Toney, D. Zitoun, A. Kahn, D. Ginley, and D. Cahen, “Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOIPs): opportunities and challenges,” Adv. Mater. 27(35), 5102–5112 (2015).
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Zou, B.

B. Chen, H. Zhong, M. Wang, R. Liu, and B. Zou, “Integration of CuInS2-based nanocrystals for high efficiency and high colour rendering white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale 5(8), 3514–3519 (2013).
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B. Chen, Q. Zhou, J. Li, F. Zhang, R. Liu, H. Zhong, and B. Zou, “Red emissive CuInS2-based nanocrystals: a potential phosphor for warm white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10105–10110 (2013).
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Zou, X.

C. Chen, J. Chu, F. Qian, X. Zou, C. Zhong, K. Li, and S. Jin, “High color rendering Index white LED based on nano-YAG:Ce3+ phosphor hybrid with CdSe/CdS/ZnS core/shell/shell quantum dots,” J. Mod. Opt. 59(14), 1199–1203 (2012).
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Acc. Chem. Res. (1)

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ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (4)

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X. Yuan, R. Ma, W. Zhang, J. Hua, X. Meng, X. Zhong, J. Zhang, J. Zhao, and H. Li, “Dual emissive manganese and copper Co-doped Zn-In-S quantum dots as a single color-converter for high color rendering white-light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(16), 8659–8666 (2015).
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ACS Energy Lett. (1)

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Adv Sci (Weinh) (1)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Composition-dependent PL spectra of CsPbX3 QDs (a) and seven typical color photographs of samples in solution under UV exposure (violet, blue, cyan, green, yellow, orange, and red from left to right) (b), the TEM images and size distribution of the yellow emitting perovskite QDs are shown in (c) and (d) respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Real emission spectra of twenty-four CsPbX3 QDs.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured UV-Vis absorption and normalized PL spectra of green CsPb(Br0.7I0.3)3, and red CsPb(Br0.4I0.6)3 QDs under 360 nm excitation wavelength. Inset is fluorescence photograph of corresponding QDs.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Optimal SPDs of CCT tunable QD-WLEDs with the blue chip, green CsPb(Br0.7I0.3)3, and red CsPb(Br0.4I0.6)3 QDs at CCTs of 2700 K to 6500 K (Duv = 0).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured UV-Vis absorption and normalized PL spectra of the green CsPbBr3, the yellow CsPb(Br0.5I0.6)3, and red CsPb(Br0.2I0.8)3 QDs under 360 nm excitation wavelength. Inset in each case is the digital photo of the emission under UV light for each sample.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Optimal SPDs of CCT tunable QD-WLEDs with the blue chip, green CsPbBr3, yellow CsPb(Br0.5I0.6)3, and red CsPb(Br0.2I0.8)3 QDs at CCTs of 2700 K to 6500 K (Duv ≤ 0.0054).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Measured UV-Vis absorption and normalized PL spectra of the cyan CsPb(Cl0.1Br0.9)3, green CsPb(Br0.9I0.1)3, yellow CsPb(Br0.5I0.5)3, and red CsPb(Br0.2I0.8)3 QDs under 360 nm excitation wavelength. Inset in each case is the digital photo of the emission under UV light for each sample.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Optimal SPDs of CCT tunable QD-WLEDs with the blue chip, cyan CsPb(Cl0.1Br0.9)3, green CsPb(Br0.9I0.1)3, yellow CsPb(Br0.5I0.5)3, and red CsPb(Br0.2I0.8)3 QDs at CCTs of 2700 K to 6500 K (Duv ≤ 0.0054).

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Simulated relative radiant flux (Φe%) of each color component, photometric and colorimetric properties of CCT tunable QD-WLEDs with the blue chip, green CsPb(Br0.7I0.3)3, and red CsPb(Br0.4I0.6)3 QDs for CRI ≥ 90 and CQS ≥ 82 at CCTs of 2700 K to 6500 K (Duv = 0).

Tables Icon

Table 2 Simulated relative radiant flux (Φe%) of each color component, photometric and colorimetric properties of CCT tunable QD-WLEDs with the blue chip, green CsPbBr3, the yellow CsPb(Br0.5I0.5)3, and red CsPb(Br0.2I0.8)3 QDs for CRI ≥ 95 and CQS ≥ 93 at CCTs of 2700 K to 6500 K (Duv ≤ 0.0054).

Tables Icon

Table 3 Simulated relative radiant flux (Φe%) of each color component, photometric and colorimetric properties of CCT tunable QD-WLEDs with the blue chip, cyan CsPb(Cl0.1Br0.9)3, green CsPb(Br0.9I0.1)3, yellow CsPb(Br0.5I0.5)3, and red CsPb(Br0.2I0.8)3 QDs for CRI ≥ 96 and CQS ≥ 95 at CCTs of 2700 K to 6500 K (Duv ≤ 0.0054).

Tables Icon

Table 4 Estimated LES (lm/W) of the QD-WLEDs with two, three, and four CsPbX3 QDs (PLQY = 75%) by excited blue chip (ηeB = 60%) at CCTs of 2700 K to 6500 K.

Equations (5)

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Q Y QDs =Q Y RD6 ×( I QDs / I RD6 )×( A RD6 / A QDs )× ( n QDs / n RD6 ) 2
S QD-WLED (λ)= q b S b (λ, λ 0b ,Δ λ b )+ i=1 4 q i S i (λ, λ 0i )
LLE= 683 λ V(λ) S QD-W (λ)dλ λ ( q b + q ab ) S b (λ, λ ob ,Δ λ b )dλ
F= j=0 8 LLE j ( q b , q c , λ 0 b , λ 0c , λ 0g , λ 0y , λ 0r ,Δ λ b ) (under conditions of CRI m and CQSn)
LE= 683η eB λ V(λ)S WLED (λ)dλ λ (q B +q ab )S (λ,λ ob ,Δλ B )dλ

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