Abstract

A series of Zn2+ and Li+ inert ion single/co-doped Gd2O3: Ln3+ (Ln = Yb/Er, Eu) nanocrystals (NCs) were synthesized by a simple precipitate method followed by annealing at a high temperature. Compared with undoped Gd2O3: Ln3+ (Ln = Yb/Er, Eu) NCs, the samples doped with Zn2+ or Li+ ion all show an obvious enhancement on their upconversion (UC) and downconversion (DC) luminescence intensity. On the basis of the best single doping concentration of Zn2+ or Li+ ion, we codoped another ion (Li+ or Zn2+) into the NCs; the luminescence intensity shows a further enhancement. As a result, Zn2+ and Li+ dual ion codoping is a better strategy than single doped Zn2+ or Li+ ion to enhance the luminescence properties of Gd2O3: Yb/Er and Gd2O3: Eu NCs. This can be attributed to the smaller radius of the Zn2+/Li+ ions (Zn2+: 0.088 nm, Li+: 0.09 nm, all for six coordination) than that of the radius of Gd3+ ion (Gd3+: 0.1078 nm), and the heterogeneous valence of the Zn2+/Li+ ions. When they occupy the Gd3+ crystal lattice site in Gd2O3 NCs, they play different roles and complement each other in improving luminescence intensity of Gd2O3: Ln3+ (Ln = Yb/Er, Eu) NCs.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Over the past several decade, lanthanide doped luminescence materials have attracted enormous attention because of their potential applications in many fields such as fluorescent probes, solar cell, photocatalysis, communications, solid laser devices [1–8]. Due to the unique electron configuration of lanthanide ions, they have abundant energy levels structure (known as the Dieke diagram) in the near-infrared, visible and ultraviolet spectral range [9–13]. This provides a huge space for the photon management. Common photon management process mainly includes UC (transforms two or more low-energy photons into one higher-energy photon) and DC (transforms one high-energy photon into one or more low-energy photons) [14–18]. These emissions from the trivalent lanthanide dopants are mainly due to electric and magnetic dipole optical transitions based on their unique intra 4f transitions, which are shielded by the outer 5s and 5p orbitals and, consequently, lead to sharp emissions and narrow bands [19,20].

Among these luminescent host materials, Gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) is not only a kind of promising luminescent host material because of its good chemical durability, thermal stability, and low phonon energy (phonon cutoff = 600 cm−1) and the ability of being easily doped with rare earth ions, but also an excellent paramagnetic material [21–24]. However, as a kind of luminescence material, their luminous efficiency is still one of the most important properties. Unfortunately, the best UC efficiency does not exceed 10% [9]. For DC luminescent materials, although they have high quantum efficiency, their absorption is restricted by some aspects. Therefore, their luminous efficiency is still too low to apply in many fields and has much space for improvement. For many years, a lot of researchers are devoted to improve the luminescence efficiency of the lanthanide doped luminescence materials, and many methods have been affirmed to be effective to enhance the luminescence emission intensity of them. Wherein, ion doping is considered to be an extremely effective and facile method to improve the luminescence efficiency. For example, Vineet Kumarr’s group reported a UC emission enhancement of La2O3: Yb/Tm nanoparticles by co-doping Zn2+-Mg2+ inert ions [25]. Song’s group and Chen’s group respectively reported the UC emission enhancement of Gd2O3: Yb/Ho (Tm) by doping Li+ ion [26,27]. I. Kaminska’s group reported a UC emission enhancement of Gd2O3: Yb/Er nanoparticles by introducing Zn2+ ions [28]. Hye-Kyung Moon’s group reported a DC emission enhancement of Gd2O3: Eu by doping Li+ ion [29]. In addition, many other inert ions such as K+, Ca2+, Sc3+ ions also have been affirmed to be effective to improve the luminescence efficiency of lanthanide doped matrix [30–34].

Unfortunately, most people are only concerned about the effect of single inert ion doping on the luminescence properties and few groups report dual inert ions co-doping method to further enhance the luminescent properties of Gd2O3 materials [35]. Herein, we prepared a series of Zn2+, Li+ inert ions single/co- doped Gd2O3: Ln3+ (Ln = Yb/Er, Eu) NCs by a simple precipitate method which followed by annealing at a high temperature. Compared with single doped Zn2+ or Li+ ion, co-doping Li+ and Zn2+ ions into Gd2O3: Yb/Er and Gd2O3: Eu NCs, they show better luminescence properties. Zn2+-Li+ co-doping is a better strategy to enhancing the luminous efficiency of Gd2O3: Yb/Er and Gd2O3: Eu NCs than Zn2+ or Li+ single doping strategy.

2. Experimental

2.1 Materials

All chemicals were of analytical grade and used without further purification. Gd(NO3)3·6H2O (99.99%), Yb(NO3)3·6H2O (99.99%), Er(NO3)3·6H2O (99.99%) and Eu(NO3)3·6H2O (99.99%) were supplied by Yutai Qingda Chemical Technology Co., Ltd. China. Zn(NO3)2·6H2O (AR), LiNO3 (AR) and Urea ((NH2)2CO, AR) were supplied by Beijing Fine Chemical Company.

2.2 Synthesis of the Gd2O3:Yb/Er/Zn/Li(10/2/2/1.5 mol%)

In a typical synthesis, 0.845 mmol Gd(NO3)3·6H2O, 0.1 mmol Yb(NO3)3·6H2O, 0.02 mmol Er(NO3)3·6H2O, 0.02 mmol Zn(NO3)2·6H2O and 0.015 mmol LiNO3 were added into 50 mL deionized water to form a clear solution in a reaction bottle under vigorously stirring. Then 20 ml aqueous solution of 50 mmol urea was added into the stirring solution under magnetic stirring. Subsequently, the above solution was heated at 85 °C for 4 h in order to decompose the urea. The resulting suspension was separated by centrifugation, washed several times with deionized water and dried at 80 °C. Subsequently, the as-prepared precursor samples were annealed at 1100 °C for 4 h in air to obtain the Gd2O3: Yb/Er/Zn/Li (10/2/2/1.5 mol%) NCs. The other samples can be obtained by simply replacing the corresponding components and contents.

2.3 Characterization

The crystal structure and phase purity were analyzed by a Rigaku RU-200b X-ray powder diffractometer (XRD) using nickel-filtered Cu-Kα radiation (λ = 1.5406 Å). The size and morphology of the samples were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Hitachi H-600). UC luminescence spectra and DC luminescence spectra were recorded using a Hitachi F-4500 fluorescence spectrophotometer with a power-controllable 980 nm CW diode laser (Maximum power 2W) and a xenon lamp as the excitation light sources.

3. Results and discussion

A series of Zn2+ ion, Li+ ion single doped or Zn2+-Li+ ions co-doped Gd2O3: Yb/Er NCs were synthesized by a simple precipitation method which followed by annealing at a high temperature. The TEM images of Gd2O3 precursor were shown in Fig. 1 and the XRD patterns of these annealed samples were shown in Fig. 2. As shown in Fig. 1, the Gd2O3 NCs doped with Zn2+ ion, Li+ ion or Zn2+-Li+ ion pairs are all uniform size, regular spherical particles. The size and morphology of Gd2O3 NCs remain the same after Zn2+ and Li+ ions doping, their mean size retain at 202 nm. As shown in Fig. 2, all the diffraction peaks of these samples can be well indexed to Gd2O3 (JCPDS No. 43-1014). No other impurity peak can be detected from these XRD patterns, implying that single/codoping Zn2+ and Li+ inert ions didn’t change the crystal phase of Gd2O3 samples. While, when zooming in on the pattern, the positions of the diffraction peaks are found to shift slightly with the increasing of single/codoping Zn2+ and Li+ inert ion concentrations. As shown in right part of Fig. 2(a) and 2(b), the diffraction peaks at 28.55° shift towards a larger angle as Zn2+/Li+ ion single doping concentrations increasing (Zn2+: 0 mol% – 4 mol%, Li+: 0 mol% – 6 mol%).

 

Fig. 1 TEM images of (a) Gd2O3: Yb/Er (10/2 mol%) NCs; (b) Gd2O3: Yb/Er/Zn (10/2/10 mol%) NCs; (c) Gd2O3: Yb/Er/Li (10/2/10 mol%) NCs; (d) Gd2O3: Yb/Er/Zn/Li (10/2/2.5/10 mol%) NCs; (e) Gd2O3: Yb/Er/Zn/Li (10/2/10/2.5 mol%) NCs; (f) Crystal structure of Gd2O3.

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Fig. 2 XRD patterns and main diffraction peaks of (a) Gd2O3: Yb/Er/Zn (10/2/x mol%, x = 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10) NCs; (b) Gd2O3: Yb/Er/Li (10/2/x mol%, x = 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10) NCs; (c) Gd2O3: Yb/Er/Zn/Li (10/2/4/x mol%, x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5) NCs; (d) Gd2O3: Yb/Er/Li/Zn (10/2/4/x mol%, x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5) NCs.

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Subsequently as the doping concentration continues increasing, this diffraction peaks shift towards to a smaller angle. It is known that a larger lattice constant is related to a smaller diffraction angle, and vice versa. Some explication is demonstrated as follow. When a small amount of Zn2+/Li+ ions was doped into Gd2O3 NCs, Zn2+/Li+ ion mainly occupies the Gd3+ crystal lattice site. Because the radius of the Zn2+/Li+ ion (Zn2+: 0.088 nm, Li+: 0.09 nm, all for six coordination) is smaller than the radius of Gd3+ ion (Gd3+: 0.1078 nm), substituting the Gd3+ ion with this smaller Zn2+/Li+ ion can induce the shrinking of the host lattice. But with higher doping concentrations, Zn2+/Li+ ions begin to take interstitial sites, and this can lead to the host lattice expanding. Besides, Li+ ion has lower valence than Zn2+ ion, when it occupies the Gd3+ crystal lattice site, more oxygen vacancies were produced, therefore Gd2O3:Yb/Er/Li (10/2/4 mol%) NCs has more oxygen vacancies than Gd2O3:Yb/Er/Zn (10/2/4 mol%) NCs. Similarly, when Zn2+ and Li+ ions were doped in simultaneously, Zn2+ ions fill the oxygen vacancies more effectively. Therefore, when the Zn2+ ion was codoped into Gd2O3:Yb/Er/Li (10/2/4 mol%) NCs, some oxygen vacancies were filled by Zn2+ ions, the host lattice expanded and the diffraction peaks shift towards to a smaller angle, as shown in Fig. 2(c) and 2(d) [36,37]. The schematic illustration of lattice change caused by Zn2+-Li+ dual inert ion doping is shown in Fig. 3.

 

Fig. 3 Schematic illustration of lattice change induced by Zn2+ and Li+ inert ions single/co-doping.

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In order to find the optimum doping concentration, we doped different concentrations of Zn2+ or Li+ ion into Gd2O3: Yb/Er (10/2mol%) NCs and their UC luminescence spectra were measured under the same conditions. As shown in Fig. 4, when these samples were excited by 980 nm laser, we can observed two obvious emission peaks, 561 nm and 658 nm, they are attributed to 2H11/2, 4S3/24I15/2 and 4F9/24I15/2 respectively. With the increase of the inert ion doping concentration, the UC luminescence intensities increase first, then decrease. Among them, the best single doping concentration of Zn2+ ion is 4 mol%. Compared with the Zn2+-free sample, it shows 3 times enhancement in the UC luminescence intensity. The optimum single doping concentration of Li+ ion is also 4 mol%, the luminescence intensity exhibits 2 times enhancement.

 

Fig. 4 (a) UC luminescence spectra of Gd2O3: Yb/Er/Zn (10/2/x mol%, x = 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10) NCs excited by 30 W/cm2 980 nm laser; (b) UC luminescence spectra of Gd2O3: Yb/Er/Li (10/2/x mol%, x = 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10) NCs excited by 30 W/cm2 980 nm laser; (c) The ratios of UC luminescence enhancement by doping different Zn2+ ion concentration in Gd2O3: Yb/Er (10/2 mol%) NCs; (d) The ratios of UC luminescence enhancement by doping different Li+ ion concentration in Gd2O3: Yb/Er (10/2 mol%) NCs.

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Further we co-doped Zn2+ and Li+ ions in the Gd2O3: Yb/Er (10/2 mol%) NCs to study the effect of dual inert ion doping on UC luminescence performance. On the basis of best single doping concentration of Zn2+ or Li+ ion, we adjust concentration of another Li+ or Zn2+ ion in Gd2O3: Yb/Er (10/2 mol%) NCs and measured their UC luminescence spectra under the same condition for further comparison. The result spectra were shown in Fig. 5. When Li+ and Zn2+ ions were codoped into the Gd2O3: Yb/Er (10/2 mol%) NCs, the UC emission intensities show similar trend, increase first, then decrease. For the Gd2O3: Yb/Er/Li (10/2/4 mol%) NCs, increasing doping concentration of Zn2+ ion will make its UC luminescence intensity further improved. When the doping concentration of Zn2+ ion is 1.5 mol%, the luminescence enhancement ratio reaches the maximum, 12 times than that of Gd2O3: Yb/Er/Li (10/2/4 mol%) NCs. As for the Gd2O3: Yb/Er/Zn (10/2/4 mol%) NCs, continue increasing doping concentration of Li+ ion also can get a further luminescence enhancement. When the concentration of Li+ ion is 2 mol%, the UC luminescence intensity of the sample will get a slightly enhancement of 1.6 times than that of Gd2O3: Yb/Er/Zn (10/2/4 mol%) NCs.

 

Fig. 5 (a) UC luminescence spectra of Gd2O3: Yb/Er/Zn/Li (10/2/4/x mol%, x = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5) NCs excited by 30 W/cm2 980 nm laser; (b) UC luminescence spectra of Gd2O3: Yb/Er/Li/Zn (10/2/4/x mol%, x = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5) NCs excited by 30 W/cm2 980 nm laser; (c) The ratios of UC luminescence enhancement by doping different concentration of Zn2+ ion in Gd2O3: Yb/Er/Zn (10/2/4 mol%) NCs; (d) The ratios of UC luminescence enhancement by doping different concentration of Li+ ion in Gd2O3: Yb/Er/Li (10/2/4 mol%) NCs.

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Besides we studied the influence of Zn2+-Li+ co-doping on DC luminescence of Gd2O3: 5 mol% Eu NCs. Zn2+ or Li+ ion with different concentration was single doped or co-doped into Gd2O3: Eu NCs. The DC spectra of Gd2O3: Eu NCs excited by 269 nm were shown in Fig. 6 and Fig. 7 respectively, with single doped Zn2+ or Li+ ion and co-doped Zn2+-Li+ ions pair. As shown in Fig. 6(e), the excitation spectrum of Eu3+ ion monitored at 609 nm emission is composed of a strong broad band centered at 269 nm, which originates from the excitation of the O2--Eu3+ charge transfer band (CTB). When the Gd2O3: Eu NCs were excited by 269 nm laser, we can observe three obvious emission peaks: 590 nm, 609 nm and 627 nm, they are attributed to 5D07F1, 5D07F2 and 5D07F3 transitions respectively. Among them, 609 nm emission peak is the strongest. When Zn2+ ion or Li+ ion was doped into Gd2O3: Eu NCs, the intensities of DC luminescence show similar trend, increase first and then decrease. When the doping concentration of Zn2+ ion is 2 mol%, the DC luminescence intensity of the sample will get a maximum enhancement of 2.5 times than that of Zn2+-free sample. For the Li+ ion single doping, the optimum doping concentration is 4 mol%. Compared with the Li+-free Gd2O3: Eu NCs, the DC intensity of the samples doped with 4 mol% Li+ ion shows a 2.3 times enhancement.

 

Fig. 6 (a) DC luminescence spectra of Gd2O3: Eu/Zn (5/x mol%, x = 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10) NCs excited by 269 nm laser; (b) DC luminescence spectra of Gd2O3: Eu/Li (5/x mol%, x = 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10) NCs excited by 269 nm laser; (c) The ratios of DC luminescence enhancement by doping different Zn2+ ion concentration in Gd2O3: Eu (10/2 mol%) NCs; (d) The ratios of DC luminescence enhancement by doping different Li+ ion concentration in Gd2O3: Eu (10/2 mol%) NCs; (e) DC luminescence excitation spectrum of Eu3+ ion monitored at 609 nm.

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Fig. 7 (a) DC luminescence spectra of Gd2O3: Eu/Zn/Li (5/2/x mol%, x = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5) NCs excited by 269 nm; (b) DC luminescence spectra of Gd2O3: Eu/Li/Zn (5/4/x mol%, x = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5) NCs excited by 269 nm; (c) The ratios of DC luminescence enhancement by doping different Li+ ion concentrations in Gd2O3: Eu/Zn (5/2 mol%) NCs; (d) The ratios of DC luminescence enhancement by doping different Zn2+ ion concentrations in Gd2O3: Eu/Li (5/4 mol%) NCs.

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Then on the basis of optimum single doping concentration of Zn2+ or Li+ ion, we codoped another ion (Li+ or Zn2+) into the Gd2O3 NCs. When the Zn2+-Li+ ions were co-doped into the NCs, the DC luminescence intensity of Gd2O3: Eu NCs shows a further enhancement than that of single inert ion doping NCs. Among them, compared with 2 mol% Zn2+ or 4 mol% Li+ single doped Gd2O3: Eu NCs, the DC luminescence intensities of 2 mol% Zn/1.5 mol% Li and 4 mol% Li/1.5 mol% Zn co-doped Gd2O3: Eu NCs show further 2.2 and 1.4 times enhancement, respectively.

This luminescence enhancement phenomenon can be explained by a classic theory. When heterogeneous valence inert ion, Zn2+ or Li+ ion was doped into Gd2O3 NCs, it substitutes the Gd3+ crystal lattice site or takes interstitial sites, the unit cell of Gd2O3 NCs shrinks due to the smaller radius of Zn2+/Li+ than Gd3+ ion. On the other hand, oxygen vacancies are generated simultaneously in order to maintain the charge balance. These factors could lead to a change of the electron distribution density. The environment change around the rare earth ion could decrease the crystal symmetry around Er3+/Eu3+ ions, and lead to hypersensitive electron transition, as well as increasing the luminescence intensity of Er3+/Eu3+ ions. During this process, compared to the single doping Zn2+ or Li+ ion, dual ions doping can complement each other and destroy the symmetry of the crystal field around the luminescent ions more effectively. As a result, the UC and DC luminescence intensity can be further improved on the basis of single ion doping strategy [36–39].

The possible UC luminescence processes of the Gd2O3: Yb/Er NCs excited by 980 nm laser is shown in Fig. 8(a) and the possible DC processes of the Gd2O3: Eu NCs excited by 269 nm laser is shown in Fig. 8(b). As pictured in Fig. 8(a), when the Gd2O3: Yb/Er NCs were excited by 980 nm laser, compared with Er3+ ion, Yb3+ ion has the larger doping concentration and a much larger absorption cross section around 980 nm, therefore, the main pathway to populate the excited states of Er3+ ion is the energy transfer (ET) from Yb3+ to Er3+ ion, two ET processes from Yb3+ to Er3+ ion excite the 4I15/2 level to 4I11/2 and 4F7/2 levels. Subsequent nonradiative relaxations of 4F7/22H11/2, 4F7/24S3/2 and 4S3/24F9/2 populate the 2H11/2, 4S3/2 and 4F9/2 levels respectively. And then back to the ground level 4I15/2 and emit the green light (540 nm, 4S3/2, 2H11/24I15/2,) and red light (660 nm, 4F9/24I15/2). As shown in Fig. 8(b), when the Gd2O3: Eu NCs was excited by 269 nm laser, the electrons were populated from ground level to Eu-O charge transfer band (CTB), subsequent a series of nonradiative relaxations to 5D0 level, then back to 7F1, 7F2 or 7F3 level, and emit 590 nm, 609 nm and 627 nm light.

 

Fig. 8 (a) Energy-level diagrams of Yb3+ and Er3+ ions, and possible UC processes excited by 980 nm laser; (b) Energy-level diagram of Eu3+ ion, and possible DC processes excited by 269 nm.

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4. Conclusions

In conclusion, Zn2+ and Li+ inert ions single/co-doping Gd2O3: Ln3+ (Ln = Yb/Er, Eu) NCs were synthesized by a simple precipitation method which followed by annealing at a high temperature. The Gd2O3: Ln3+ (Ln = Yb/Er, Eu) NCs with co-doped Zn2+ and Li+ ions will has a better performance both on the UC and DC luminescence than Gd2O3: Ln3+ (Ln = Yb/Er, Eu) NCs with single doped Zn2+ or Li+ ion. As well as the intensities of luminescence emission at different wavelengths all show obviously further enhancement. Zn2+-Li+ dual inert ion doping is a better strategy to enhancing the fluorescence emission efficiency of Ln3+ ions in Gd2O3 NCs, it is also applicable to other host materials.

Funding

National Natural Science Foundation of China (NNSFC) (grants 61405016, 11474132); Scientific and Technological Development Project of Jilin Province (20160101246JC).

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25. A. Kumari, A. Pandey, R. Dey, and V. K. Rai, “Simultaneous influence of Zn2+/Mg2+ on the luminescent behaviour of La2O3: Tm3+–Yb3+ phosphors,” RSC Advances 4(42), 21844–21851 (2014). [CrossRef]  

26. Y. Jia, Y. Song, Y. Bai, and Y. Wang, “Upconverted photoluminescence in Ho3+ and Yb3+ codoped Gd2O3 nanocrystals with and without Li+ ions,” Luminescence 26(4), 259–263 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

27. Q. Sun, H. Zhao, X. Chen, F. Wang, W. Cai, and Z. Jiang, “Upconversion emission enhancement in silica-coated Gd2O3: Tm3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals by incorporation of Li+ ion,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 123(2-3), 806–810 (2010). [CrossRef]  

28. I. Kamińska, K. Fronc, B. Sikora, M. Mouawad, A. Siemiarczuk, M. Szewczyk, K. Sobczak, T. Wojciechowski, W. Zaleszczyk, R. Minikayev, W. Paszkowicz, P. Stępień, P. Dziawa, K. Ciszak, D. Piątkowski, S. Maćkowski, M. Kaliszewski, M. Włodarski, J. Młyńczak, K. Kopczyński, M. Łapiński, and D. Elbaum, “Upconverting/ magnetic: Gd2O3: (Er 3+, Yb3+, Zn2+) nanoparticles for biological applications: effect of Zn2+ doping,” RSC Advances 5(95), 78361–78373 (2015). [CrossRef]  

29. J. Park, H. Moon, D.-K. Kim, S.-H. Byeon, B.-C. Kim, and K.-S. Suh, “Morphology and cathodoluminescence of Li-doped Gd2O3: Eu3+, a red phosphor operating at low voltages,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(14), 2162–2164 (2000). [CrossRef]  

30. Z. Liang, Y. Cui, S. Zhao, L. Tian, J. Zhang, and Z. Xu, “The enhanced upconversion fluorescence and almost unchanged particle size of β-NaYF4: Yb 3+, Er 3+ nanoparticles by codoping with K+ ions,” J. Alloys Compd. 610, 432–437 (2014). [CrossRef]  

31. V. Kale, T. Soukka, J. Hölsä, and M. Lastusaari, “Enhancement of blue upconversion luminescence in hexagonal NaYF4: Yb, Tm by using K and Sc ions,” J. Nanopart. Res. 15(8), 1850 (2013). [CrossRef]  

32. M. Ding, D. Chen, S. Yin, Z. Ji, J. Zhong, Y. Ni, C. Lu, and Z. Xu, “Simultaneous morphology manipulation and upconversion luminescence enhancement of β-NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ microcrystals by simply tuning the KF dosage,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12745 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

33. L. Lei, D. Chen, J. Xu, R. Zhang, and Y. Wang, “Highly Intensified Upconversion Luminescence of Ca2+ -Doped Yb/Er:NaGdF4 Nanocrystals Prepared by a Solvothermal Route,” Chem. Asian J. 9(3), 728–733 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

34. Q. Huang, J. Yu, E. Ma, and K. Lin, “Synthesis and characterization of highly efficient near-infrared upconversion Sc3+/Er3+/Yb3+ Tridoped NaYF4,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(10), 4719–4724 (2010). [CrossRef]  

35. B. Liu, M. Gu, X. Liu, C. Ni, D. Wang, L. Xiao, and R. Zhang, “Effect of Zn2+ and Li+ codoping ions on nanosized Gd2O3:Eu3+ phosphor,” J. Alloys Compd. 440(1-2), 341–345 (2007). [CrossRef]  

36. C. Zhao, X. Kong, X. Liu, L. Tu, F. Wu, Y. Zhang, K. Liu, Q. Zeng, and H. Zhang, “Li+ ion doping: an approach for improving the crystallinity and upconversion emissions of NaYF4:Yb3+, Tm3+ nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 5(17), 8084–8089 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

37. N. Dhananjaya, H. Nagabhushana, B. M. Nagabhushana, B. Rudraswamy, C. Shivakumara, and R. P. S. Chakradhar, “Effect of Li+ ion on enhancement of photoluminescence in Gd2O3: Eu3+ nanophosphors prepared by combustion technique,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(5), 2368–2374 (2011). [CrossRef]  

38. G. Chen, H. Liu, H. Liang, G. Somesfalean, and Z. Zhang, “Upconversion emission enhancement in Yb3+/Er3+-codoped Y2O3 nanocrystals by tridoping with Li+ ions,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(31), 12030–12036 (2008). [CrossRef]  

39. Q. Cheng, J. Sui, and W. Cai, “Enhanced upconversion emission in Yb3+ and Er3+ codoped NaGdF4 nanocrystals by introducing Li+ ions,” Nanoscale 4(3), 779–784 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

References

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  1. A. Gnach, T. Lipinski, A. Bednarkiewicz, J. Rybka, and J. A. Capobianco, “Upconverting nanoparticles: assessing the toxicity,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(6), 1561–1584 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. T. Cong, Y. Ding, J. Liu, H. Zhao, and X. Hong, “Synthesis and optical properties of Zn2+ doped NaYF 4: Yb3+, Er3+ upconversion nanoparticles,” Mater. Lett. 165, 59–62 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. Hao, W. Shao, H. Qiu, Y. Shang, R. Fan, X. Guo, L. Zhao, G. Chen, and C. Yang, “Tuning the size and upconversion emission of NaYF4: Yb3+/Pr3+ nanoparticles through Yb3+ doping,” RSC Advances 4(99), 56302–56306 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. Guan, Y. Sheng, C. Xu, Y. Dai, X. Xie, and H. Zou, “Energy transfer and tunable multicolor emission and paramagnetic properties of GdF3:Dy(3+),Tb(3+),Eu(3+) phosphors,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18(29), 19807–19819 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. X. Guo, C. Chen, D. Zhang, C. P. Tripp, S. Yin, and W. Qin, “Photocatalysis of NaYF4:Yb, Er/CdSe composites under 1560 nm laser excitation,” RSC Advances 6(10), 8127–8133 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  6. P. Huang, W. Zheng, S. Zhou, D. Tu, Z. Chen, H. Zhu, R. Li, E. Ma, M. Huang, and X. Chen, “Doped LiLuF4 upconversion nanoprobes for the detection of disease biomarkers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 53(5), 1252–1257 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  7. Y. Li, K. Pan, G. Wang, B. Jiang, C. Tian, W. Zhou, Y. Qu, S. Liu, L. Feng, and H. Fu, “Enhanced photoelectric conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells by the incorporation of dual-mode luminescent NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+.,” Dalton Trans. 42(22), 7971–7979 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. B. Zhao, X. Xie, S. Xu, Y. Pan, B. Yang, S. Guo, T. Wei, H. Su, H. Wang, X. Chen, V. P. Dravid, L. Huang, and W. Huang, “Dravid, L. Huang and W. Huang, “From ScOOH to Sc2O3: phase control, luminescent properties, and applications,” Adv. Mater. 28(31), 6665–6671 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. X. Liu, R. Deng, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, H. Chang, L. Huang, and X. Liu, “Probing the nature of upconversion nanocrystals: instrumentation matters,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(6), 1479–1508 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Sun, W. Feng, P. Yang, C. Huang, and F. Li, “The biosafety of lanthanide upconversion nanomaterials,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(6), 1509–1525 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. K. Yamamoto, M. Fujii, S. Sowa, K. Imakita, and K. Aoki, “Upconversion luminescence of rare-earth-doped Y2O3 nanoparticle with metal nano-cap,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(2), 1175–1179 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  12. L. Tu, X. Liu, F. Wu, and H. Zhang, “Excitation energy migration dynamics in upconversion nanomaterials,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(6), 1331–1345 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. R. Van Deun, M. D’hooge, A. Savic, I. Van Driessche, K. Van Hecke, and A. M. Kaczmarek, “Influence of Y(3+), Gd(3+), and Lu(3+) co-doping on the phase and luminescence properties of monoclinic Eu:LaVO4 particles,” Dalton Trans. 44(42), 18418–18426 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Zhang, X. Li, X. Kang, Z. Hou, and J. Lin, “Morphology control and multicolor up-conversion luminescence of GdOF:Yb3+/Er3+, Tm3+, Ho3+ nano/submicrocrystals,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16(22), 10779–10787 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. N. M. Idris, M. K. G. Jayakumar, A. Bansal, and Y. Zhang, “Upconversion nanoparticles as versatile light nanotransducers for photoactivation applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(6), 1449–1478 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. X. Li, F. Zhang, and D. Zhao, “Lab on upconversion nanoparticles: optical properties and applications engineering via designed nanostructure,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(6), 1346–1378 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. Y. Tian, B. Chen, R. Hua, J. Sun, L. Cheng, H. Zhong, X. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Zheng, T. Yu, L. Huang, and H. Yu, “Optical transition, electron-phonon coupling and fluorescent quenching of La2(MoO4)3:Eu3+ phosphor,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053511 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  18. Y. Tian, B. Chen, R. Hua, N. Yu, B. Liu, J. Sun, L. Cheng, H. Zhong, X. Li, J. Zhang, B. Tian, and H. Zhong, “Self-assembled 3D flower-shaped NaY(WO4)2:Eu3+ microarchitectures: Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis, growth mechanism and luminescent properties,” CrystEngComm 14(5), 1760–1769 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  19. Q. Qiang, W. Chen, X. Ma, and Y. Wang, “The crystal structure and upconversion properties of Yb3+, Er3+/Ho3+ codoped BaLiF3 microcrystals with different morphologies,” Dalton Trans. 44(13), 6242–6248 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. L. Peng, M. Huang, S. Cao, B. Liu, T. Han, and C. Zhao, “Enhanced upconversion in Dy3+, Yb3+ co-doped Gd2O3 monodisperse nanocrystals,” J. Sol-Gel Sci,” Techn. 78, 307–312 (2016).
  21. M. W. Ahmad, W. Xu, S. J. Kim, J. S. Baeck, Y. Chang, J. E. Bae, K. S. Chae, J. A. Park, T. J. Kim, and G. H. Lee, “Potential dual imaging nanoparticle: Gd2O3 nanoparticle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8549 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. H. Li, S. Song, W. Wang, and K. Chen, “In vitro photodynamic therapy based on magnetic-luminescent Gd2O3:Yb,Er nanoparticles with bright three-photon up-conversion fluorescence under near-infrared light,” Dalton Trans. 44(36), 16081–16090 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. S. Gai, P. Yang, D. Wang, C. Li, N. Niu, F. He, and X. Li, “Monodisperse Gd2O3: Ln (Ln= Eu3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, Sm3+, Yb3+/Er3+, Yb3+/Tm3+, and Yb3+/Ho3+) nanocrystals with tunable size and multicolor luminescent properties,” CrystEngComm 13(17), 5480–5487 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  24. X. Wu, Y. Liang, R. Chen, M. Liu, and Y. Li, “Preparation and photoluminescence properties of Y2O3: Eu, Bi phosphors by molten salt synthesis for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Sci. 46(16), 5581–5586 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  25. A. Kumari, A. Pandey, R. Dey, and V. K. Rai, “Simultaneous influence of Zn2+/Mg2+ on the luminescent behaviour of La2O3: Tm3+–Yb3+ phosphors,” RSC Advances 4(42), 21844–21851 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  26. Y. Jia, Y. Song, Y. Bai, and Y. Wang, “Upconverted photoluminescence in Ho3+ and Yb3+ codoped Gd2O3 nanocrystals with and without Li+ ions,” Luminescence 26(4), 259–263 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. Q. Sun, H. Zhao, X. Chen, F. Wang, W. Cai, and Z. Jiang, “Upconversion emission enhancement in silica-coated Gd2O3: Tm3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals by incorporation of Li+ ion,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 123(2-3), 806–810 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  28. I. Kamińska, K. Fronc, B. Sikora, M. Mouawad, A. Siemiarczuk, M. Szewczyk, K. Sobczak, T. Wojciechowski, W. Zaleszczyk, R. Minikayev, W. Paszkowicz, P. Stępień, P. Dziawa, K. Ciszak, D. Piątkowski, S. Maćkowski, M. Kaliszewski, M. Włodarski, J. Młyńczak, K. Kopczyński, M. Łapiński, and D. Elbaum, “Upconverting/ magnetic: Gd2O3: (Er 3+, Yb3+, Zn2+) nanoparticles for biological applications: effect of Zn2+ doping,” RSC Advances 5(95), 78361–78373 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  29. J. Park, H. Moon, D.-K. Kim, S.-H. Byeon, B.-C. Kim, and K.-S. Suh, “Morphology and cathodoluminescence of Li-doped Gd2O3: Eu3+, a red phosphor operating at low voltages,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(14), 2162–2164 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  30. Z. Liang, Y. Cui, S. Zhao, L. Tian, J. Zhang, and Z. Xu, “The enhanced upconversion fluorescence and almost unchanged particle size of β-NaYF4: Yb 3+, Er 3+ nanoparticles by codoping with K+ ions,” J. Alloys Compd. 610, 432–437 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  31. V. Kale, T. Soukka, J. Hölsä, and M. Lastusaari, “Enhancement of blue upconversion luminescence in hexagonal NaYF4: Yb, Tm by using K and Sc ions,” J. Nanopart. Res. 15(8), 1850 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  32. M. Ding, D. Chen, S. Yin, Z. Ji, J. Zhong, Y. Ni, C. Lu, and Z. Xu, “Simultaneous morphology manipulation and upconversion luminescence enhancement of β-NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ microcrystals by simply tuning the KF dosage,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12745 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. L. Lei, D. Chen, J. Xu, R. Zhang, and Y. Wang, “Highly Intensified Upconversion Luminescence of Ca2+ -Doped Yb/Er:NaGdF4 Nanocrystals Prepared by a Solvothermal Route,” Chem. Asian J. 9(3), 728–733 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. Q. Huang, J. Yu, E. Ma, and K. Lin, “Synthesis and characterization of highly efficient near-infrared upconversion Sc3+/Er3+/Yb3+ Tridoped NaYF4,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(10), 4719–4724 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  35. B. Liu, M. Gu, X. Liu, C. Ni, D. Wang, L. Xiao, and R. Zhang, “Effect of Zn2+ and Li+ codoping ions on nanosized Gd2O3:Eu3+ phosphor,” J. Alloys Compd. 440(1-2), 341–345 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  36. C. Zhao, X. Kong, X. Liu, L. Tu, F. Wu, Y. Zhang, K. Liu, Q. Zeng, and H. Zhang, “Li+ ion doping: an approach for improving the crystallinity and upconversion emissions of NaYF4:Yb3+, Tm3+ nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 5(17), 8084–8089 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. N. Dhananjaya, H. Nagabhushana, B. M. Nagabhushana, B. Rudraswamy, C. Shivakumara, and R. P. S. Chakradhar, “Effect of Li+ ion on enhancement of photoluminescence in Gd2O3: Eu3+ nanophosphors prepared by combustion technique,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(5), 2368–2374 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  38. G. Chen, H. Liu, H. Liang, G. Somesfalean, and Z. Zhang, “Upconversion emission enhancement in Yb3+/Er3+-codoped Y2O3 nanocrystals by tridoping with Li+ ions,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(31), 12030–12036 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  39. Q. Cheng, J. Sui, and W. Cai, “Enhanced upconversion emission in Yb3+ and Er3+ codoped NaGdF4 nanocrystals by introducing Li+ ions,” Nanoscale 4(3), 779–784 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (5)

H. Guan, Y. Sheng, C. Xu, Y. Dai, X. Xie, and H. Zou, “Energy transfer and tunable multicolor emission and paramagnetic properties of GdF3:Dy(3+),Tb(3+),Eu(3+) phosphors,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18(29), 19807–19819 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Guo, C. Chen, D. Zhang, C. P. Tripp, S. Yin, and W. Qin, “Photocatalysis of NaYF4:Yb, Er/CdSe composites under 1560 nm laser excitation,” RSC Advances 6(10), 8127–8133 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Zhao, X. Xie, S. Xu, Y. Pan, B. Yang, S. Guo, T. Wei, H. Su, H. Wang, X. Chen, V. P. Dravid, L. Huang, and W. Huang, “Dravid, L. Huang and W. Huang, “From ScOOH to Sc2O3: phase control, luminescent properties, and applications,” Adv. Mater. 28(31), 6665–6671 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Cong, Y. Ding, J. Liu, H. Zhao, and X. Hong, “Synthesis and optical properties of Zn2+ doped NaYF 4: Yb3+, Er3+ upconversion nanoparticles,” Mater. Lett. 165, 59–62 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Peng, M. Huang, S. Cao, B. Liu, T. Han, and C. Zhao, “Enhanced upconversion in Dy3+, Yb3+ co-doped Gd2O3 monodisperse nanocrystals,” J. Sol-Gel Sci,” Techn. 78, 307–312 (2016).

2015 (13)

M. W. Ahmad, W. Xu, S. J. Kim, J. S. Baeck, Y. Chang, J. E. Bae, K. S. Chae, J. A. Park, T. J. Kim, and G. H. Lee, “Potential dual imaging nanoparticle: Gd2O3 nanoparticle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8549 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Li, S. Song, W. Wang, and K. Chen, “In vitro photodynamic therapy based on magnetic-luminescent Gd2O3:Yb,Er nanoparticles with bright three-photon up-conversion fluorescence under near-infrared light,” Dalton Trans. 44(36), 16081–16090 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. M. Idris, M. K. G. Jayakumar, A. Bansal, and Y. Zhang, “Upconversion nanoparticles as versatile light nanotransducers for photoactivation applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(6), 1449–1478 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Li, F. Zhang, and D. Zhao, “Lab on upconversion nanoparticles: optical properties and applications engineering via designed nanostructure,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(6), 1346–1378 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu, R. Deng, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, H. Chang, L. Huang, and X. Liu, “Probing the nature of upconversion nanocrystals: instrumentation matters,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(6), 1479–1508 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, W. Feng, P. Yang, C. Huang, and F. Li, “The biosafety of lanthanide upconversion nanomaterials,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(6), 1509–1525 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Yamamoto, M. Fujii, S. Sowa, K. Imakita, and K. Aoki, “Upconversion luminescence of rare-earth-doped Y2O3 nanoparticle with metal nano-cap,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(2), 1175–1179 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Tu, X. Liu, F. Wu, and H. Zhang, “Excitation energy migration dynamics in upconversion nanomaterials,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(6), 1331–1345 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Van Deun, M. D’hooge, A. Savic, I. Van Driessche, K. Van Hecke, and A. M. Kaczmarek, “Influence of Y(3+), Gd(3+), and Lu(3+) co-doping on the phase and luminescence properties of monoclinic Eu:LaVO4 particles,” Dalton Trans. 44(42), 18418–18426 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Gnach, T. Lipinski, A. Bednarkiewicz, J. Rybka, and J. A. Capobianco, “Upconverting nanoparticles: assessing the toxicity,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(6), 1561–1584 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Kamińska, K. Fronc, B. Sikora, M. Mouawad, A. Siemiarczuk, M. Szewczyk, K. Sobczak, T. Wojciechowski, W. Zaleszczyk, R. Minikayev, W. Paszkowicz, P. Stępień, P. Dziawa, K. Ciszak, D. Piątkowski, S. Maćkowski, M. Kaliszewski, M. Włodarski, J. Młyńczak, K. Kopczyński, M. Łapiński, and D. Elbaum, “Upconverting/ magnetic: Gd2O3: (Er 3+, Yb3+, Zn2+) nanoparticles for biological applications: effect of Zn2+ doping,” RSC Advances 5(95), 78361–78373 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Ding, D. Chen, S. Yin, Z. Ji, J. Zhong, Y. Ni, C. Lu, and Z. Xu, “Simultaneous morphology manipulation and upconversion luminescence enhancement of β-NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ microcrystals by simply tuning the KF dosage,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12745 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Qiang, W. Chen, X. Ma, and Y. Wang, “The crystal structure and upconversion properties of Yb3+, Er3+/Ho3+ codoped BaLiF3 microcrystals with different morphologies,” Dalton Trans. 44(13), 6242–6248 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (6)

L. Lei, D. Chen, J. Xu, R. Zhang, and Y. Wang, “Highly Intensified Upconversion Luminescence of Ca2+ -Doped Yb/Er:NaGdF4 Nanocrystals Prepared by a Solvothermal Route,” Chem. Asian J. 9(3), 728–733 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liang, Y. Cui, S. Zhao, L. Tian, J. Zhang, and Z. Xu, “The enhanced upconversion fluorescence and almost unchanged particle size of β-NaYF4: Yb 3+, Er 3+ nanoparticles by codoping with K+ ions,” J. Alloys Compd. 610, 432–437 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Kumari, A. Pandey, R. Dey, and V. K. Rai, “Simultaneous influence of Zn2+/Mg2+ on the luminescent behaviour of La2O3: Tm3+–Yb3+ phosphors,” RSC Advances 4(42), 21844–21851 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, X. Li, X. Kang, Z. Hou, and J. Lin, “Morphology control and multicolor up-conversion luminescence of GdOF:Yb3+/Er3+, Tm3+, Ho3+ nano/submicrocrystals,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16(22), 10779–10787 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Huang, W. Zheng, S. Zhou, D. Tu, Z. Chen, H. Zhu, R. Li, E. Ma, M. Huang, and X. Chen, “Doped LiLuF4 upconversion nanoprobes for the detection of disease biomarkers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 53(5), 1252–1257 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Hao, W. Shao, H. Qiu, Y. Shang, R. Fan, X. Guo, L. Zhao, G. Chen, and C. Yang, “Tuning the size and upconversion emission of NaYF4: Yb3+/Pr3+ nanoparticles through Yb3+ doping,” RSC Advances 4(99), 56302–56306 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

Y. Li, K. Pan, G. Wang, B. Jiang, C. Tian, W. Zhou, Y. Qu, S. Liu, L. Feng, and H. Fu, “Enhanced photoelectric conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells by the incorporation of dual-mode luminescent NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+.,” Dalton Trans. 42(22), 7971–7979 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Kale, T. Soukka, J. Hölsä, and M. Lastusaari, “Enhancement of blue upconversion luminescence in hexagonal NaYF4: Yb, Tm by using K and Sc ions,” J. Nanopart. Res. 15(8), 1850 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, X. Kong, X. Liu, L. Tu, F. Wu, Y. Zhang, K. Liu, Q. Zeng, and H. Zhang, “Li+ ion doping: an approach for improving the crystallinity and upconversion emissions of NaYF4:Yb3+, Tm3+ nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 5(17), 8084–8089 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

Q. Cheng, J. Sui, and W. Cai, “Enhanced upconversion emission in Yb3+ and Er3+ codoped NaGdF4 nanocrystals by introducing Li+ ions,” Nanoscale 4(3), 779–784 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tian, B. Chen, R. Hua, N. Yu, B. Liu, J. Sun, L. Cheng, H. Zhong, X. Li, J. Zhang, B. Tian, and H. Zhong, “Self-assembled 3D flower-shaped NaY(WO4)2:Eu3+ microarchitectures: Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis, growth mechanism and luminescent properties,” CrystEngComm 14(5), 1760–1769 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

Y. Jia, Y. Song, Y. Bai, and Y. Wang, “Upconverted photoluminescence in Ho3+ and Yb3+ codoped Gd2O3 nanocrystals with and without Li+ ions,” Luminescence 26(4), 259–263 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Dhananjaya, H. Nagabhushana, B. M. Nagabhushana, B. Rudraswamy, C. Shivakumara, and R. P. S. Chakradhar, “Effect of Li+ ion on enhancement of photoluminescence in Gd2O3: Eu3+ nanophosphors prepared by combustion technique,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(5), 2368–2374 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, B. Chen, R. Hua, J. Sun, L. Cheng, H. Zhong, X. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Zheng, T. Yu, L. Huang, and H. Yu, “Optical transition, electron-phonon coupling and fluorescent quenching of La2(MoO4)3:Eu3+ phosphor,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053511 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Gai, P. Yang, D. Wang, C. Li, N. Niu, F. He, and X. Li, “Monodisperse Gd2O3: Ln (Ln= Eu3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, Sm3+, Yb3+/Er3+, Yb3+/Tm3+, and Yb3+/Ho3+) nanocrystals with tunable size and multicolor luminescent properties,” CrystEngComm 13(17), 5480–5487 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, Y. Liang, R. Chen, M. Liu, and Y. Li, “Preparation and photoluminescence properties of Y2O3: Eu, Bi phosphors by molten salt synthesis for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Sci. 46(16), 5581–5586 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

Q. Huang, J. Yu, E. Ma, and K. Lin, “Synthesis and characterization of highly efficient near-infrared upconversion Sc3+/Er3+/Yb3+ Tridoped NaYF4,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(10), 4719–4724 (2010).
[Crossref]

Q. Sun, H. Zhao, X. Chen, F. Wang, W. Cai, and Z. Jiang, “Upconversion emission enhancement in silica-coated Gd2O3: Tm3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals by incorporation of Li+ ion,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 123(2-3), 806–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

G. Chen, H. Liu, H. Liang, G. Somesfalean, and Z. Zhang, “Upconversion emission enhancement in Yb3+/Er3+-codoped Y2O3 nanocrystals by tridoping with Li+ ions,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(31), 12030–12036 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

B. Liu, M. Gu, X. Liu, C. Ni, D. Wang, L. Xiao, and R. Zhang, “Effect of Zn2+ and Li+ codoping ions on nanosized Gd2O3:Eu3+ phosphor,” J. Alloys Compd. 440(1-2), 341–345 (2007).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. Park, H. Moon, D.-K. Kim, S.-H. Byeon, B.-C. Kim, and K.-S. Suh, “Morphology and cathodoluminescence of Li-doped Gd2O3: Eu3+, a red phosphor operating at low voltages,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(14), 2162–2164 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, M. W.

M. W. Ahmad, W. Xu, S. J. Kim, J. S. Baeck, Y. Chang, J. E. Bae, K. S. Chae, J. A. Park, T. J. Kim, and G. H. Lee, “Potential dual imaging nanoparticle: Gd2O3 nanoparticle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8549 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aoki, K.

K. Yamamoto, M. Fujii, S. Sowa, K. Imakita, and K. Aoki, “Upconversion luminescence of rare-earth-doped Y2O3 nanoparticle with metal nano-cap,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(2), 1175–1179 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bae, J. E.

M. W. Ahmad, W. Xu, S. J. Kim, J. S. Baeck, Y. Chang, J. E. Bae, K. S. Chae, J. A. Park, T. J. Kim, and G. H. Lee, “Potential dual imaging nanoparticle: Gd2O3 nanoparticle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8549 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baeck, J. S.

M. W. Ahmad, W. Xu, S. J. Kim, J. S. Baeck, Y. Chang, J. E. Bae, K. S. Chae, J. A. Park, T. J. Kim, and G. H. Lee, “Potential dual imaging nanoparticle: Gd2O3 nanoparticle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8549 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, Y.

Y. Jia, Y. Song, Y. Bai, and Y. Wang, “Upconverted photoluminescence in Ho3+ and Yb3+ codoped Gd2O3 nanocrystals with and without Li+ ions,” Luminescence 26(4), 259–263 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bansal, A.

N. M. Idris, M. K. G. Jayakumar, A. Bansal, and Y. Zhang, “Upconversion nanoparticles as versatile light nanotransducers for photoactivation applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(6), 1449–1478 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bednarkiewicz, A.

A. Gnach, T. Lipinski, A. Bednarkiewicz, J. Rybka, and J. A. Capobianco, “Upconverting nanoparticles: assessing the toxicity,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(6), 1561–1584 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Byeon, S.-H.

J. Park, H. Moon, D.-K. Kim, S.-H. Byeon, B.-C. Kim, and K.-S. Suh, “Morphology and cathodoluminescence of Li-doped Gd2O3: Eu3+, a red phosphor operating at low voltages,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(14), 2162–2164 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cai, W.

Q. Cheng, J. Sui, and W. Cai, “Enhanced upconversion emission in Yb3+ and Er3+ codoped NaGdF4 nanocrystals by introducing Li+ ions,” Nanoscale 4(3), 779–784 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Sun, H. Zhao, X. Chen, F. Wang, W. Cai, and Z. Jiang, “Upconversion emission enhancement in silica-coated Gd2O3: Tm3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals by incorporation of Li+ ion,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 123(2-3), 806–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cao, S.

L. Peng, M. Huang, S. Cao, B. Liu, T. Han, and C. Zhao, “Enhanced upconversion in Dy3+, Yb3+ co-doped Gd2O3 monodisperse nanocrystals,” J. Sol-Gel Sci,” Techn. 78, 307–312 (2016).

Capobianco, J. A.

A. Gnach, T. Lipinski, A. Bednarkiewicz, J. Rybka, and J. A. Capobianco, “Upconverting nanoparticles: assessing the toxicity,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(6), 1561–1584 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chae, K. S.

M. W. Ahmad, W. Xu, S. J. Kim, J. S. Baeck, Y. Chang, J. E. Bae, K. S. Chae, J. A. Park, T. J. Kim, and G. H. Lee, “Potential dual imaging nanoparticle: Gd2O3 nanoparticle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8549 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chakradhar, R. P. S.

N. Dhananjaya, H. Nagabhushana, B. M. Nagabhushana, B. Rudraswamy, C. Shivakumara, and R. P. S. Chakradhar, “Effect of Li+ ion on enhancement of photoluminescence in Gd2O3: Eu3+ nanophosphors prepared by combustion technique,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(5), 2368–2374 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chang, H.

X. Liu, R. Deng, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, H. Chang, L. Huang, and X. Liu, “Probing the nature of upconversion nanocrystals: instrumentation matters,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(6), 1479–1508 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, Y.

M. W. Ahmad, W. Xu, S. J. Kim, J. S. Baeck, Y. Chang, J. E. Bae, K. S. Chae, J. A. Park, T. J. Kim, and G. H. Lee, “Potential dual imaging nanoparticle: Gd2O3 nanoparticle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8549 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, B.

Y. Tian, B. Chen, R. Hua, N. Yu, B. Liu, J. Sun, L. Cheng, H. Zhong, X. Li, J. Zhang, B. Tian, and H. Zhong, “Self-assembled 3D flower-shaped NaY(WO4)2:Eu3+ microarchitectures: Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis, growth mechanism and luminescent properties,” CrystEngComm 14(5), 1760–1769 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, B. Chen, R. Hua, J. Sun, L. Cheng, H. Zhong, X. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Zheng, T. Yu, L. Huang, and H. Yu, “Optical transition, electron-phonon coupling and fluorescent quenching of La2(MoO4)3:Eu3+ phosphor,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053511 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

X. Guo, C. Chen, D. Zhang, C. P. Tripp, S. Yin, and W. Qin, “Photocatalysis of NaYF4:Yb, Er/CdSe composites under 1560 nm laser excitation,” RSC Advances 6(10), 8127–8133 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, D.

M. Ding, D. Chen, S. Yin, Z. Ji, J. Zhong, Y. Ni, C. Lu, and Z. Xu, “Simultaneous morphology manipulation and upconversion luminescence enhancement of β-NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ microcrystals by simply tuning the KF dosage,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12745 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Lei, D. Chen, J. Xu, R. Zhang, and Y. Wang, “Highly Intensified Upconversion Luminescence of Ca2+ -Doped Yb/Er:NaGdF4 Nanocrystals Prepared by a Solvothermal Route,” Chem. Asian J. 9(3), 728–733 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

S. Hao, W. Shao, H. Qiu, Y. Shang, R. Fan, X. Guo, L. Zhao, G. Chen, and C. Yang, “Tuning the size and upconversion emission of NaYF4: Yb3+/Pr3+ nanoparticles through Yb3+ doping,” RSC Advances 4(99), 56302–56306 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Chen, H. Liu, H. Liang, G. Somesfalean, and Z. Zhang, “Upconversion emission enhancement in Yb3+/Er3+-codoped Y2O3 nanocrystals by tridoping with Li+ ions,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(31), 12030–12036 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, K.

H. Li, S. Song, W. Wang, and K. Chen, “In vitro photodynamic therapy based on magnetic-luminescent Gd2O3:Yb,Er nanoparticles with bright three-photon up-conversion fluorescence under near-infrared light,” Dalton Trans. 44(36), 16081–16090 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, R.

X. Wu, Y. Liang, R. Chen, M. Liu, and Y. Li, “Preparation and photoluminescence properties of Y2O3: Eu, Bi phosphors by molten salt synthesis for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Sci. 46(16), 5581–5586 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

Q. Qiang, W. Chen, X. Ma, and Y. Wang, “The crystal structure and upconversion properties of Yb3+, Er3+/Ho3+ codoped BaLiF3 microcrystals with different morphologies,” Dalton Trans. 44(13), 6242–6248 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

B. Zhao, X. Xie, S. Xu, Y. Pan, B. Yang, S. Guo, T. Wei, H. Su, H. Wang, X. Chen, V. P. Dravid, L. Huang, and W. Huang, “Dravid, L. Huang and W. Huang, “From ScOOH to Sc2O3: phase control, luminescent properties, and applications,” Adv. Mater. 28(31), 6665–6671 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Huang, W. Zheng, S. Zhou, D. Tu, Z. Chen, H. Zhu, R. Li, E. Ma, M. Huang, and X. Chen, “Doped LiLuF4 upconversion nanoprobes for the detection of disease biomarkers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 53(5), 1252–1257 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Sun, H. Zhao, X. Chen, F. Wang, W. Cai, and Z. Jiang, “Upconversion emission enhancement in silica-coated Gd2O3: Tm3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals by incorporation of Li+ ion,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 123(2-3), 806–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

P. Huang, W. Zheng, S. Zhou, D. Tu, Z. Chen, H. Zhu, R. Li, E. Ma, M. Huang, and X. Chen, “Doped LiLuF4 upconversion nanoprobes for the detection of disease biomarkers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 53(5), 1252–1257 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheng, L.

Y. Tian, B. Chen, R. Hua, N. Yu, B. Liu, J. Sun, L. Cheng, H. Zhong, X. Li, J. Zhang, B. Tian, and H. Zhong, “Self-assembled 3D flower-shaped NaY(WO4)2:Eu3+ microarchitectures: Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis, growth mechanism and luminescent properties,” CrystEngComm 14(5), 1760–1769 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, B. Chen, R. Hua, J. Sun, L. Cheng, H. Zhong, X. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Zheng, T. Yu, L. Huang, and H. Yu, “Optical transition, electron-phonon coupling and fluorescent quenching of La2(MoO4)3:Eu3+ phosphor,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053511 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Q.

Q. Cheng, J. Sui, and W. Cai, “Enhanced upconversion emission in Yb3+ and Er3+ codoped NaGdF4 nanocrystals by introducing Li+ ions,” Nanoscale 4(3), 779–784 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ciszak, K.

I. Kamińska, K. Fronc, B. Sikora, M. Mouawad, A. Siemiarczuk, M. Szewczyk, K. Sobczak, T. Wojciechowski, W. Zaleszczyk, R. Minikayev, W. Paszkowicz, P. Stępień, P. Dziawa, K. Ciszak, D. Piątkowski, S. Maćkowski, M. Kaliszewski, M. Włodarski, J. Młyńczak, K. Kopczyński, M. Łapiński, and D. Elbaum, “Upconverting/ magnetic: Gd2O3: (Er 3+, Yb3+, Zn2+) nanoparticles for biological applications: effect of Zn2+ doping,” RSC Advances 5(95), 78361–78373 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cong, T.

T. Cong, Y. Ding, J. Liu, H. Zhao, and X. Hong, “Synthesis and optical properties of Zn2+ doped NaYF 4: Yb3+, Er3+ upconversion nanoparticles,” Mater. Lett. 165, 59–62 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cui, Y.

Z. Liang, Y. Cui, S. Zhao, L. Tian, J. Zhang, and Z. Xu, “The enhanced upconversion fluorescence and almost unchanged particle size of β-NaYF4: Yb 3+, Er 3+ nanoparticles by codoping with K+ ions,” J. Alloys Compd. 610, 432–437 (2014).
[Crossref]

D’hooge, M.

R. Van Deun, M. D’hooge, A. Savic, I. Van Driessche, K. Van Hecke, and A. M. Kaczmarek, “Influence of Y(3+), Gd(3+), and Lu(3+) co-doping on the phase and luminescence properties of monoclinic Eu:LaVO4 particles,” Dalton Trans. 44(42), 18418–18426 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, Y.

H. Guan, Y. Sheng, C. Xu, Y. Dai, X. Xie, and H. Zou, “Energy transfer and tunable multicolor emission and paramagnetic properties of GdF3:Dy(3+),Tb(3+),Eu(3+) phosphors,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18(29), 19807–19819 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deng, R.

X. Liu, R. Deng, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, H. Chang, L. Huang, and X. Liu, “Probing the nature of upconversion nanocrystals: instrumentation matters,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(6), 1479–1508 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dey, R.

A. Kumari, A. Pandey, R. Dey, and V. K. Rai, “Simultaneous influence of Zn2+/Mg2+ on the luminescent behaviour of La2O3: Tm3+–Yb3+ phosphors,” RSC Advances 4(42), 21844–21851 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dhananjaya, N.

N. Dhananjaya, H. Nagabhushana, B. M. Nagabhushana, B. Rudraswamy, C. Shivakumara, and R. P. S. Chakradhar, “Effect of Li+ ion on enhancement of photoluminescence in Gd2O3: Eu3+ nanophosphors prepared by combustion technique,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(5), 2368–2374 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ding, M.

M. Ding, D. Chen, S. Yin, Z. Ji, J. Zhong, Y. Ni, C. Lu, and Z. Xu, “Simultaneous morphology manipulation and upconversion luminescence enhancement of β-NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ microcrystals by simply tuning the KF dosage,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12745 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, Y.

T. Cong, Y. Ding, J. Liu, H. Zhao, and X. Hong, “Synthesis and optical properties of Zn2+ doped NaYF 4: Yb3+, Er3+ upconversion nanoparticles,” Mater. Lett. 165, 59–62 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dravid, V. P.

B. Zhao, X. Xie, S. Xu, Y. Pan, B. Yang, S. Guo, T. Wei, H. Su, H. Wang, X. Chen, V. P. Dravid, L. Huang, and W. Huang, “Dravid, L. Huang and W. Huang, “From ScOOH to Sc2O3: phase control, luminescent properties, and applications,” Adv. Mater. 28(31), 6665–6671 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dziawa, P.

I. Kamińska, K. Fronc, B. Sikora, M. Mouawad, A. Siemiarczuk, M. Szewczyk, K. Sobczak, T. Wojciechowski, W. Zaleszczyk, R. Minikayev, W. Paszkowicz, P. Stępień, P. Dziawa, K. Ciszak, D. Piątkowski, S. Maćkowski, M. Kaliszewski, M. Włodarski, J. Młyńczak, K. Kopczyński, M. Łapiński, and D. Elbaum, “Upconverting/ magnetic: Gd2O3: (Er 3+, Yb3+, Zn2+) nanoparticles for biological applications: effect of Zn2+ doping,” RSC Advances 5(95), 78361–78373 (2015).
[Crossref]

Elbaum, D.

I. Kamińska, K. Fronc, B. Sikora, M. Mouawad, A. Siemiarczuk, M. Szewczyk, K. Sobczak, T. Wojciechowski, W. Zaleszczyk, R. Minikayev, W. Paszkowicz, P. Stępień, P. Dziawa, K. Ciszak, D. Piątkowski, S. Maćkowski, M. Kaliszewski, M. Włodarski, J. Młyńczak, K. Kopczyński, M. Łapiński, and D. Elbaum, “Upconverting/ magnetic: Gd2O3: (Er 3+, Yb3+, Zn2+) nanoparticles for biological applications: effect of Zn2+ doping,” RSC Advances 5(95), 78361–78373 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fan, R.

S. Hao, W. Shao, H. Qiu, Y. Shang, R. Fan, X. Guo, L. Zhao, G. Chen, and C. Yang, “Tuning the size and upconversion emission of NaYF4: Yb3+/Pr3+ nanoparticles through Yb3+ doping,” RSC Advances 4(99), 56302–56306 (2014).
[Crossref]

Feng, L.

Y. Li, K. Pan, G. Wang, B. Jiang, C. Tian, W. Zhou, Y. Qu, S. Liu, L. Feng, and H. Fu, “Enhanced photoelectric conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells by the incorporation of dual-mode luminescent NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+.,” Dalton Trans. 42(22), 7971–7979 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, W.

Y. Sun, W. Feng, P. Yang, C. Huang, and F. Li, “The biosafety of lanthanide upconversion nanomaterials,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(6), 1509–1525 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fronc, K.

I. Kamińska, K. Fronc, B. Sikora, M. Mouawad, A. Siemiarczuk, M. Szewczyk, K. Sobczak, T. Wojciechowski, W. Zaleszczyk, R. Minikayev, W. Paszkowicz, P. Stępień, P. Dziawa, K. Ciszak, D. Piątkowski, S. Maćkowski, M. Kaliszewski, M. Włodarski, J. Młyńczak, K. Kopczyński, M. Łapiński, and D. Elbaum, “Upconverting/ magnetic: Gd2O3: (Er 3+, Yb3+, Zn2+) nanoparticles for biological applications: effect of Zn2+ doping,” RSC Advances 5(95), 78361–78373 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fu, H.

Y. Li, K. Pan, G. Wang, B. Jiang, C. Tian, W. Zhou, Y. Qu, S. Liu, L. Feng, and H. Fu, “Enhanced photoelectric conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells by the incorporation of dual-mode luminescent NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+.,” Dalton Trans. 42(22), 7971–7979 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujii, M.

K. Yamamoto, M. Fujii, S. Sowa, K. Imakita, and K. Aoki, “Upconversion luminescence of rare-earth-doped Y2O3 nanoparticle with metal nano-cap,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(2), 1175–1179 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gai, S.

S. Gai, P. Yang, D. Wang, C. Li, N. Niu, F. He, and X. Li, “Monodisperse Gd2O3: Ln (Ln= Eu3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, Sm3+, Yb3+/Er3+, Yb3+/Tm3+, and Yb3+/Ho3+) nanocrystals with tunable size and multicolor luminescent properties,” CrystEngComm 13(17), 5480–5487 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gnach, A.

A. Gnach, T. Lipinski, A. Bednarkiewicz, J. Rybka, and J. A. Capobianco, “Upconverting nanoparticles: assessing the toxicity,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(6), 1561–1584 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, M.

B. Liu, M. Gu, X. Liu, C. Ni, D. Wang, L. Xiao, and R. Zhang, “Effect of Zn2+ and Li+ codoping ions on nanosized Gd2O3:Eu3+ phosphor,” J. Alloys Compd. 440(1-2), 341–345 (2007).
[Crossref]

Guan, H.

H. Guan, Y. Sheng, C. Xu, Y. Dai, X. Xie, and H. Zou, “Energy transfer and tunable multicolor emission and paramagnetic properties of GdF3:Dy(3+),Tb(3+),Eu(3+) phosphors,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18(29), 19807–19819 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, S.

B. Zhao, X. Xie, S. Xu, Y. Pan, B. Yang, S. Guo, T. Wei, H. Su, H. Wang, X. Chen, V. P. Dravid, L. Huang, and W. Huang, “Dravid, L. Huang and W. Huang, “From ScOOH to Sc2O3: phase control, luminescent properties, and applications,” Adv. Mater. 28(31), 6665–6671 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, X.

X. Guo, C. Chen, D. Zhang, C. P. Tripp, S. Yin, and W. Qin, “Photocatalysis of NaYF4:Yb, Er/CdSe composites under 1560 nm laser excitation,” RSC Advances 6(10), 8127–8133 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Hao, W. Shao, H. Qiu, Y. Shang, R. Fan, X. Guo, L. Zhao, G. Chen, and C. Yang, “Tuning the size and upconversion emission of NaYF4: Yb3+/Pr3+ nanoparticles through Yb3+ doping,” RSC Advances 4(99), 56302–56306 (2014).
[Crossref]

Han, T.

L. Peng, M. Huang, S. Cao, B. Liu, T. Han, and C. Zhao, “Enhanced upconversion in Dy3+, Yb3+ co-doped Gd2O3 monodisperse nanocrystals,” J. Sol-Gel Sci,” Techn. 78, 307–312 (2016).

Hao, S.

S. Hao, W. Shao, H. Qiu, Y. Shang, R. Fan, X. Guo, L. Zhao, G. Chen, and C. Yang, “Tuning the size and upconversion emission of NaYF4: Yb3+/Pr3+ nanoparticles through Yb3+ doping,” RSC Advances 4(99), 56302–56306 (2014).
[Crossref]

He, F.

S. Gai, P. Yang, D. Wang, C. Li, N. Niu, F. He, and X. Li, “Monodisperse Gd2O3: Ln (Ln= Eu3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, Sm3+, Yb3+/Er3+, Yb3+/Tm3+, and Yb3+/Ho3+) nanocrystals with tunable size and multicolor luminescent properties,” CrystEngComm 13(17), 5480–5487 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hölsä, J.

V. Kale, T. Soukka, J. Hölsä, and M. Lastusaari, “Enhancement of blue upconversion luminescence in hexagonal NaYF4: Yb, Tm by using K and Sc ions,” J. Nanopart. Res. 15(8), 1850 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hong, X.

T. Cong, Y. Ding, J. Liu, H. Zhao, and X. Hong, “Synthesis and optical properties of Zn2+ doped NaYF 4: Yb3+, Er3+ upconversion nanoparticles,” Mater. Lett. 165, 59–62 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hou, Z.

Y. Zhang, X. Li, X. Kang, Z. Hou, and J. Lin, “Morphology control and multicolor up-conversion luminescence of GdOF:Yb3+/Er3+, Tm3+, Ho3+ nano/submicrocrystals,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16(22), 10779–10787 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hua, R.

Y. Tian, B. Chen, R. Hua, N. Yu, B. Liu, J. Sun, L. Cheng, H. Zhong, X. Li, J. Zhang, B. Tian, and H. Zhong, “Self-assembled 3D flower-shaped NaY(WO4)2:Eu3+ microarchitectures: Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis, growth mechanism and luminescent properties,” CrystEngComm 14(5), 1760–1769 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, B. Chen, R. Hua, J. Sun, L. Cheng, H. Zhong, X. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Zheng, T. Yu, L. Huang, and H. Yu, “Optical transition, electron-phonon coupling and fluorescent quenching of La2(MoO4)3:Eu3+ phosphor,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053511 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, C.

Y. Sun, W. Feng, P. Yang, C. Huang, and F. Li, “The biosafety of lanthanide upconversion nanomaterials,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(6), 1509–1525 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, L.

B. Zhao, X. Xie, S. Xu, Y. Pan, B. Yang, S. Guo, T. Wei, H. Su, H. Wang, X. Chen, V. P. Dravid, L. Huang, and W. Huang, “Dravid, L. Huang and W. Huang, “From ScOOH to Sc2O3: phase control, luminescent properties, and applications,” Adv. Mater. 28(31), 6665–6671 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu, R. Deng, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, H. Chang, L. Huang, and X. Liu, “Probing the nature of upconversion nanocrystals: instrumentation matters,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(6), 1479–1508 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tian, B. Chen, R. Hua, J. Sun, L. Cheng, H. Zhong, X. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Zheng, T. Yu, L. Huang, and H. Yu, “Optical transition, electron-phonon coupling and fluorescent quenching of La2(MoO4)3:Eu3+ phosphor,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053511 (2011).
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L. Peng, M. Huang, S. Cao, B. Liu, T. Han, and C. Zhao, “Enhanced upconversion in Dy3+, Yb3+ co-doped Gd2O3 monodisperse nanocrystals,” J. Sol-Gel Sci,” Techn. 78, 307–312 (2016).

P. Huang, W. Zheng, S. Zhou, D. Tu, Z. Chen, H. Zhu, R. Li, E. Ma, M. Huang, and X. Chen, “Doped LiLuF4 upconversion nanoprobes for the detection of disease biomarkers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 53(5), 1252–1257 (2014).
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P. Huang, W. Zheng, S. Zhou, D. Tu, Z. Chen, H. Zhu, R. Li, E. Ma, M. Huang, and X. Chen, “Doped LiLuF4 upconversion nanoprobes for the detection of disease biomarkers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 53(5), 1252–1257 (2014).
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Q. Huang, J. Yu, E. Ma, and K. Lin, “Synthesis and characterization of highly efficient near-infrared upconversion Sc3+/Er3+/Yb3+ Tridoped NaYF4,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(10), 4719–4724 (2010).
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M. Ding, D. Chen, S. Yin, Z. Ji, J. Zhong, Y. Ni, C. Lu, and Z. Xu, “Simultaneous morphology manipulation and upconversion luminescence enhancement of β-NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ microcrystals by simply tuning the KF dosage,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12745 (2015).
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Y. Li, K. Pan, G. Wang, B. Jiang, C. Tian, W. Zhou, Y. Qu, S. Liu, L. Feng, and H. Fu, “Enhanced photoelectric conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells by the incorporation of dual-mode luminescent NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+.,” Dalton Trans. 42(22), 7971–7979 (2013).
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Q. Sun, H. Zhao, X. Chen, F. Wang, W. Cai, and Z. Jiang, “Upconversion emission enhancement in silica-coated Gd2O3: Tm3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals by incorporation of Li+ ion,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 123(2-3), 806–810 (2010).
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R. Van Deun, M. D’hooge, A. Savic, I. Van Driessche, K. Van Hecke, and A. M. Kaczmarek, “Influence of Y(3+), Gd(3+), and Lu(3+) co-doping on the phase and luminescence properties of monoclinic Eu:LaVO4 particles,” Dalton Trans. 44(42), 18418–18426 (2015).
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V. Kale, T. Soukka, J. Hölsä, and M. Lastusaari, “Enhancement of blue upconversion luminescence in hexagonal NaYF4: Yb, Tm by using K and Sc ions,” J. Nanopart. Res. 15(8), 1850 (2013).
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I. Kamińska, K. Fronc, B. Sikora, M. Mouawad, A. Siemiarczuk, M. Szewczyk, K. Sobczak, T. Wojciechowski, W. Zaleszczyk, R. Minikayev, W. Paszkowicz, P. Stępień, P. Dziawa, K. Ciszak, D. Piątkowski, S. Maćkowski, M. Kaliszewski, M. Włodarski, J. Młyńczak, K. Kopczyński, M. Łapiński, and D. Elbaum, “Upconverting/ magnetic: Gd2O3: (Er 3+, Yb3+, Zn2+) nanoparticles for biological applications: effect of Zn2+ doping,” RSC Advances 5(95), 78361–78373 (2015).
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I. Kamińska, K. Fronc, B. Sikora, M. Mouawad, A. Siemiarczuk, M. Szewczyk, K. Sobczak, T. Wojciechowski, W. Zaleszczyk, R. Minikayev, W. Paszkowicz, P. Stępień, P. Dziawa, K. Ciszak, D. Piątkowski, S. Maćkowski, M. Kaliszewski, M. Włodarski, J. Młyńczak, K. Kopczyński, M. Łapiński, and D. Elbaum, “Upconverting/ magnetic: Gd2O3: (Er 3+, Yb3+, Zn2+) nanoparticles for biological applications: effect of Zn2+ doping,” RSC Advances 5(95), 78361–78373 (2015).
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Y. Zhang, X. Li, X. Kang, Z. Hou, and J. Lin, “Morphology control and multicolor up-conversion luminescence of GdOF:Yb3+/Er3+, Tm3+, Ho3+ nano/submicrocrystals,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16(22), 10779–10787 (2014).
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J. Park, H. Moon, D.-K. Kim, S.-H. Byeon, B.-C. Kim, and K.-S. Suh, “Morphology and cathodoluminescence of Li-doped Gd2O3: Eu3+, a red phosphor operating at low voltages,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(14), 2162–2164 (2000).
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J. Park, H. Moon, D.-K. Kim, S.-H. Byeon, B.-C. Kim, and K.-S. Suh, “Morphology and cathodoluminescence of Li-doped Gd2O3: Eu3+, a red phosphor operating at low voltages,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(14), 2162–2164 (2000).
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M. W. Ahmad, W. Xu, S. J. Kim, J. S. Baeck, Y. Chang, J. E. Bae, K. S. Chae, J. A. Park, T. J. Kim, and G. H. Lee, “Potential dual imaging nanoparticle: Gd2O3 nanoparticle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8549 (2015).
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Kim, T. J.

M. W. Ahmad, W. Xu, S. J. Kim, J. S. Baeck, Y. Chang, J. E. Bae, K. S. Chae, J. A. Park, T. J. Kim, and G. H. Lee, “Potential dual imaging nanoparticle: Gd2O3 nanoparticle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8549 (2015).
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C. Zhao, X. Kong, X. Liu, L. Tu, F. Wu, Y. Zhang, K. Liu, Q. Zeng, and H. Zhang, “Li+ ion doping: an approach for improving the crystallinity and upconversion emissions of NaYF4:Yb3+, Tm3+ nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 5(17), 8084–8089 (2013).
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Kopczynski, K.

I. Kamińska, K. Fronc, B. Sikora, M. Mouawad, A. Siemiarczuk, M. Szewczyk, K. Sobczak, T. Wojciechowski, W. Zaleszczyk, R. Minikayev, W. Paszkowicz, P. Stępień, P. Dziawa, K. Ciszak, D. Piątkowski, S. Maćkowski, M. Kaliszewski, M. Włodarski, J. Młyńczak, K. Kopczyński, M. Łapiński, and D. Elbaum, “Upconverting/ magnetic: Gd2O3: (Er 3+, Yb3+, Zn2+) nanoparticles for biological applications: effect of Zn2+ doping,” RSC Advances 5(95), 78361–78373 (2015).
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A. Kumari, A. Pandey, R. Dey, and V. K. Rai, “Simultaneous influence of Zn2+/Mg2+ on the luminescent behaviour of La2O3: Tm3+–Yb3+ phosphors,” RSC Advances 4(42), 21844–21851 (2014).
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I. Kamińska, K. Fronc, B. Sikora, M. Mouawad, A. Siemiarczuk, M. Szewczyk, K. Sobczak, T. Wojciechowski, W. Zaleszczyk, R. Minikayev, W. Paszkowicz, P. Stępień, P. Dziawa, K. Ciszak, D. Piątkowski, S. Maćkowski, M. Kaliszewski, M. Włodarski, J. Młyńczak, K. Kopczyński, M. Łapiński, and D. Elbaum, “Upconverting/ magnetic: Gd2O3: (Er 3+, Yb3+, Zn2+) nanoparticles for biological applications: effect of Zn2+ doping,” RSC Advances 5(95), 78361–78373 (2015).
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Lastusaari, M.

V. Kale, T. Soukka, J. Hölsä, and M. Lastusaari, “Enhancement of blue upconversion luminescence in hexagonal NaYF4: Yb, Tm by using K and Sc ions,” J. Nanopart. Res. 15(8), 1850 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, G. H.

M. W. Ahmad, W. Xu, S. J. Kim, J. S. Baeck, Y. Chang, J. E. Bae, K. S. Chae, J. A. Park, T. J. Kim, and G. H. Lee, “Potential dual imaging nanoparticle: Gd2O3 nanoparticle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8549 (2015).
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L. Lei, D. Chen, J. Xu, R. Zhang, and Y. Wang, “Highly Intensified Upconversion Luminescence of Ca2+ -Doped Yb/Er:NaGdF4 Nanocrystals Prepared by a Solvothermal Route,” Chem. Asian J. 9(3), 728–733 (2014).
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Li, C.

S. Gai, P. Yang, D. Wang, C. Li, N. Niu, F. He, and X. Li, “Monodisperse Gd2O3: Ln (Ln= Eu3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, Sm3+, Yb3+/Er3+, Yb3+/Tm3+, and Yb3+/Ho3+) nanocrystals with tunable size and multicolor luminescent properties,” CrystEngComm 13(17), 5480–5487 (2011).
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Y. Sun, W. Feng, P. Yang, C. Huang, and F. Li, “The biosafety of lanthanide upconversion nanomaterials,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(6), 1509–1525 (2015).
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H. Li, S. Song, W. Wang, and K. Chen, “In vitro photodynamic therapy based on magnetic-luminescent Gd2O3:Yb,Er nanoparticles with bright three-photon up-conversion fluorescence under near-infrared light,” Dalton Trans. 44(36), 16081–16090 (2015).
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Li, R.

P. Huang, W. Zheng, S. Zhou, D. Tu, Z. Chen, H. Zhu, R. Li, E. Ma, M. Huang, and X. Chen, “Doped LiLuF4 upconversion nanoprobes for the detection of disease biomarkers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 53(5), 1252–1257 (2014).
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X. Li, F. Zhang, and D. Zhao, “Lab on upconversion nanoparticles: optical properties and applications engineering via designed nanostructure,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(6), 1346–1378 (2015).
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Y. Zhang, X. Li, X. Kang, Z. Hou, and J. Lin, “Morphology control and multicolor up-conversion luminescence of GdOF:Yb3+/Er3+, Tm3+, Ho3+ nano/submicrocrystals,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16(22), 10779–10787 (2014).
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Y. Tian, B. Chen, R. Hua, N. Yu, B. Liu, J. Sun, L. Cheng, H. Zhong, X. Li, J. Zhang, B. Tian, and H. Zhong, “Self-assembled 3D flower-shaped NaY(WO4)2:Eu3+ microarchitectures: Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis, growth mechanism and luminescent properties,” CrystEngComm 14(5), 1760–1769 (2012).
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Y. Tian, B. Chen, R. Hua, J. Sun, L. Cheng, H. Zhong, X. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Zheng, T. Yu, L. Huang, and H. Yu, “Optical transition, electron-phonon coupling and fluorescent quenching of La2(MoO4)3:Eu3+ phosphor,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053511 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Gai, P. Yang, D. Wang, C. Li, N. Niu, F. He, and X. Li, “Monodisperse Gd2O3: Ln (Ln= Eu3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, Sm3+, Yb3+/Er3+, Yb3+/Tm3+, and Yb3+/Ho3+) nanocrystals with tunable size and multicolor luminescent properties,” CrystEngComm 13(17), 5480–5487 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, K. Pan, G. Wang, B. Jiang, C. Tian, W. Zhou, Y. Qu, S. Liu, L. Feng, and H. Fu, “Enhanced photoelectric conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells by the incorporation of dual-mode luminescent NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+.,” Dalton Trans. 42(22), 7971–7979 (2013).
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X. Wu, Y. Liang, R. Chen, M. Liu, and Y. Li, “Preparation and photoluminescence properties of Y2O3: Eu, Bi phosphors by molten salt synthesis for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Sci. 46(16), 5581–5586 (2011).
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Liang, H.

G. Chen, H. Liu, H. Liang, G. Somesfalean, and Z. Zhang, “Upconversion emission enhancement in Yb3+/Er3+-codoped Y2O3 nanocrystals by tridoping with Li+ ions,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(31), 12030–12036 (2008).
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X. Wu, Y. Liang, R. Chen, M. Liu, and Y. Li, “Preparation and photoluminescence properties of Y2O3: Eu, Bi phosphors by molten salt synthesis for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Sci. 46(16), 5581–5586 (2011).
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Z. Liang, Y. Cui, S. Zhao, L. Tian, J. Zhang, and Z. Xu, “The enhanced upconversion fluorescence and almost unchanged particle size of β-NaYF4: Yb 3+, Er 3+ nanoparticles by codoping with K+ ions,” J. Alloys Compd. 610, 432–437 (2014).
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Y. Zhang, X. Li, X. Kang, Z. Hou, and J. Lin, “Morphology control and multicolor up-conversion luminescence of GdOF:Yb3+/Er3+, Tm3+, Ho3+ nano/submicrocrystals,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16(22), 10779–10787 (2014).
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Lin, K.

Q. Huang, J. Yu, E. Ma, and K. Lin, “Synthesis and characterization of highly efficient near-infrared upconversion Sc3+/Er3+/Yb3+ Tridoped NaYF4,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(10), 4719–4724 (2010).
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A. Gnach, T. Lipinski, A. Bednarkiewicz, J. Rybka, and J. A. Capobianco, “Upconverting nanoparticles: assessing the toxicity,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(6), 1561–1584 (2015).
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L. Peng, M. Huang, S. Cao, B. Liu, T. Han, and C. Zhao, “Enhanced upconversion in Dy3+, Yb3+ co-doped Gd2O3 monodisperse nanocrystals,” J. Sol-Gel Sci,” Techn. 78, 307–312 (2016).

Y. Tian, B. Chen, R. Hua, N. Yu, B. Liu, J. Sun, L. Cheng, H. Zhong, X. Li, J. Zhang, B. Tian, and H. Zhong, “Self-assembled 3D flower-shaped NaY(WO4)2:Eu3+ microarchitectures: Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis, growth mechanism and luminescent properties,” CrystEngComm 14(5), 1760–1769 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Liu, M. Gu, X. Liu, C. Ni, D. Wang, L. Xiao, and R. Zhang, “Effect of Zn2+ and Li+ codoping ions on nanosized Gd2O3:Eu3+ phosphor,” J. Alloys Compd. 440(1-2), 341–345 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

G. Chen, H. Liu, H. Liang, G. Somesfalean, and Z. Zhang, “Upconversion emission enhancement in Yb3+/Er3+-codoped Y2O3 nanocrystals by tridoping with Li+ ions,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(31), 12030–12036 (2008).
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Liu, J.

T. Cong, Y. Ding, J. Liu, H. Zhao, and X. Hong, “Synthesis and optical properties of Zn2+ doped NaYF 4: Yb3+, Er3+ upconversion nanoparticles,” Mater. Lett. 165, 59–62 (2016).
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C. Zhao, X. Kong, X. Liu, L. Tu, F. Wu, Y. Zhang, K. Liu, Q. Zeng, and H. Zhang, “Li+ ion doping: an approach for improving the crystallinity and upconversion emissions of NaYF4:Yb3+, Tm3+ nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 5(17), 8084–8089 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, M.

X. Wu, Y. Liang, R. Chen, M. Liu, and Y. Li, “Preparation and photoluminescence properties of Y2O3: Eu, Bi phosphors by molten salt synthesis for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Sci. 46(16), 5581–5586 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

Y. Li, K. Pan, G. Wang, B. Jiang, C. Tian, W. Zhou, Y. Qu, S. Liu, L. Feng, and H. Fu, “Enhanced photoelectric conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells by the incorporation of dual-mode luminescent NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+.,” Dalton Trans. 42(22), 7971–7979 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, R. Deng, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, H. Chang, L. Huang, and X. Liu, “Probing the nature of upconversion nanocrystals: instrumentation matters,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(6), 1479–1508 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu, R. Deng, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, H. Chang, L. Huang, and X. Liu, “Probing the nature of upconversion nanocrystals: instrumentation matters,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(6), 1479–1508 (2015).
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L. Tu, X. Liu, F. Wu, and H. Zhang, “Excitation energy migration dynamics in upconversion nanomaterials,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(6), 1331–1345 (2015).
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C. Zhao, X. Kong, X. Liu, L. Tu, F. Wu, Y. Zhang, K. Liu, Q. Zeng, and H. Zhang, “Li+ ion doping: an approach for improving the crystallinity and upconversion emissions of NaYF4:Yb3+, Tm3+ nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 5(17), 8084–8089 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Liu, M. Gu, X. Liu, C. Ni, D. Wang, L. Xiao, and R. Zhang, “Effect of Zn2+ and Li+ codoping ions on nanosized Gd2O3:Eu3+ phosphor,” J. Alloys Compd. 440(1-2), 341–345 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lu, C.

M. Ding, D. Chen, S. Yin, Z. Ji, J. Zhong, Y. Ni, C. Lu, and Z. Xu, “Simultaneous morphology manipulation and upconversion luminescence enhancement of β-NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ microcrystals by simply tuning the KF dosage,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12745 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, E.

P. Huang, W. Zheng, S. Zhou, D. Tu, Z. Chen, H. Zhu, R. Li, E. Ma, M. Huang, and X. Chen, “Doped LiLuF4 upconversion nanoprobes for the detection of disease biomarkers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 53(5), 1252–1257 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Huang, J. Yu, E. Ma, and K. Lin, “Synthesis and characterization of highly efficient near-infrared upconversion Sc3+/Er3+/Yb3+ Tridoped NaYF4,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(10), 4719–4724 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ma, X.

Q. Qiang, W. Chen, X. Ma, and Y. Wang, “The crystal structure and upconversion properties of Yb3+, Er3+/Ho3+ codoped BaLiF3 microcrystals with different morphologies,” Dalton Trans. 44(13), 6242–6248 (2015).
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I. Kamińska, K. Fronc, B. Sikora, M. Mouawad, A. Siemiarczuk, M. Szewczyk, K. Sobczak, T. Wojciechowski, W. Zaleszczyk, R. Minikayev, W. Paszkowicz, P. Stępień, P. Dziawa, K. Ciszak, D. Piątkowski, S. Maćkowski, M. Kaliszewski, M. Włodarski, J. Młyńczak, K. Kopczyński, M. Łapiński, and D. Elbaum, “Upconverting/ magnetic: Gd2O3: (Er 3+, Yb3+, Zn2+) nanoparticles for biological applications: effect of Zn2+ doping,” RSC Advances 5(95), 78361–78373 (2015).
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I. Kamińska, K. Fronc, B. Sikora, M. Mouawad, A. Siemiarczuk, M. Szewczyk, K. Sobczak, T. Wojciechowski, W. Zaleszczyk, R. Minikayev, W. Paszkowicz, P. Stępień, P. Dziawa, K. Ciszak, D. Piątkowski, S. Maćkowski, M. Kaliszewski, M. Włodarski, J. Młyńczak, K. Kopczyński, M. Łapiński, and D. Elbaum, “Upconverting/ magnetic: Gd2O3: (Er 3+, Yb3+, Zn2+) nanoparticles for biological applications: effect of Zn2+ doping,” RSC Advances 5(95), 78361–78373 (2015).
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I. Kamińska, K. Fronc, B. Sikora, M. Mouawad, A. Siemiarczuk, M. Szewczyk, K. Sobczak, T. Wojciechowski, W. Zaleszczyk, R. Minikayev, W. Paszkowicz, P. Stępień, P. Dziawa, K. Ciszak, D. Piątkowski, S. Maćkowski, M. Kaliszewski, M. Włodarski, J. Młyńczak, K. Kopczyński, M. Łapiński, and D. Elbaum, “Upconverting/ magnetic: Gd2O3: (Er 3+, Yb3+, Zn2+) nanoparticles for biological applications: effect of Zn2+ doping,” RSC Advances 5(95), 78361–78373 (2015).
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Moon, H.

J. Park, H. Moon, D.-K. Kim, S.-H. Byeon, B.-C. Kim, and K.-S. Suh, “Morphology and cathodoluminescence of Li-doped Gd2O3: Eu3+, a red phosphor operating at low voltages,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(14), 2162–2164 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mouawad, M.

I. Kamińska, K. Fronc, B. Sikora, M. Mouawad, A. Siemiarczuk, M. Szewczyk, K. Sobczak, T. Wojciechowski, W. Zaleszczyk, R. Minikayev, W. Paszkowicz, P. Stępień, P. Dziawa, K. Ciszak, D. Piątkowski, S. Maćkowski, M. Kaliszewski, M. Włodarski, J. Młyńczak, K. Kopczyński, M. Łapiński, and D. Elbaum, “Upconverting/ magnetic: Gd2O3: (Er 3+, Yb3+, Zn2+) nanoparticles for biological applications: effect of Zn2+ doping,” RSC Advances 5(95), 78361–78373 (2015).
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Nagabhushana, B. M.

N. Dhananjaya, H. Nagabhushana, B. M. Nagabhushana, B. Rudraswamy, C. Shivakumara, and R. P. S. Chakradhar, “Effect of Li+ ion on enhancement of photoluminescence in Gd2O3: Eu3+ nanophosphors prepared by combustion technique,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(5), 2368–2374 (2011).
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N. Dhananjaya, H. Nagabhushana, B. M. Nagabhushana, B. Rudraswamy, C. Shivakumara, and R. P. S. Chakradhar, “Effect of Li+ ion on enhancement of photoluminescence in Gd2O3: Eu3+ nanophosphors prepared by combustion technique,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(5), 2368–2374 (2011).
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Ni, C.

B. Liu, M. Gu, X. Liu, C. Ni, D. Wang, L. Xiao, and R. Zhang, “Effect of Zn2+ and Li+ codoping ions on nanosized Gd2O3:Eu3+ phosphor,” J. Alloys Compd. 440(1-2), 341–345 (2007).
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Ni, Y.

M. Ding, D. Chen, S. Yin, Z. Ji, J. Zhong, Y. Ni, C. Lu, and Z. Xu, “Simultaneous morphology manipulation and upconversion luminescence enhancement of β-NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ microcrystals by simply tuning the KF dosage,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12745 (2015).
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Niu, N.

S. Gai, P. Yang, D. Wang, C. Li, N. Niu, F. He, and X. Li, “Monodisperse Gd2O3: Ln (Ln= Eu3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, Sm3+, Yb3+/Er3+, Yb3+/Tm3+, and Yb3+/Ho3+) nanocrystals with tunable size and multicolor luminescent properties,” CrystEngComm 13(17), 5480–5487 (2011).
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A. Kumari, A. Pandey, R. Dey, and V. K. Rai, “Simultaneous influence of Zn2+/Mg2+ on the luminescent behaviour of La2O3: Tm3+–Yb3+ phosphors,” RSC Advances 4(42), 21844–21851 (2014).
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N. Dhananjaya, H. Nagabhushana, B. M. Nagabhushana, B. Rudraswamy, C. Shivakumara, and R. P. S. Chakradhar, “Effect of Li+ ion on enhancement of photoluminescence in Gd2O3: Eu3+ nanophosphors prepared by combustion technique,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(5), 2368–2374 (2011).
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H. Li, S. Song, W. Wang, and K. Chen, “In vitro photodynamic therapy based on magnetic-luminescent Gd2O3:Yb,Er nanoparticles with bright three-photon up-conversion fluorescence under near-infrared light,” Dalton Trans. 44(36), 16081–16090 (2015).
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L. Tu, X. Liu, F. Wu, and H. Zhang, “Excitation energy migration dynamics in upconversion nanomaterials,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(6), 1331–1345 (2015).
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C. Zhao, X. Kong, X. Liu, L. Tu, F. Wu, Y. Zhang, K. Liu, Q. Zeng, and H. Zhang, “Li+ ion doping: an approach for improving the crystallinity and upconversion emissions of NaYF4:Yb3+, Tm3+ nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 5(17), 8084–8089 (2013).
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B. Zhao, X. Xie, S. Xu, Y. Pan, B. Yang, S. Guo, T. Wei, H. Su, H. Wang, X. Chen, V. P. Dravid, L. Huang, and W. Huang, “Dravid, L. Huang and W. Huang, “From ScOOH to Sc2O3: phase control, luminescent properties, and applications,” Adv. Mater. 28(31), 6665–6671 (2016).
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H. Guan, Y. Sheng, C. Xu, Y. Dai, X. Xie, and H. Zou, “Energy transfer and tunable multicolor emission and paramagnetic properties of GdF3:Dy(3+),Tb(3+),Eu(3+) phosphors,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18(29), 19807–19819 (2016).
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Xu, J.

L. Lei, D. Chen, J. Xu, R. Zhang, and Y. Wang, “Highly Intensified Upconversion Luminescence of Ca2+ -Doped Yb/Er:NaGdF4 Nanocrystals Prepared by a Solvothermal Route,” Chem. Asian J. 9(3), 728–733 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, S.

B. Zhao, X. Xie, S. Xu, Y. Pan, B. Yang, S. Guo, T. Wei, H. Su, H. Wang, X. Chen, V. P. Dravid, L. Huang, and W. Huang, “Dravid, L. Huang and W. Huang, “From ScOOH to Sc2O3: phase control, luminescent properties, and applications,” Adv. Mater. 28(31), 6665–6671 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, W.

M. W. Ahmad, W. Xu, S. J. Kim, J. S. Baeck, Y. Chang, J. E. Bae, K. S. Chae, J. A. Park, T. J. Kim, and G. H. Lee, “Potential dual imaging nanoparticle: Gd2O3 nanoparticle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8549 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Z.

M. Ding, D. Chen, S. Yin, Z. Ji, J. Zhong, Y. Ni, C. Lu, and Z. Xu, “Simultaneous morphology manipulation and upconversion luminescence enhancement of β-NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ microcrystals by simply tuning the KF dosage,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12745 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liang, Y. Cui, S. Zhao, L. Tian, J. Zhang, and Z. Xu, “The enhanced upconversion fluorescence and almost unchanged particle size of β-NaYF4: Yb 3+, Er 3+ nanoparticles by codoping with K+ ions,” J. Alloys Compd. 610, 432–437 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, K.

K. Yamamoto, M. Fujii, S. Sowa, K. Imakita, and K. Aoki, “Upconversion luminescence of rare-earth-doped Y2O3 nanoparticle with metal nano-cap,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(2), 1175–1179 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, B.

B. Zhao, X. Xie, S. Xu, Y. Pan, B. Yang, S. Guo, T. Wei, H. Su, H. Wang, X. Chen, V. P. Dravid, L. Huang, and W. Huang, “Dravid, L. Huang and W. Huang, “From ScOOH to Sc2O3: phase control, luminescent properties, and applications,” Adv. Mater. 28(31), 6665–6671 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

S. Hao, W. Shao, H. Qiu, Y. Shang, R. Fan, X. Guo, L. Zhao, G. Chen, and C. Yang, “Tuning the size and upconversion emission of NaYF4: Yb3+/Pr3+ nanoparticles through Yb3+ doping,” RSC Advances 4(99), 56302–56306 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, P.

Y. Sun, W. Feng, P. Yang, C. Huang, and F. Li, “The biosafety of lanthanide upconversion nanomaterials,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(6), 1509–1525 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gai, P. Yang, D. Wang, C. Li, N. Niu, F. He, and X. Li, “Monodisperse Gd2O3: Ln (Ln= Eu3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, Sm3+, Yb3+/Er3+, Yb3+/Tm3+, and Yb3+/Ho3+) nanocrystals with tunable size and multicolor luminescent properties,” CrystEngComm 13(17), 5480–5487 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yin, S.

X. Guo, C. Chen, D. Zhang, C. P. Tripp, S. Yin, and W. Qin, “Photocatalysis of NaYF4:Yb, Er/CdSe composites under 1560 nm laser excitation,” RSC Advances 6(10), 8127–8133 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Ding, D. Chen, S. Yin, Z. Ji, J. Zhong, Y. Ni, C. Lu, and Z. Xu, “Simultaneous morphology manipulation and upconversion luminescence enhancement of β-NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ microcrystals by simply tuning the KF dosage,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12745 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, H.

Y. Tian, B. Chen, R. Hua, J. Sun, L. Cheng, H. Zhong, X. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Zheng, T. Yu, L. Huang, and H. Yu, “Optical transition, electron-phonon coupling and fluorescent quenching of La2(MoO4)3:Eu3+ phosphor,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053511 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yu, J.

Q. Huang, J. Yu, E. Ma, and K. Lin, “Synthesis and characterization of highly efficient near-infrared upconversion Sc3+/Er3+/Yb3+ Tridoped NaYF4,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(10), 4719–4724 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yu, N.

Y. Tian, B. Chen, R. Hua, N. Yu, B. Liu, J. Sun, L. Cheng, H. Zhong, X. Li, J. Zhang, B. Tian, and H. Zhong, “Self-assembled 3D flower-shaped NaY(WO4)2:Eu3+ microarchitectures: Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis, growth mechanism and luminescent properties,” CrystEngComm 14(5), 1760–1769 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yu, T.

Y. Tian, B. Chen, R. Hua, J. Sun, L. Cheng, H. Zhong, X. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Zheng, T. Yu, L. Huang, and H. Yu, “Optical transition, electron-phonon coupling and fluorescent quenching of La2(MoO4)3:Eu3+ phosphor,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053511 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zaleszczyk, W.

I. Kamińska, K. Fronc, B. Sikora, M. Mouawad, A. Siemiarczuk, M. Szewczyk, K. Sobczak, T. Wojciechowski, W. Zaleszczyk, R. Minikayev, W. Paszkowicz, P. Stępień, P. Dziawa, K. Ciszak, D. Piątkowski, S. Maćkowski, M. Kaliszewski, M. Włodarski, J. Młyńczak, K. Kopczyński, M. Łapiński, and D. Elbaum, “Upconverting/ magnetic: Gd2O3: (Er 3+, Yb3+, Zn2+) nanoparticles for biological applications: effect of Zn2+ doping,” RSC Advances 5(95), 78361–78373 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zeng, Q.

C. Zhao, X. Kong, X. Liu, L. Tu, F. Wu, Y. Zhang, K. Liu, Q. Zeng, and H. Zhang, “Li+ ion doping: an approach for improving the crystallinity and upconversion emissions of NaYF4:Yb3+, Tm3+ nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 5(17), 8084–8089 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, D.

X. Guo, C. Chen, D. Zhang, C. P. Tripp, S. Yin, and W. Qin, “Photocatalysis of NaYF4:Yb, Er/CdSe composites under 1560 nm laser excitation,” RSC Advances 6(10), 8127–8133 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, F.

X. Li, F. Zhang, and D. Zhao, “Lab on upconversion nanoparticles: optical properties and applications engineering via designed nanostructure,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(6), 1346–1378 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

L. Tu, X. Liu, F. Wu, and H. Zhang, “Excitation energy migration dynamics in upconversion nanomaterials,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(6), 1331–1345 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhao, X. Kong, X. Liu, L. Tu, F. Wu, Y. Zhang, K. Liu, Q. Zeng, and H. Zhang, “Li+ ion doping: an approach for improving the crystallinity and upconversion emissions of NaYF4:Yb3+, Tm3+ nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 5(17), 8084–8089 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

Z. Liang, Y. Cui, S. Zhao, L. Tian, J. Zhang, and Z. Xu, “The enhanced upconversion fluorescence and almost unchanged particle size of β-NaYF4: Yb 3+, Er 3+ nanoparticles by codoping with K+ ions,” J. Alloys Compd. 610, 432–437 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, B. Chen, R. Hua, N. Yu, B. Liu, J. Sun, L. Cheng, H. Zhong, X. Li, J. Zhang, B. Tian, and H. Zhong, “Self-assembled 3D flower-shaped NaY(WO4)2:Eu3+ microarchitectures: Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis, growth mechanism and luminescent properties,” CrystEngComm 14(5), 1760–1769 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, B. Chen, R. Hua, J. Sun, L. Cheng, H. Zhong, X. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Zheng, T. Yu, L. Huang, and H. Yu, “Optical transition, electron-phonon coupling and fluorescent quenching of La2(MoO4)3:Eu3+ phosphor,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053511 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, R.

L. Lei, D. Chen, J. Xu, R. Zhang, and Y. Wang, “Highly Intensified Upconversion Luminescence of Ca2+ -Doped Yb/Er:NaGdF4 Nanocrystals Prepared by a Solvothermal Route,” Chem. Asian J. 9(3), 728–733 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Liu, M. Gu, X. Liu, C. Ni, D. Wang, L. Xiao, and R. Zhang, “Effect of Zn2+ and Li+ codoping ions on nanosized Gd2O3:Eu3+ phosphor,” J. Alloys Compd. 440(1-2), 341–345 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

N. M. Idris, M. K. G. Jayakumar, A. Bansal, and Y. Zhang, “Upconversion nanoparticles as versatile light nanotransducers for photoactivation applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(6), 1449–1478 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu, R. Deng, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, H. Chang, L. Huang, and X. Liu, “Probing the nature of upconversion nanocrystals: instrumentation matters,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(6), 1479–1508 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, X. Li, X. Kang, Z. Hou, and J. Lin, “Morphology control and multicolor up-conversion luminescence of GdOF:Yb3+/Er3+, Tm3+, Ho3+ nano/submicrocrystals,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16(22), 10779–10787 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhao, X. Kong, X. Liu, L. Tu, F. Wu, Y. Zhang, K. Liu, Q. Zeng, and H. Zhang, “Li+ ion doping: an approach for improving the crystallinity and upconversion emissions of NaYF4:Yb3+, Tm3+ nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 5(17), 8084–8089 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

G. Chen, H. Liu, H. Liang, G. Somesfalean, and Z. Zhang, “Upconversion emission enhancement in Yb3+/Er3+-codoped Y2O3 nanocrystals by tridoping with Li+ ions,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(31), 12030–12036 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhao, B.

B. Zhao, X. Xie, S. Xu, Y. Pan, B. Yang, S. Guo, T. Wei, H. Su, H. Wang, X. Chen, V. P. Dravid, L. Huang, and W. Huang, “Dravid, L. Huang and W. Huang, “From ScOOH to Sc2O3: phase control, luminescent properties, and applications,” Adv. Mater. 28(31), 6665–6671 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, C.

L. Peng, M. Huang, S. Cao, B. Liu, T. Han, and C. Zhao, “Enhanced upconversion in Dy3+, Yb3+ co-doped Gd2O3 monodisperse nanocrystals,” J. Sol-Gel Sci,” Techn. 78, 307–312 (2016).

C. Zhao, X. Kong, X. Liu, L. Tu, F. Wu, Y. Zhang, K. Liu, Q. Zeng, and H. Zhang, “Li+ ion doping: an approach for improving the crystallinity and upconversion emissions of NaYF4:Yb3+, Tm3+ nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 5(17), 8084–8089 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, D.

X. Li, F. Zhang, and D. Zhao, “Lab on upconversion nanoparticles: optical properties and applications engineering via designed nanostructure,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(6), 1346–1378 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, H.

T. Cong, Y. Ding, J. Liu, H. Zhao, and X. Hong, “Synthesis and optical properties of Zn2+ doped NaYF 4: Yb3+, Er3+ upconversion nanoparticles,” Mater. Lett. 165, 59–62 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Sun, H. Zhao, X. Chen, F. Wang, W. Cai, and Z. Jiang, “Upconversion emission enhancement in silica-coated Gd2O3: Tm3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals by incorporation of Li+ ion,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 123(2-3), 806–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L.

S. Hao, W. Shao, H. Qiu, Y. Shang, R. Fan, X. Guo, L. Zhao, G. Chen, and C. Yang, “Tuning the size and upconversion emission of NaYF4: Yb3+/Pr3+ nanoparticles through Yb3+ doping,” RSC Advances 4(99), 56302–56306 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, S.

Z. Liang, Y. Cui, S. Zhao, L. Tian, J. Zhang, and Z. Xu, “The enhanced upconversion fluorescence and almost unchanged particle size of β-NaYF4: Yb 3+, Er 3+ nanoparticles by codoping with K+ ions,” J. Alloys Compd. 610, 432–437 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zheng, W.

P. Huang, W. Zheng, S. Zhou, D. Tu, Z. Chen, H. Zhu, R. Li, E. Ma, M. Huang, and X. Chen, “Doped LiLuF4 upconversion nanoprobes for the detection of disease biomarkers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 53(5), 1252–1257 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Y.

Y. Tian, B. Chen, R. Hua, J. Sun, L. Cheng, H. Zhong, X. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Zheng, T. Yu, L. Huang, and H. Yu, “Optical transition, electron-phonon coupling and fluorescent quenching of La2(MoO4)3:Eu3+ phosphor,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053511 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhong, H.

Y. Tian, B. Chen, R. Hua, N. Yu, B. Liu, J. Sun, L. Cheng, H. Zhong, X. Li, J. Zhang, B. Tian, and H. Zhong, “Self-assembled 3D flower-shaped NaY(WO4)2:Eu3+ microarchitectures: Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis, growth mechanism and luminescent properties,” CrystEngComm 14(5), 1760–1769 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, B. Chen, R. Hua, N. Yu, B. Liu, J. Sun, L. Cheng, H. Zhong, X. Li, J. Zhang, B. Tian, and H. Zhong, “Self-assembled 3D flower-shaped NaY(WO4)2:Eu3+ microarchitectures: Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis, growth mechanism and luminescent properties,” CrystEngComm 14(5), 1760–1769 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, B. Chen, R. Hua, J. Sun, L. Cheng, H. Zhong, X. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Zheng, T. Yu, L. Huang, and H. Yu, “Optical transition, electron-phonon coupling and fluorescent quenching of La2(MoO4)3:Eu3+ phosphor,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053511 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhong, J.

M. Ding, D. Chen, S. Yin, Z. Ji, J. Zhong, Y. Ni, C. Lu, and Z. Xu, “Simultaneous morphology manipulation and upconversion luminescence enhancement of β-NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ microcrystals by simply tuning the KF dosage,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12745 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, S.

P. Huang, W. Zheng, S. Zhou, D. Tu, Z. Chen, H. Zhu, R. Li, E. Ma, M. Huang, and X. Chen, “Doped LiLuF4 upconversion nanoprobes for the detection of disease biomarkers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 53(5), 1252–1257 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, W.

Y. Li, K. Pan, G. Wang, B. Jiang, C. Tian, W. Zhou, Y. Qu, S. Liu, L. Feng, and H. Fu, “Enhanced photoelectric conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells by the incorporation of dual-mode luminescent NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+.,” Dalton Trans. 42(22), 7971–7979 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, H.

P. Huang, W. Zheng, S. Zhou, D. Tu, Z. Chen, H. Zhu, R. Li, E. Ma, M. Huang, and X. Chen, “Doped LiLuF4 upconversion nanoprobes for the detection of disease biomarkers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 53(5), 1252–1257 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zou, H.

H. Guan, Y. Sheng, C. Xu, Y. Dai, X. Xie, and H. Zou, “Energy transfer and tunable multicolor emission and paramagnetic properties of GdF3:Dy(3+),Tb(3+),Eu(3+) phosphors,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18(29), 19807–19819 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

B. Zhao, X. Xie, S. Xu, Y. Pan, B. Yang, S. Guo, T. Wei, H. Su, H. Wang, X. Chen, V. P. Dravid, L. Huang, and W. Huang, “Dravid, L. Huang and W. Huang, “From ScOOH to Sc2O3: phase control, luminescent properties, and applications,” Adv. Mater. 28(31), 6665–6671 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. (1)

P. Huang, W. Zheng, S. Zhou, D. Tu, Z. Chen, H. Zhu, R. Li, E. Ma, M. Huang, and X. Chen, “Doped LiLuF4 upconversion nanoprobes for the detection of disease biomarkers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 53(5), 1252–1257 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Park, H. Moon, D.-K. Kim, S.-H. Byeon, B.-C. Kim, and K.-S. Suh, “Morphology and cathodoluminescence of Li-doped Gd2O3: Eu3+, a red phosphor operating at low voltages,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(14), 2162–2164 (2000).
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Chem. Asian J. (1)

L. Lei, D. Chen, J. Xu, R. Zhang, and Y. Wang, “Highly Intensified Upconversion Luminescence of Ca2+ -Doped Yb/Er:NaGdF4 Nanocrystals Prepared by a Solvothermal Route,” Chem. Asian J. 9(3), 728–733 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (6)

N. M. Idris, M. K. G. Jayakumar, A. Bansal, and Y. Zhang, “Upconversion nanoparticles as versatile light nanotransducers for photoactivation applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(6), 1449–1478 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Li, F. Zhang, and D. Zhao, “Lab on upconversion nanoparticles: optical properties and applications engineering via designed nanostructure,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(6), 1346–1378 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Tu, X. Liu, F. Wu, and H. Zhang, “Excitation energy migration dynamics in upconversion nanomaterials,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(6), 1331–1345 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu, R. Deng, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, H. Chang, L. Huang, and X. Liu, “Probing the nature of upconversion nanocrystals: instrumentation matters,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(6), 1479–1508 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, W. Feng, P. Yang, C. Huang, and F. Li, “The biosafety of lanthanide upconversion nanomaterials,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(6), 1509–1525 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Gnach, T. Lipinski, A. Bednarkiewicz, J. Rybka, and J. A. Capobianco, “Upconverting nanoparticles: assessing the toxicity,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(6), 1561–1584 (2015).
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CrystEngComm (2)

Y. Tian, B. Chen, R. Hua, N. Yu, B. Liu, J. Sun, L. Cheng, H. Zhong, X. Li, J. Zhang, B. Tian, and H. Zhong, “Self-assembled 3D flower-shaped NaY(WO4)2:Eu3+ microarchitectures: Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis, growth mechanism and luminescent properties,” CrystEngComm 14(5), 1760–1769 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Gai, P. Yang, D. Wang, C. Li, N. Niu, F. He, and X. Li, “Monodisperse Gd2O3: Ln (Ln= Eu3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, Sm3+, Yb3+/Er3+, Yb3+/Tm3+, and Yb3+/Ho3+) nanocrystals with tunable size and multicolor luminescent properties,” CrystEngComm 13(17), 5480–5487 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dalton Trans. (4)

Q. Qiang, W. Chen, X. Ma, and Y. Wang, “The crystal structure and upconversion properties of Yb3+, Er3+/Ho3+ codoped BaLiF3 microcrystals with different morphologies,” Dalton Trans. 44(13), 6242–6248 (2015).
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R. Van Deun, M. D’hooge, A. Savic, I. Van Driessche, K. Van Hecke, and A. M. Kaczmarek, “Influence of Y(3+), Gd(3+), and Lu(3+) co-doping on the phase and luminescence properties of monoclinic Eu:LaVO4 particles,” Dalton Trans. 44(42), 18418–18426 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Li, K. Pan, G. Wang, B. Jiang, C. Tian, W. Zhou, Y. Qu, S. Liu, L. Feng, and H. Fu, “Enhanced photoelectric conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells by the incorporation of dual-mode luminescent NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+.,” Dalton Trans. 42(22), 7971–7979 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Li, S. Song, W. Wang, and K. Chen, “In vitro photodynamic therapy based on magnetic-luminescent Gd2O3:Yb,Er nanoparticles with bright three-photon up-conversion fluorescence under near-infrared light,” Dalton Trans. 44(36), 16081–16090 (2015).
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J. Alloys Compd. (3)

Z. Liang, Y. Cui, S. Zhao, L. Tian, J. Zhang, and Z. Xu, “The enhanced upconversion fluorescence and almost unchanged particle size of β-NaYF4: Yb 3+, Er 3+ nanoparticles by codoping with K+ ions,” J. Alloys Compd. 610, 432–437 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Liu, M. Gu, X. Liu, C. Ni, D. Wang, L. Xiao, and R. Zhang, “Effect of Zn2+ and Li+ codoping ions on nanosized Gd2O3:Eu3+ phosphor,” J. Alloys Compd. 440(1-2), 341–345 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. Dhananjaya, H. Nagabhushana, B. M. Nagabhushana, B. Rudraswamy, C. Shivakumara, and R. P. S. Chakradhar, “Effect of Li+ ion on enhancement of photoluminescence in Gd2O3: Eu3+ nanophosphors prepared by combustion technique,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(5), 2368–2374 (2011).
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J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Tian, B. Chen, R. Hua, J. Sun, L. Cheng, H. Zhong, X. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Zheng, T. Yu, L. Huang, and H. Yu, “Optical transition, electron-phonon coupling and fluorescent quenching of La2(MoO4)3:Eu3+ phosphor,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053511 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

X. Wu, Y. Liang, R. Chen, M. Liu, and Y. Li, “Preparation and photoluminescence properties of Y2O3: Eu, Bi phosphors by molten salt synthesis for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Sci. 46(16), 5581–5586 (2011).
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J. Nanopart. Res. (1)

V. Kale, T. Soukka, J. Hölsä, and M. Lastusaari, “Enhancement of blue upconversion luminescence in hexagonal NaYF4: Yb, Tm by using K and Sc ions,” J. Nanopart. Res. 15(8), 1850 (2013).
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J. Phys. Chem. C (3)

G. Chen, H. Liu, H. Liang, G. Somesfalean, and Z. Zhang, “Upconversion emission enhancement in Yb3+/Er3+-codoped Y2O3 nanocrystals by tridoping with Li+ ions,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(31), 12030–12036 (2008).
[Crossref]

Q. Huang, J. Yu, E. Ma, and K. Lin, “Synthesis and characterization of highly efficient near-infrared upconversion Sc3+/Er3+/Yb3+ Tridoped NaYF4,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(10), 4719–4724 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Yamamoto, M. Fujii, S. Sowa, K. Imakita, and K. Aoki, “Upconversion luminescence of rare-earth-doped Y2O3 nanoparticle with metal nano-cap,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(2), 1175–1179 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Sol-Gel Sci,” Techn. (1)

L. Peng, M. Huang, S. Cao, B. Liu, T. Han, and C. Zhao, “Enhanced upconversion in Dy3+, Yb3+ co-doped Gd2O3 monodisperse nanocrystals,” J. Sol-Gel Sci,” Techn. 78, 307–312 (2016).

Luminescence (1)

Y. Jia, Y. Song, Y. Bai, and Y. Wang, “Upconverted photoluminescence in Ho3+ and Yb3+ codoped Gd2O3 nanocrystals with and without Li+ ions,” Luminescence 26(4), 259–263 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mater. Chem. Phys. (1)

Q. Sun, H. Zhao, X. Chen, F. Wang, W. Cai, and Z. Jiang, “Upconversion emission enhancement in silica-coated Gd2O3: Tm3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals by incorporation of Li+ ion,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 123(2-3), 806–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mater. Lett. (1)

T. Cong, Y. Ding, J. Liu, H. Zhao, and X. Hong, “Synthesis and optical properties of Zn2+ doped NaYF 4: Yb3+, Er3+ upconversion nanoparticles,” Mater. Lett. 165, 59–62 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nanoscale (2)

Q. Cheng, J. Sui, and W. Cai, “Enhanced upconversion emission in Yb3+ and Er3+ codoped NaGdF4 nanocrystals by introducing Li+ ions,” Nanoscale 4(3), 779–784 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhao, X. Kong, X. Liu, L. Tu, F. Wu, Y. Zhang, K. Liu, Q. Zeng, and H. Zhang, “Li+ ion doping: an approach for improving the crystallinity and upconversion emissions of NaYF4:Yb3+, Tm3+ nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 5(17), 8084–8089 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (2)

H. Guan, Y. Sheng, C. Xu, Y. Dai, X. Xie, and H. Zou, “Energy transfer and tunable multicolor emission and paramagnetic properties of GdF3:Dy(3+),Tb(3+),Eu(3+) phosphors,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18(29), 19807–19819 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, X. Li, X. Kang, Z. Hou, and J. Lin, “Morphology control and multicolor up-conversion luminescence of GdOF:Yb3+/Er3+, Tm3+, Ho3+ nano/submicrocrystals,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16(22), 10779–10787 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

RSC Advances (4)

X. Guo, C. Chen, D. Zhang, C. P. Tripp, S. Yin, and W. Qin, “Photocatalysis of NaYF4:Yb, Er/CdSe composites under 1560 nm laser excitation,” RSC Advances 6(10), 8127–8133 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Hao, W. Shao, H. Qiu, Y. Shang, R. Fan, X. Guo, L. Zhao, G. Chen, and C. Yang, “Tuning the size and upconversion emission of NaYF4: Yb3+/Pr3+ nanoparticles through Yb3+ doping,” RSC Advances 4(99), 56302–56306 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Kamińska, K. Fronc, B. Sikora, M. Mouawad, A. Siemiarczuk, M. Szewczyk, K. Sobczak, T. Wojciechowski, W. Zaleszczyk, R. Minikayev, W. Paszkowicz, P. Stępień, P. Dziawa, K. Ciszak, D. Piątkowski, S. Maćkowski, M. Kaliszewski, M. Włodarski, J. Młyńczak, K. Kopczyński, M. Łapiński, and D. Elbaum, “Upconverting/ magnetic: Gd2O3: (Er 3+, Yb3+, Zn2+) nanoparticles for biological applications: effect of Zn2+ doping,” RSC Advances 5(95), 78361–78373 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Kumari, A. Pandey, R. Dey, and V. K. Rai, “Simultaneous influence of Zn2+/Mg2+ on the luminescent behaviour of La2O3: Tm3+–Yb3+ phosphors,” RSC Advances 4(42), 21844–21851 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (2)

M. Ding, D. Chen, S. Yin, Z. Ji, J. Zhong, Y. Ni, C. Lu, and Z. Xu, “Simultaneous morphology manipulation and upconversion luminescence enhancement of β-NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ microcrystals by simply tuning the KF dosage,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12745 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Ahmad, W. Xu, S. J. Kim, J. S. Baeck, Y. Chang, J. E. Bae, K. S. Chae, J. A. Park, T. J. Kim, and G. H. Lee, “Potential dual imaging nanoparticle: Gd2O3 nanoparticle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8549 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 TEM images of (a) Gd2O3: Yb/Er (10/2 mol%) NCs; (b) Gd2O3: Yb/Er/Zn (10/2/10 mol%) NCs; (c) Gd2O3: Yb/Er/Li (10/2/10 mol%) NCs; (d) Gd2O3: Yb/Er/Zn/Li (10/2/2.5/10 mol%) NCs; (e) Gd2O3: Yb/Er/Zn/Li (10/2/10/2.5 mol%) NCs; (f) Crystal structure of Gd2O3.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 XRD patterns and main diffraction peaks of (a) Gd2O3: Yb/Er/Zn (10/2/x mol%, x = 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10) NCs; (b) Gd2O3: Yb/Er/Li (10/2/x mol%, x = 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10) NCs; (c) Gd2O3: Yb/Er/Zn/Li (10/2/4/x mol%, x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5) NCs; (d) Gd2O3: Yb/Er/Li/Zn (10/2/4/x mol%, x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5) NCs.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic illustration of lattice change induced by Zn2+ and Li+ inert ions single/co-doping.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) UC luminescence spectra of Gd2O3: Yb/Er/Zn (10/2/x mol%, x = 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10) NCs excited by 30 W/cm2 980 nm laser; (b) UC luminescence spectra of Gd2O3: Yb/Er/Li (10/2/x mol%, x = 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10) NCs excited by 30 W/cm2 980 nm laser; (c) The ratios of UC luminescence enhancement by doping different Zn2+ ion concentration in Gd2O3: Yb/Er (10/2 mol%) NCs; (d) The ratios of UC luminescence enhancement by doping different Li+ ion concentration in Gd2O3: Yb/Er (10/2 mol%) NCs.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) UC luminescence spectra of Gd2O3: Yb/Er/Zn/Li (10/2/4/x mol%, x = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5) NCs excited by 30 W/cm2 980 nm laser; (b) UC luminescence spectra of Gd2O3: Yb/Er/Li/Zn (10/2/4/x mol%, x = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5) NCs excited by 30 W/cm2 980 nm laser; (c) The ratios of UC luminescence enhancement by doping different concentration of Zn2+ ion in Gd2O3: Yb/Er/Zn (10/2/4 mol%) NCs; (d) The ratios of UC luminescence enhancement by doping different concentration of Li+ ion in Gd2O3: Yb/Er/Li (10/2/4 mol%) NCs.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) DC luminescence spectra of Gd2O3: Eu/Zn (5/x mol%, x = 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10) NCs excited by 269 nm laser; (b) DC luminescence spectra of Gd2O3: Eu/Li (5/x mol%, x = 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10) NCs excited by 269 nm laser; (c) The ratios of DC luminescence enhancement by doping different Zn2+ ion concentration in Gd2O3: Eu (10/2 mol%) NCs; (d) The ratios of DC luminescence enhancement by doping different Li+ ion concentration in Gd2O3: Eu (10/2 mol%) NCs; (e) DC luminescence excitation spectrum of Eu3+ ion monitored at 609 nm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) DC luminescence spectra of Gd2O3: Eu/Zn/Li (5/2/x mol%, x = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5) NCs excited by 269 nm; (b) DC luminescence spectra of Gd2O3: Eu/Li/Zn (5/4/x mol%, x = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5) NCs excited by 269 nm; (c) The ratios of DC luminescence enhancement by doping different Li+ ion concentrations in Gd2O3: Eu/Zn (5/2 mol%) NCs; (d) The ratios of DC luminescence enhancement by doping different Zn2+ ion concentrations in Gd2O3: Eu/Li (5/4 mol%) NCs.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Energy-level diagrams of Yb3+ and Er3+ ions, and possible UC processes excited by 980 nm laser; (b) Energy-level diagram of Eu3+ ion, and possible DC processes excited by 269 nm.

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