Abstract

The nonlinear optical absorption (NLA) of 70% deuterated DKDP crystals that were cut along different directions and annealed under different temperatures was measured at the third-harmonic-generation (THG) wavelength (355 nm) of a nanosecond Nd:YAG laser by using the Z-scan method. The nonlinear absorption (NLA) coefficient β was obtained by fitting the experimental data. According to the fitting result, the nonlinear absorption at 355 nm is identified to two-photon absorption. Results indicate that the β value of the type I THG direction (5.6 × 10−2 cm/GW) was close to that of the type II THG direction (5.2 × 10−2 cm/GW). Moreover, the β values of both types were obviously below the data of the Z-axis direction (7.2 × 10−2 cm/GW). Our experiments showed that thermal annealing can effectively decrease NLA coefficients. At the optimum annealing temperature of 140 °C, the β of the type II THG sample was 2.4 × 10−2 cm/GW, which was only 46% that of the unannealed crystal. This work will aid the THG application of DKDP crystals in inertial confinement fusion systems.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Since the construction of the National Ignition Facility Project laser systems, the only viable alternatives for frequency conversion (second, third, and fourth harmonic generators) of large-aperture lasers at wavelengths from the infrared region to the UV region were the ferroelectric crystals discovered by Busch and Scherrer in 1935, specifically the KDP and DKDP. These crystals are effective because of their high damage thresholds, moderate nonlinear optical coefficients, and the ability to grow into large sizes [1–5]. In contrast to a KDP crystal, a DKDP crystal with 70% deuterium content can effectively reduce transverse stimulated Raman scattering, which induces damage to optic components [6–8]. Therefore, 70% deuterated DKDP crystals are the only viable alternatives for third harmonic generator (THG) optics in current inertial confinement fusion systems.

Although DKDP crystals yield optics that display high optical and crystalline quality, laser damage is still observed in the bulk and surface of optics because of the intrinsic and impurity defects at the fluences that fall within the range of the operational fluences [9–12]. This property limits the laser output energy density and service life of the crystal as the large-aperture components are exposed to high irradiance and high-fluence laser pulses [13, 14]. One main reason for this limitation is the absorption of UV light increasing nonlinearly with laser radiation intensity. The absorption of a 1 cm-long KDP crystal at 355 nm increases from 4.4% to 6.3% when the energy density rises from 0.1 J/cm2 to 3 J/cm2 [15]. Nonlinear absorption (NLA) is usually ascribed to multiphoton absorption. During harmonic generation, although the energy loss of the laser beam derived from NLA is a problem, the potential damage to the edges of the optic and the adjacent components (e.g., holders) caused by the amplified NLA is of greater concern [6]. C. W. Carr et al. observed sharp steps in the damage threshold of DKDP crystals at 2.55 and 3.9 eV. They associated these sharp steps with multiphoton absorption. By contrast, in the region between steps, the damage threshold decreased smoothly with decreasing wavelength [16]. Their results suggested that the NLA process dominated the mechanism for damage initiation in the component [17]. Although the NLA of the KDP crystal has been investigated at the wavelengths of 211, 216, 248, 264, 266, and 355 nm [17–20], the NLA of the DKDP crystal has been seldom explored. Moreover, picosecond or femtosecond lasers have been selected to measure the NLA in nearly all of these studies. The reason is the low thermal effects of the picosecond or femtosecond lasers on the reduction of the risk of laser-induced damage (LID) and decreased difficulty of tests. Thus, it is quite necessary to investigate the characteristic of the NLA of DKDP crystal by using a nanosecond Nd:YAG laser stem from the fact that DKDP crystal is mainly applied to nanosecond laser in engineering applications field.

In this paper, the Z-scan technique was employed to measure the NLA of 70% deuterated DKDP that were cut at different directions (Z-direction, type I, and type II) and annealed under different temperatures at the wavelength of 355 nm by a nanosecond laser. This method is highly sensitive and simple in contrast to nonlinear interferometry, degenerate four-wave mixing, and beam distortion method [21, 22]. The NLA coefficient β was obtained by experimental data fitting.

2. Experimental

2.1 Sample preparation

Large-sized DKDP crystals with 70% deuterium content were grown from deuterated aqueous solution through the traditional temperature reduction method. DKDP crystal grew along the Z-direction with a growth rate of 1 mm/day and at temperatures gradually decreasing from 56 °C to 26 °C. Samples with different cutting directions were obtained from the adjacent positions of the same crystal, and type II samples were annealed at different temperatures for 96 h. A new annealing method was implemented using silicone oil under 28 Pa·s as a protective ambient environment [23]. The size of all the samples was 20 mm × 10 mm × 2 mm. The specific cutting schematic and thermal annealing for the DKDP crystals are shown in Figs. 1 and 2, respectively, and Table 1 lists the specific information for these samples.

 

Fig. 1 Cutting schematic diagram of samples.

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Fig. 2 Annealing process of II-type samples.

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Tables Icon

Table 1. Characteristics of Tested Samples

2.2 Measurement of the NLA

A schematic of the Z-scan experimental set-up is shown in Fig. 3. The original laser was divided into two beams of equal energy by a beam splitter. D1 and D2 (energy meter) were used to detect the energy of the initial laser energy and transmitted laser energy. When the sample moves from end to end along the axis by the platform, the transmitted laser energy decreased initially, reached the minimum at the focus, and then increased. Thus, the D2/D1 ratio was used as a function of the displacement. The absorption coefficient of the material can be expressed as

α(I)=α+βI
where α is the linear absorption coefficient, β is the NLA coefficient, and I is the instantaneous laser intensity. It has been reported that the band gap Eg of DKDP crystal is between 7.6 eV and 9.0 eV at room temperature [16, 24]. According to the theory of multi-photon absorption, two-photon absorption (2 PA) dominates the NLA when the photon energy hv is in the spectral region of Eg/2 < hv < Eg, whereas, three-photon absorption (3 PA) manifests itself primarily in the region Eg/3 < hv < Eg/2 [25]. Theoretically, the NLA of DKDP crystal at 355nm (3.54 eV) is ascribed to 3 PA. But actually, the energy level splitting and intermediate band caused by impurities existed in DKDP crystal would reduce the order of multiphoton absorption. Thus, the order of NLA should be identified by the fitting result. The normalized transmittance formula T2PA and T3PA are shown in (2) and (3), which are based on the principle of 2PA and 3PA respectively.
T2PA(z,s=1)=1πq0(z,0)+ln[1+q0(z,0)et2]dt
T3PA(z,s=1)=1πp0(z,0)+ln{[1+p02(z,0)e2t2]1/2+P0exp(t2)}dt
The q0 and P0 shown in (4) and (5) are a function of displacement Z, where z0=πω02/λ, is Rayleigh range, Leff=(1eαl)/α and Leff'=(1e2αl)/2α are effective length.
q0(z,t)=βI0(t)Leff/(1+z2/z02)
p0(z,t)=[2βI02(t)Leff'/(1+z2/z02)2]1/2
If q0 < 1, the T2PA and T3PA can be expanded as a Taylor’s series (6) and (7). The laser pulse width and frequency employed in the experiment were 5.4 ns and 0.1 Hz, and the radius of beam waist and power density at focal point were 21.8 μm and I0 of 27.47 GW/cm2, respectively.

 

Fig. 3 Schematic diagram of experimental set-up.

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T2PA(z,s=1)=n=0[q0(z,0)]n(n+1)3/2(|q0<1|)
T3PA=m=1(1)m1p02m2(z,0)(2m1)!(2m1)1/2(|q0<1|)

3. Results and discussion

The linear transmittance spectra of the sample were measured with a Lamda-950 spectrophotometer at room temperature from 200 nm to 1800 nm. All the samples showed high transmittances from 340 nm to 1000 nm, indicating that the samples had no macroscopic defect and were well polished (Fig. 4). However, in the 200–300 nm band, the transmittance dropped rapidly. One reason is that the impurities (Fe3+, Cr3+, and Al3+) and intrinsic defects (hydrogen vacancy, interstitial oxygen, and Frenkel pair) in the DKDP crystal strengthen UV absorption [16]. Given the cut direction, the transmittance of the Z-direction sample was approximately 3% higher than those of types I and II, which nearly had the same curve. After annealing, the transmittance of the type II samples were improved to different degrees, and the highest transmittance was 91% at 140 °C. Because of samples with different annealing temperature were obtained from the adjacent positions of the same crystal, the effect of metal impurities can be ignored. This result suggests that thermal conditioning can enhance transmittance, and the optimal annealing temperature is 140 °C. The specific values are shown in Table 2.

 

Fig. 4 Transmission spectra of the samples.

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Tables Icon

Table 2. Experimental Results of Transmission Spectra

The linear absorption coefficient α can be evaluated through the linear transmittance in accordance with the following equation [26]:

α=ln[T0/(1R)2]/L
where T0 is the linear transmittance, R is the reflectivity and L is the sample thickness.

The dependence of the nonlinear transmission versus the Z (displacement in the Z-direction) obtained through the fitting test data are shown in Figs. 5. Reverse-saturable absorption was observed in samples of different cutting directions, and the test data agreed well with the 2PA fitted curve. This result indicates that the energy level splitting and intermediate band caused by impurities existed in DKDP crystal actually reduce the order of multiphoton absorption, and the 2PA process dominates the NLA in the 70% deuterated DKDP crystal at 355 nm. The NLA coefficients obtained through the 2PA fitting formula are shown in Table 3 and Figs. 6 and 7.

 

Fig. 5 NLA curves of different cutting.

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Tables Icon

Table 3. Experimental Results of The NLA Coefficients

 

Fig. 6 NLA curves of different cutting.

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Fig. 7 NLA curves of type II annealed in different temperature

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The NLA of the DKDP crystal displayed obvious anisotropy, that is, the NLA in the Z-direction was stronger than those of types I and II (Fig. 6). The NLA in type II was the lowest. This diversity demonstrated that the crystal orientation significantly affects the process of the NLA. Theoretically, 2PA is related to third-order susceptibility, in which the coefficient can be obtained by [27, 28]

β(m/W)=240π2ωn02c2χI(3)(esu).
where n0 is the linear refractive index, c is the speed of light in a vacuum, ω is the optical frequency, and χI(3) is the imaginary part of χ(3). The χ(3) of the DKDP crystals (4¯2m symmetry) involved four independent components in dispersionless approximation. For the extraordinary wave directed at the θ and ψ angles to the crystal axes, the nonlinearities of the crystals possessing symmetries can be expressed via the following components [29]:
χk(3)=14[3(χxxxx+χxxyy)+(χxxxxχxxyy)cos4φ]cos4θ+32χyyzzsin22θ+χzzzzsin4θ
Eqs (12) and (13) indicate that the anisotropy of the third-order susceptibility derived from the different cut directions was responsible for the anisotropy of the NLA. Considering that the LID of the DKDP crystal is a complex issue involving the intrinsic properties of the material (impurities, defects, and anisotropy) and the incident laser (wavelength, width, fluence, and energy), we hypothesized that the anisotropy of the NLA was responsible for the anisotropy of the LID. This hypothesis was also based on the above-mentioned conclusion that the NLA process dominates the mechanism for damage initiation in the component [17]. The specific LID threshold of the different types of DKDP crystals will be measured to support this anisotropy.

The effect of different annealing temperatures on the changes in the NLA values of the type II DKDP crystals is depicted in Fig. 7. We expected that annealing positively influences the crystal optical properties because the NLA of all the annealed samples was lower than that of the unannealed samples. This observation agrees closely with those of other studies [30–33]. The ability of thermal conditioning is supposedly due to the diffusion of impurities (inorganic, organic, and water) or the reconstruction of the structural defects in the crystal by thermal energy [32]. A major difference between KDP and DKDP is that DKDP undergoes a tetragonal-to-monoclinic transition, although the tetragonal phase remains stable from the ferroelectric state at −150 °C up to thermal decomposition at approximately 180 °C. In this transition, the temperature depends on the deuteration ratio. In particular, phase-transition temperature drops as the deuterium content rises and would thus theoretically restrict the application effect of annealing. This difference can be explained by the structural difference. Furthermore, the lattice coefficients of the DKDP crystals gradually change with the x (deuterium content) variation [34]. However, during the thermal annealing, the annealing temperature was unable to reach the theoretical maximum value, and the lower critical annealing temperature of DKDP may have prohibited the crystal from reaching the second critical temperature necessary to alter the defects and reconstruct the metastable state responsible for the crystal optical properties. One reasonable hypothesis is that the defects in the DKDP crystals reduced the barrier heights of the phase transition and the actual temperature of the phase transformation. Moreover, via several annealing experiments, we found that DKDP became opaque beyond 150 °C. Therefore, although the highest annealing temperature of the KDP crystal was able to reach up to 175 °C, which is merely below the destructive tetragonal/monoclinic phase-transition temperature of 180 °C [32], the highest temperature of the DKDP crystal was unable to exceed 150 °C. Figure 7 and Table 3 show that the NLA of the crystals decreased as the annealing temperature increased, except at 150 °C. Sample E achieved the lowest NLA coefficient, that is, (2.392 ± 0.158) × 10−2 cm/GW. A critical annealing temperature may be supposed to have existed at a point in which the metastable state can be optimally reconstructed. At an increasing annealing temperature, additional thermal energy can be used to revert the metastable atoms to the balanced position when annealing occurs below the critical point. In this case the higher the temperature, the better the annealing effect. If the annealing temperature exceeds the critical temperature, the vibration amplitude of the atoms in equilibrium is increased by excess energy. This phenomenon may be unfavorable to thermal annealing. Collectively, our results revealed that the optimal annealing temperature is approximately 140 °C, which is in good agreement with an early report [33].

Additional measurements are underway to confirm the change in the crystal structure of the annealing samples and quantitative relation between the NLA and the damage threshold.

4. Conclusion

The NLA of 70% deuterated DKDP crystal that were cut along different directions (Z, type I, and type II) and under annealing at different temperatures (120 °C, 130 °C, 140 °C, 150 °C) was measured at 355 nm wavelength of a nanosecond Nd:YAG laser through the Z-scan technique. The NLA coefficient β was calculated by fitting formula. The NLA of 70% deuterated DKDP crystal at the wavelength of 355 nm is identified to 2PA absorption according to the fitting result. Two conclusions were reached. First, the NLA of the DKDP crystals showed obvious anisotropy. In particular, the NLA in the Z-direction((7.234 ± 2.42) × 10−2 cm/GW) was the strongest, whereas that in type II((5.164 ± 0.284) × 10−2 cm/GW) was the lowest. Second, annealing positively affected the NLA. Obviously, the NLA of all the annealed samples was lower than that of the unannealed samples, and the optimal annealing temperature for the NLA was approximately 140 °C((2.392 ± 0.158) × 10−2 cm/GW). These findings add substantially to understanding of the influence of NLA on frequency conversion and the LID mechanism of the DKDP crystal. Thus, our study can serve as a reference for the annealing process of DKDP crystals.

Funding

National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (51323002, 51402173); Ministry of Education (MOE) (625010360).

Acknowledgments

Prof. Wenyong Cheng (Institute of optical center, Shandong University, China) is acknowledged for providing experiment platform.

References and links

1. K. R. Manes, M. L. Spaeth, and J. J. Adams, “Mechanisms Avoided or Managed for NIF Large Optics,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69, 146–249 (2016).

2. D. Yoreo, A. Burnham, and P. Whitman, “Developing KH2PO4 and KD2PO4 crystals for the world’s most powerful laser,” Int. Mater. Rev. 47(3), 113–152 (2002).

3. C. Maunier, P. Bouchut, and S. Bouillet, “Growth and characterization of large KDP crystals for high power lasers,” Opt. Mater. 30(1), 88–90 (2007).

4. Z. M. Liao, R. Roussell, and J. J. Adams, “Defect population variability in deuterated potassium di-hydrogen phosphate crystals,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(11), 1612–1623 (2012).

5. S. Reyné, G. Duchateau, and L. Hallo, “Multi-wavelength study of nanosecond laser-induced bulk damage morphology in KDP crystals,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 119(4), 1317 (2015).

6. W. Han, F. Wang, L. Zhou, F. Li, B. Feng, H. Cao, J. Zhao, S. Li, K. Zheng, X. Wei, M. Gong, and W. Zheng, “Suppression of transverse stimulated Raman scattering with laser-induced damage array in a large-aperture potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystal,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30481–30491 (2013). [PubMed]  

7. S. G. Demos, R. N. Raman, S. T. Yang, R. A. Negres, K. I. Schaffers, and M. A. Henesian, “Measurement of the Raman scattering cross section of the breathing mode in KDP and DKDP crystals,” Opt. Express 19(21), 21050–21059 (2011). [PubMed]  

8. W. Han, Y. Xiang, and F. Q. Li, “Evaluating the safe limit of large-aperture potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals associated with transverse stimulated Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 54(13), 4167–4171 (2015).

9. S. G. Demos, P. DeMange, R. A. Negres, and M. D. Feit, “Investigation of the electronic and physical properties of defect structures responsible for laser-induced damage in DKDP crystals,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13788–13804 (2010). [PubMed]  

10. H. X. Deng, X. T. Zu, X. Xiang, and K. Sun, “Quantum Theory for Cold Avalanche Ionization in Solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(11), 113603 (2010). [PubMed]  

11. C. S. Liu, N. Kioussis, S. G. Demos, and H. B. Radousky, “Electron or hole-assisted reactions of H defects in hydrogen-bonded KDP,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(1), 015505 (2003). [PubMed]  

12. C. S. Liu, N. Kioussis, and S. G. Demos, “Electronic structure calculations of an oxygen vacancy in KH2PO4,” Phys. Rev. B 72(13), 134110 (2005).

13. Y. Wang, Y. Zhao, X. Xie, G. Hu, L. Yang, Z. Xu, and J. Shao, “Laser damage dependence on the size and concentration of precursor defects in KDP crystals: view through differently sized filter pores,” Opt. Lett. 41(7), 1534–1537 (2016). [PubMed]  

14. Z. M. Liao, J. J. Adams, C. W. Carr, “Analysis of DKDP Frequency Conversion Crystals Damage Lifetime at the National Ignition Facility (NIF),” Nonlinear Optics, NTu2A.3 (2017).

15. A. Melninkaitis, M. Šinkevičius, and T. Lipinskas, “Characterization of the KDP crystals used in large aperture doublers and triplers,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 298–305 (2004).

16. C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, “Wavelength Dependence of Laser-Induced Damage: Determining the Damage Initiation Mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(12), 127402 (2003). [PubMed]  

17. X. X. Chai, Q. H. Zhu, and B. Feng, “Nonlinear absorption properties of DKDP crystal at 263 nm and 351 nm,” Opt. Mater. 64, 262–267 (2017).

18. D. L. Wang, T. B. Li, and S. L. Wang, “Effect of Fe3+ on third-order optical nonlinearity of KDP single crystals,” CrystEngComm 18(48), 9292–9298 (2016).

19. P. Liu, W. L. Smith, and H. Lotem, “Absolute two-photon absorption coefficients at 355 and 266 nm,” Phys. Rev. B 17(12), 4620–4632 (1978).

20. M. Divall, K. Osvay, and G. Kurdi, “Two-photon-absorption of frequency converter crystals at 248 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 81(8), 1123–1126 (2005).

21. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “High-sensitivity, single-beam n2 measurements,” Opt. Lett. 14(17), 955–957 (1989). [PubMed]  

22. R. Thirumurugan and K. Anitha, “Structural, optical, thermal, dielectric, laser damage threshold and Z-scan studies on fumarate salt of creatinine: A promising third-order nonlinear optical material,” Mater. Lett. 206, 30–33 (2017).

23. L. S. Zhang, M. X. Xu, and X. Sun, “New annealing method to improve KD2PO4 crystal quality: learning from high temperature phase transition,” CrystEngComm 17(25), 4705–4711 (2015).

24. S. O. Kucheyev, C. Bostedt, T. van Buuren, “Electronic structure of KD2xH2(1−x)PO4 studied by soft x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopies,” Phys. Rev. B 70(24), 245106 (2004).

25. G. C. Xing, W. Ji, and Y. G. Zheng, “Two- and three-photon absorption of semiconductor quantum dots in the vicinity of half of lowest exciton energy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241114 (2008).

26. Y. X. Hou, Y. Z. Zhu, and J. S. Sun, “Self-assembly and nonlinear optical properties of (μ-oxo)bis[meso-tetrakis(p-bromophenyl-porphyrinato)iron(III)],” CrystEngComm 17(25), 4699–4704 (2015).

27. H. L. Fan, X. Q. Wang, and Q. Ren, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties in [(C4H9)4N]2[Cu(C3S5)2]-doped PMMA thin film using Z-scan technique in picosecond pulse,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 99(1), 279–284 (2010).

28. S. X. Wang, Y. X. Zhang, and R. Zhang, “High-Order Nonlinearity of Surface Plasmon Resonance in Au Nanoparticles: Paradoxical Combination of Saturable and Reverse-Saturable Absorption,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1342–1348 (2015).

29. R. A. Ganeev, I. A. Kulagin, and A. I. Ryasnyansky, “Characterization of nonlinear optical parameters of KDP, LiNbO3 and BBO crystals,” Opt. Commun. 229(1), 403–412 (2004).

30. F. Guillet, B. Bertussi, and L. Lamaignère, “Effects of thermal annealing on KDP and DKDP on laser damage resistance at 3ω,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421T (2010).

31. I. Pritula, V. Gayvoronsky, and Yu. Gromov, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of dye-doped KDP crystals: Effect of thermal treatment,” Opt. Commun. 282(6), 1141–1147 (2009).

32. K. Fujioka, S. Matsuo, and T. Kanabe, “Optical properties of rapidly grown KDP crystal improved by thermal conditioning,” J. Cryst. Growth 181(3), 265–271 (1997).

33. C. Belouet, M. Monnier, and R. Crouzier, “Strong isotopic effects on the lattice parameters and stability of highly deuterated D-KDP single crystals and related growth problems,” J. Cryst. Growth 30(2), 151–157 (1975).

34. Y. J. Fu, Z. S. Gao, and S. L. Wang, “Study on K(DxH1-x)2PO4 Crystals: Growth Habit, Optical Properties and their Improvement by Thermal-Conditioning,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 35(2), 177–184 (2000).

References

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  1. K. R. Manes, M. L. Spaeth, and J. J. Adams, “Mechanisms Avoided or Managed for NIF Large Optics,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69, 146–249 (2016).
  2. D. Yoreo, A. Burnham, and P. Whitman, “Developing KH2PO4 and KD2PO4 crystals for the world’s most powerful laser,” Int. Mater. Rev. 47(3), 113–152 (2002).
  3. C. Maunier, P. Bouchut, and S. Bouillet, “Growth and characterization of large KDP crystals for high power lasers,” Opt. Mater. 30(1), 88–90 (2007).
  4. Z. M. Liao, R. Roussell, and J. J. Adams, “Defect population variability in deuterated potassium di-hydrogen phosphate crystals,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(11), 1612–1623 (2012).
  5. S. Reyné, G. Duchateau, and L. Hallo, “Multi-wavelength study of nanosecond laser-induced bulk damage morphology in KDP crystals,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 119(4), 1317 (2015).
  6. W. Han, F. Wang, L. Zhou, F. Li, B. Feng, H. Cao, J. Zhao, S. Li, K. Zheng, X. Wei, M. Gong, and W. Zheng, “Suppression of transverse stimulated Raman scattering with laser-induced damage array in a large-aperture potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystal,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30481–30491 (2013).
    [PubMed]
  7. S. G. Demos, R. N. Raman, S. T. Yang, R. A. Negres, K. I. Schaffers, and M. A. Henesian, “Measurement of the Raman scattering cross section of the breathing mode in KDP and DKDP crystals,” Opt. Express 19(21), 21050–21059 (2011).
    [PubMed]
  8. W. Han, Y. Xiang, and F. Q. Li, “Evaluating the safe limit of large-aperture potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals associated with transverse stimulated Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 54(13), 4167–4171 (2015).
  9. S. G. Demos, P. DeMange, R. A. Negres, and M. D. Feit, “Investigation of the electronic and physical properties of defect structures responsible for laser-induced damage in DKDP crystals,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13788–13804 (2010).
    [PubMed]
  10. H. X. Deng, X. T. Zu, X. Xiang, and K. Sun, “Quantum Theory for Cold Avalanche Ionization in Solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(11), 113603 (2010).
    [PubMed]
  11. C. S. Liu, N. Kioussis, S. G. Demos, and H. B. Radousky, “Electron or hole-assisted reactions of H defects in hydrogen-bonded KDP,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(1), 015505 (2003).
    [PubMed]
  12. C. S. Liu, N. Kioussis, and S. G. Demos, “Electronic structure calculations of an oxygen vacancy in KH2PO4,” Phys. Rev. B 72(13), 134110 (2005).
  13. Y. Wang, Y. Zhao, X. Xie, G. Hu, L. Yang, Z. Xu, and J. Shao, “Laser damage dependence on the size and concentration of precursor defects in KDP crystals: view through differently sized filter pores,” Opt. Lett. 41(7), 1534–1537 (2016).
    [PubMed]
  14. Z. M. Liao, J. J. Adams, C. W. Carr, “Analysis of DKDP Frequency Conversion Crystals Damage Lifetime at the National Ignition Facility (NIF),” Nonlinear Optics, NTu2A.3 (2017).
  15. A. Melninkaitis, M. Šinkevičius, and T. Lipinskas, “Characterization of the KDP crystals used in large aperture doublers and triplers,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 298–305 (2004).
  16. C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, “Wavelength Dependence of Laser-Induced Damage: Determining the Damage Initiation Mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(12), 127402 (2003).
    [PubMed]
  17. X. X. Chai, Q. H. Zhu, and B. Feng, “Nonlinear absorption properties of DKDP crystal at 263 nm and 351 nm,” Opt. Mater. 64, 262–267 (2017).
  18. D. L. Wang, T. B. Li, and S. L. Wang, “Effect of Fe3+ on third-order optical nonlinearity of KDP single crystals,” CrystEngComm 18(48), 9292–9298 (2016).
  19. P. Liu, W. L. Smith, and H. Lotem, “Absolute two-photon absorption coefficients at 355 and 266 nm,” Phys. Rev. B 17(12), 4620–4632 (1978).
  20. M. Divall, K. Osvay, and G. Kurdi, “Two-photon-absorption of frequency converter crystals at 248 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 81(8), 1123–1126 (2005).
  21. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “High-sensitivity, single-beam n2 measurements,” Opt. Lett. 14(17), 955–957 (1989).
    [PubMed]
  22. R. Thirumurugan and K. Anitha, “Structural, optical, thermal, dielectric, laser damage threshold and Z-scan studies on fumarate salt of creatinine: A promising third-order nonlinear optical material,” Mater. Lett. 206, 30–33 (2017).
  23. L. S. Zhang, M. X. Xu, and X. Sun, “New annealing method to improve KD2PO4 crystal quality: learning from high temperature phase transition,” CrystEngComm 17(25), 4705–4711 (2015).
  24. S. O. Kucheyev, C. Bostedt, T. van Buuren, “Electronic structure of KD2xH2(1−x)PO4 studied by soft x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopies,” Phys. Rev. B 70(24), 245106 (2004).
  25. G. C. Xing, W. Ji, and Y. G. Zheng, “Two- and three-photon absorption of semiconductor quantum dots in the vicinity of half of lowest exciton energy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241114 (2008).
  26. Y. X. Hou, Y. Z. Zhu, and J. S. Sun, “Self-assembly and nonlinear optical properties of (μ-oxo)bis[meso-tetrakis(p-bromophenyl-porphyrinato)iron(III)],” CrystEngComm 17(25), 4699–4704 (2015).
  27. H. L. Fan, X. Q. Wang, and Q. Ren, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties in [(C4H9)4N]2[Cu(C3S5)2]-doped PMMA thin film using Z-scan technique in picosecond pulse,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 99(1), 279–284 (2010).
  28. S. X. Wang, Y. X. Zhang, and R. Zhang, “High-Order Nonlinearity of Surface Plasmon Resonance in Au Nanoparticles: Paradoxical Combination of Saturable and Reverse-Saturable Absorption,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1342–1348 (2015).
  29. R. A. Ganeev, I. A. Kulagin, and A. I. Ryasnyansky, “Characterization of nonlinear optical parameters of KDP, LiNbO3 and BBO crystals,” Opt. Commun. 229(1), 403–412 (2004).
  30. F. Guillet, B. Bertussi, and L. Lamaignère, “Effects of thermal annealing on KDP and DKDP on laser damage resistance at 3ω,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421T (2010).
  31. I. Pritula, V. Gayvoronsky, and Yu. Gromov, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of dye-doped KDP crystals: Effect of thermal treatment,” Opt. Commun. 282(6), 1141–1147 (2009).
  32. K. Fujioka, S. Matsuo, and T. Kanabe, “Optical properties of rapidly grown KDP crystal improved by thermal conditioning,” J. Cryst. Growth 181(3), 265–271 (1997).
  33. C. Belouet, M. Monnier, and R. Crouzier, “Strong isotopic effects on the lattice parameters and stability of highly deuterated D-KDP single crystals and related growth problems,” J. Cryst. Growth 30(2), 151–157 (1975).
  34. Y. J. Fu, Z. S. Gao, and S. L. Wang, “Study on K(DxH1-x)2PO4 Crystals: Growth Habit, Optical Properties and their Improvement by Thermal-Conditioning,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 35(2), 177–184 (2000).

2017 (2)

X. X. Chai, Q. H. Zhu, and B. Feng, “Nonlinear absorption properties of DKDP crystal at 263 nm and 351 nm,” Opt. Mater. 64, 262–267 (2017).

R. Thirumurugan and K. Anitha, “Structural, optical, thermal, dielectric, laser damage threshold and Z-scan studies on fumarate salt of creatinine: A promising third-order nonlinear optical material,” Mater. Lett. 206, 30–33 (2017).

2016 (3)

D. L. Wang, T. B. Li, and S. L. Wang, “Effect of Fe3+ on third-order optical nonlinearity of KDP single crystals,” CrystEngComm 18(48), 9292–9298 (2016).

Y. Wang, Y. Zhao, X. Xie, G. Hu, L. Yang, Z. Xu, and J. Shao, “Laser damage dependence on the size and concentration of precursor defects in KDP crystals: view through differently sized filter pores,” Opt. Lett. 41(7), 1534–1537 (2016).
[PubMed]

K. R. Manes, M. L. Spaeth, and J. J. Adams, “Mechanisms Avoided or Managed for NIF Large Optics,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69, 146–249 (2016).

2015 (5)

W. Han, Y. Xiang, and F. Q. Li, “Evaluating the safe limit of large-aperture potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals associated with transverse stimulated Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 54(13), 4167–4171 (2015).

S. Reyné, G. Duchateau, and L. Hallo, “Multi-wavelength study of nanosecond laser-induced bulk damage morphology in KDP crystals,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 119(4), 1317 (2015).

L. S. Zhang, M. X. Xu, and X. Sun, “New annealing method to improve KD2PO4 crystal quality: learning from high temperature phase transition,” CrystEngComm 17(25), 4705–4711 (2015).

Y. X. Hou, Y. Z. Zhu, and J. S. Sun, “Self-assembly and nonlinear optical properties of (μ-oxo)bis[meso-tetrakis(p-bromophenyl-porphyrinato)iron(III)],” CrystEngComm 17(25), 4699–4704 (2015).

S. X. Wang, Y. X. Zhang, and R. Zhang, “High-Order Nonlinearity of Surface Plasmon Resonance in Au Nanoparticles: Paradoxical Combination of Saturable and Reverse-Saturable Absorption,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1342–1348 (2015).

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2010 (4)

S. G. Demos, P. DeMange, R. A. Negres, and M. D. Feit, “Investigation of the electronic and physical properties of defect structures responsible for laser-induced damage in DKDP crystals,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13788–13804 (2010).
[PubMed]

H. X. Deng, X. T. Zu, X. Xiang, and K. Sun, “Quantum Theory for Cold Avalanche Ionization in Solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(11), 113603 (2010).
[PubMed]

H. L. Fan, X. Q. Wang, and Q. Ren, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties in [(C4H9)4N]2[Cu(C3S5)2]-doped PMMA thin film using Z-scan technique in picosecond pulse,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 99(1), 279–284 (2010).

F. Guillet, B. Bertussi, and L. Lamaignère, “Effects of thermal annealing on KDP and DKDP on laser damage resistance at 3ω,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421T (2010).

2009 (1)

I. Pritula, V. Gayvoronsky, and Yu. Gromov, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of dye-doped KDP crystals: Effect of thermal treatment,” Opt. Commun. 282(6), 1141–1147 (2009).

2008 (1)

G. C. Xing, W. Ji, and Y. G. Zheng, “Two- and three-photon absorption of semiconductor quantum dots in the vicinity of half of lowest exciton energy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241114 (2008).

2007 (1)

C. Maunier, P. Bouchut, and S. Bouillet, “Growth and characterization of large KDP crystals for high power lasers,” Opt. Mater. 30(1), 88–90 (2007).

2005 (2)

M. Divall, K. Osvay, and G. Kurdi, “Two-photon-absorption of frequency converter crystals at 248 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 81(8), 1123–1126 (2005).

C. S. Liu, N. Kioussis, and S. G. Demos, “Electronic structure calculations of an oxygen vacancy in KH2PO4,” Phys. Rev. B 72(13), 134110 (2005).

2004 (2)

R. A. Ganeev, I. A. Kulagin, and A. I. Ryasnyansky, “Characterization of nonlinear optical parameters of KDP, LiNbO3 and BBO crystals,” Opt. Commun. 229(1), 403–412 (2004).

A. Melninkaitis, M. Šinkevičius, and T. Lipinskas, “Characterization of the KDP crystals used in large aperture doublers and triplers,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 298–305 (2004).

2003 (2)

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, “Wavelength Dependence of Laser-Induced Damage: Determining the Damage Initiation Mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(12), 127402 (2003).
[PubMed]

C. S. Liu, N. Kioussis, S. G. Demos, and H. B. Radousky, “Electron or hole-assisted reactions of H defects in hydrogen-bonded KDP,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(1), 015505 (2003).
[PubMed]

2002 (1)

D. Yoreo, A. Burnham, and P. Whitman, “Developing KH2PO4 and KD2PO4 crystals for the world’s most powerful laser,” Int. Mater. Rev. 47(3), 113–152 (2002).

2000 (1)

Y. J. Fu, Z. S. Gao, and S. L. Wang, “Study on K(DxH1-x)2PO4 Crystals: Growth Habit, Optical Properties and their Improvement by Thermal-Conditioning,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 35(2), 177–184 (2000).

1997 (1)

K. Fujioka, S. Matsuo, and T. Kanabe, “Optical properties of rapidly grown KDP crystal improved by thermal conditioning,” J. Cryst. Growth 181(3), 265–271 (1997).

1989 (1)

1978 (1)

P. Liu, W. L. Smith, and H. Lotem, “Absolute two-photon absorption coefficients at 355 and 266 nm,” Phys. Rev. B 17(12), 4620–4632 (1978).

1975 (1)

C. Belouet, M. Monnier, and R. Crouzier, “Strong isotopic effects on the lattice parameters and stability of highly deuterated D-KDP single crystals and related growth problems,” J. Cryst. Growth 30(2), 151–157 (1975).

Adams, J. J.

K. R. Manes, M. L. Spaeth, and J. J. Adams, “Mechanisms Avoided or Managed for NIF Large Optics,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69, 146–249 (2016).

Z. M. Liao, R. Roussell, and J. J. Adams, “Defect population variability in deuterated potassium di-hydrogen phosphate crystals,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(11), 1612–1623 (2012).

Anitha, K.

R. Thirumurugan and K. Anitha, “Structural, optical, thermal, dielectric, laser damage threshold and Z-scan studies on fumarate salt of creatinine: A promising third-order nonlinear optical material,” Mater. Lett. 206, 30–33 (2017).

Belouet, C.

C. Belouet, M. Monnier, and R. Crouzier, “Strong isotopic effects on the lattice parameters and stability of highly deuterated D-KDP single crystals and related growth problems,” J. Cryst. Growth 30(2), 151–157 (1975).

Bertussi, B.

F. Guillet, B. Bertussi, and L. Lamaignère, “Effects of thermal annealing on KDP and DKDP on laser damage resistance at 3ω,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421T (2010).

Bouchut, P.

C. Maunier, P. Bouchut, and S. Bouillet, “Growth and characterization of large KDP crystals for high power lasers,” Opt. Mater. 30(1), 88–90 (2007).

Bouillet, S.

C. Maunier, P. Bouchut, and S. Bouillet, “Growth and characterization of large KDP crystals for high power lasers,” Opt. Mater. 30(1), 88–90 (2007).

Burnham, A.

D. Yoreo, A. Burnham, and P. Whitman, “Developing KH2PO4 and KD2PO4 crystals for the world’s most powerful laser,” Int. Mater. Rev. 47(3), 113–152 (2002).

Cao, H.

Carr, C. W.

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, “Wavelength Dependence of Laser-Induced Damage: Determining the Damage Initiation Mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(12), 127402 (2003).
[PubMed]

Chai, X. X.

X. X. Chai, Q. H. Zhu, and B. Feng, “Nonlinear absorption properties of DKDP crystal at 263 nm and 351 nm,” Opt. Mater. 64, 262–267 (2017).

Crouzier, R.

C. Belouet, M. Monnier, and R. Crouzier, “Strong isotopic effects on the lattice parameters and stability of highly deuterated D-KDP single crystals and related growth problems,” J. Cryst. Growth 30(2), 151–157 (1975).

DeMange, P.

Demos, S. G.

S. G. Demos, R. N. Raman, S. T. Yang, R. A. Negres, K. I. Schaffers, and M. A. Henesian, “Measurement of the Raman scattering cross section of the breathing mode in KDP and DKDP crystals,” Opt. Express 19(21), 21050–21059 (2011).
[PubMed]

S. G. Demos, P. DeMange, R. A. Negres, and M. D. Feit, “Investigation of the electronic and physical properties of defect structures responsible for laser-induced damage in DKDP crystals,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13788–13804 (2010).
[PubMed]

C. S. Liu, N. Kioussis, and S. G. Demos, “Electronic structure calculations of an oxygen vacancy in KH2PO4,” Phys. Rev. B 72(13), 134110 (2005).

C. S. Liu, N. Kioussis, S. G. Demos, and H. B. Radousky, “Electron or hole-assisted reactions of H defects in hydrogen-bonded KDP,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(1), 015505 (2003).
[PubMed]

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, “Wavelength Dependence of Laser-Induced Damage: Determining the Damage Initiation Mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(12), 127402 (2003).
[PubMed]

Deng, H. X.

H. X. Deng, X. T. Zu, X. Xiang, and K. Sun, “Quantum Theory for Cold Avalanche Ionization in Solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(11), 113603 (2010).
[PubMed]

Divall, M.

M. Divall, K. Osvay, and G. Kurdi, “Two-photon-absorption of frequency converter crystals at 248 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 81(8), 1123–1126 (2005).

Duchateau, G.

S. Reyné, G. Duchateau, and L. Hallo, “Multi-wavelength study of nanosecond laser-induced bulk damage morphology in KDP crystals,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 119(4), 1317 (2015).

Fan, H. L.

H. L. Fan, X. Q. Wang, and Q. Ren, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties in [(C4H9)4N]2[Cu(C3S5)2]-doped PMMA thin film using Z-scan technique in picosecond pulse,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 99(1), 279–284 (2010).

Feit, M. D.

Feng, B.

Fu, Y. J.

Y. J. Fu, Z. S. Gao, and S. L. Wang, “Study on K(DxH1-x)2PO4 Crystals: Growth Habit, Optical Properties and their Improvement by Thermal-Conditioning,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 35(2), 177–184 (2000).

Fujioka, K.

K. Fujioka, S. Matsuo, and T. Kanabe, “Optical properties of rapidly grown KDP crystal improved by thermal conditioning,” J. Cryst. Growth 181(3), 265–271 (1997).

Ganeev, R. A.

R. A. Ganeev, I. A. Kulagin, and A. I. Ryasnyansky, “Characterization of nonlinear optical parameters of KDP, LiNbO3 and BBO crystals,” Opt. Commun. 229(1), 403–412 (2004).

Gao, Z. S.

Y. J. Fu, Z. S. Gao, and S. L. Wang, “Study on K(DxH1-x)2PO4 Crystals: Growth Habit, Optical Properties and their Improvement by Thermal-Conditioning,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 35(2), 177–184 (2000).

Gayvoronsky, V.

I. Pritula, V. Gayvoronsky, and Yu. Gromov, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of dye-doped KDP crystals: Effect of thermal treatment,” Opt. Commun. 282(6), 1141–1147 (2009).

Gong, M.

Gromov, Yu.

I. Pritula, V. Gayvoronsky, and Yu. Gromov, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of dye-doped KDP crystals: Effect of thermal treatment,” Opt. Commun. 282(6), 1141–1147 (2009).

Guillet, F.

F. Guillet, B. Bertussi, and L. Lamaignère, “Effects of thermal annealing on KDP and DKDP on laser damage resistance at 3ω,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421T (2010).

Hallo, L.

S. Reyné, G. Duchateau, and L. Hallo, “Multi-wavelength study of nanosecond laser-induced bulk damage morphology in KDP crystals,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 119(4), 1317 (2015).

Han, W.

Henesian, M. A.

Hou, Y. X.

Y. X. Hou, Y. Z. Zhu, and J. S. Sun, “Self-assembly and nonlinear optical properties of (μ-oxo)bis[meso-tetrakis(p-bromophenyl-porphyrinato)iron(III)],” CrystEngComm 17(25), 4699–4704 (2015).

Hu, G.

Ji, W.

G. C. Xing, W. Ji, and Y. G. Zheng, “Two- and three-photon absorption of semiconductor quantum dots in the vicinity of half of lowest exciton energy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241114 (2008).

Kanabe, T.

K. Fujioka, S. Matsuo, and T. Kanabe, “Optical properties of rapidly grown KDP crystal improved by thermal conditioning,” J. Cryst. Growth 181(3), 265–271 (1997).

Kioussis, N.

C. S. Liu, N. Kioussis, and S. G. Demos, “Electronic structure calculations of an oxygen vacancy in KH2PO4,” Phys. Rev. B 72(13), 134110 (2005).

C. S. Liu, N. Kioussis, S. G. Demos, and H. B. Radousky, “Electron or hole-assisted reactions of H defects in hydrogen-bonded KDP,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(1), 015505 (2003).
[PubMed]

Kulagin, I. A.

R. A. Ganeev, I. A. Kulagin, and A. I. Ryasnyansky, “Characterization of nonlinear optical parameters of KDP, LiNbO3 and BBO crystals,” Opt. Commun. 229(1), 403–412 (2004).

Kurdi, G.

M. Divall, K. Osvay, and G. Kurdi, “Two-photon-absorption of frequency converter crystals at 248 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 81(8), 1123–1126 (2005).

Lamaignère, L.

F. Guillet, B. Bertussi, and L. Lamaignère, “Effects of thermal annealing on KDP and DKDP on laser damage resistance at 3ω,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421T (2010).

Li, F.

Li, F. Q.

Li, S.

Li, T. B.

D. L. Wang, T. B. Li, and S. L. Wang, “Effect of Fe3+ on third-order optical nonlinearity of KDP single crystals,” CrystEngComm 18(48), 9292–9298 (2016).

Liao, Z. M.

Lipinskas, T.

A. Melninkaitis, M. Šinkevičius, and T. Lipinskas, “Characterization of the KDP crystals used in large aperture doublers and triplers,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 298–305 (2004).

Liu, C. S.

C. S. Liu, N. Kioussis, and S. G. Demos, “Electronic structure calculations of an oxygen vacancy in KH2PO4,” Phys. Rev. B 72(13), 134110 (2005).

C. S. Liu, N. Kioussis, S. G. Demos, and H. B. Radousky, “Electron or hole-assisted reactions of H defects in hydrogen-bonded KDP,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(1), 015505 (2003).
[PubMed]

Liu, P.

P. Liu, W. L. Smith, and H. Lotem, “Absolute two-photon absorption coefficients at 355 and 266 nm,” Phys. Rev. B 17(12), 4620–4632 (1978).

Lotem, H.

P. Liu, W. L. Smith, and H. Lotem, “Absolute two-photon absorption coefficients at 355 and 266 nm,” Phys. Rev. B 17(12), 4620–4632 (1978).

Manes, K. R.

K. R. Manes, M. L. Spaeth, and J. J. Adams, “Mechanisms Avoided or Managed for NIF Large Optics,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69, 146–249 (2016).

Matsuo, S.

K. Fujioka, S. Matsuo, and T. Kanabe, “Optical properties of rapidly grown KDP crystal improved by thermal conditioning,” J. Cryst. Growth 181(3), 265–271 (1997).

Maunier, C.

C. Maunier, P. Bouchut, and S. Bouillet, “Growth and characterization of large KDP crystals for high power lasers,” Opt. Mater. 30(1), 88–90 (2007).

Melninkaitis, A.

A. Melninkaitis, M. Šinkevičius, and T. Lipinskas, “Characterization of the KDP crystals used in large aperture doublers and triplers,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 298–305 (2004).

Monnier, M.

C. Belouet, M. Monnier, and R. Crouzier, “Strong isotopic effects on the lattice parameters and stability of highly deuterated D-KDP single crystals and related growth problems,” J. Cryst. Growth 30(2), 151–157 (1975).

Negres, R. A.

Osvay, K.

M. Divall, K. Osvay, and G. Kurdi, “Two-photon-absorption of frequency converter crystals at 248 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 81(8), 1123–1126 (2005).

Pritula, I.

I. Pritula, V. Gayvoronsky, and Yu. Gromov, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of dye-doped KDP crystals: Effect of thermal treatment,” Opt. Commun. 282(6), 1141–1147 (2009).

Radousky, H. B.

C. S. Liu, N. Kioussis, S. G. Demos, and H. B. Radousky, “Electron or hole-assisted reactions of H defects in hydrogen-bonded KDP,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(1), 015505 (2003).
[PubMed]

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, “Wavelength Dependence of Laser-Induced Damage: Determining the Damage Initiation Mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(12), 127402 (2003).
[PubMed]

Raman, R. N.

Ren, Q.

H. L. Fan, X. Q. Wang, and Q. Ren, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties in [(C4H9)4N]2[Cu(C3S5)2]-doped PMMA thin film using Z-scan technique in picosecond pulse,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 99(1), 279–284 (2010).

Reyné, S.

S. Reyné, G. Duchateau, and L. Hallo, “Multi-wavelength study of nanosecond laser-induced bulk damage morphology in KDP crystals,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 119(4), 1317 (2015).

Roussell, R.

Ryasnyansky, A. I.

R. A. Ganeev, I. A. Kulagin, and A. I. Ryasnyansky, “Characterization of nonlinear optical parameters of KDP, LiNbO3 and BBO crystals,” Opt. Commun. 229(1), 403–412 (2004).

Said, A. A.

Schaffers, K. I.

Shao, J.

Sheik-Bahae, M.

Šinkevicius, M.

A. Melninkaitis, M. Šinkevičius, and T. Lipinskas, “Characterization of the KDP crystals used in large aperture doublers and triplers,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 298–305 (2004).

Smith, W. L.

P. Liu, W. L. Smith, and H. Lotem, “Absolute two-photon absorption coefficients at 355 and 266 nm,” Phys. Rev. B 17(12), 4620–4632 (1978).

Spaeth, M. L.

K. R. Manes, M. L. Spaeth, and J. J. Adams, “Mechanisms Avoided or Managed for NIF Large Optics,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 69, 146–249 (2016).

Sun, J. S.

Y. X. Hou, Y. Z. Zhu, and J. S. Sun, “Self-assembly and nonlinear optical properties of (μ-oxo)bis[meso-tetrakis(p-bromophenyl-porphyrinato)iron(III)],” CrystEngComm 17(25), 4699–4704 (2015).

Sun, K.

H. X. Deng, X. T. Zu, X. Xiang, and K. Sun, “Quantum Theory for Cold Avalanche Ionization in Solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(11), 113603 (2010).
[PubMed]

Sun, X.

L. S. Zhang, M. X. Xu, and X. Sun, “New annealing method to improve KD2PO4 crystal quality: learning from high temperature phase transition,” CrystEngComm 17(25), 4705–4711 (2015).

Thirumurugan, R.

R. Thirumurugan and K. Anitha, “Structural, optical, thermal, dielectric, laser damage threshold and Z-scan studies on fumarate salt of creatinine: A promising third-order nonlinear optical material,” Mater. Lett. 206, 30–33 (2017).

Van Stryland, E. W.

Wang, D. L.

D. L. Wang, T. B. Li, and S. L. Wang, “Effect of Fe3+ on third-order optical nonlinearity of KDP single crystals,” CrystEngComm 18(48), 9292–9298 (2016).

Wang, F.

Wang, S. L.

D. L. Wang, T. B. Li, and S. L. Wang, “Effect of Fe3+ on third-order optical nonlinearity of KDP single crystals,” CrystEngComm 18(48), 9292–9298 (2016).

Y. J. Fu, Z. S. Gao, and S. L. Wang, “Study on K(DxH1-x)2PO4 Crystals: Growth Habit, Optical Properties and their Improvement by Thermal-Conditioning,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 35(2), 177–184 (2000).

Wang, S. X.

S. X. Wang, Y. X. Zhang, and R. Zhang, “High-Order Nonlinearity of Surface Plasmon Resonance in Au Nanoparticles: Paradoxical Combination of Saturable and Reverse-Saturable Absorption,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1342–1348 (2015).

Wang, X. Q.

H. L. Fan, X. Q. Wang, and Q. Ren, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties in [(C4H9)4N]2[Cu(C3S5)2]-doped PMMA thin film using Z-scan technique in picosecond pulse,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 99(1), 279–284 (2010).

Wang, Y.

Wei, X.

Whitman, P.

D. Yoreo, A. Burnham, and P. Whitman, “Developing KH2PO4 and KD2PO4 crystals for the world’s most powerful laser,” Int. Mater. Rev. 47(3), 113–152 (2002).

Xiang, X.

H. X. Deng, X. T. Zu, X. Xiang, and K. Sun, “Quantum Theory for Cold Avalanche Ionization in Solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(11), 113603 (2010).
[PubMed]

Xiang, Y.

Xie, X.

Xing, G. C.

G. C. Xing, W. Ji, and Y. G. Zheng, “Two- and three-photon absorption of semiconductor quantum dots in the vicinity of half of lowest exciton energy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241114 (2008).

Xu, M. X.

L. S. Zhang, M. X. Xu, and X. Sun, “New annealing method to improve KD2PO4 crystal quality: learning from high temperature phase transition,” CrystEngComm 17(25), 4705–4711 (2015).

Xu, Z.

Yang, L.

Yang, S. T.

Yoreo, D.

D. Yoreo, A. Burnham, and P. Whitman, “Developing KH2PO4 and KD2PO4 crystals for the world’s most powerful laser,” Int. Mater. Rev. 47(3), 113–152 (2002).

Zhang, L. S.

L. S. Zhang, M. X. Xu, and X. Sun, “New annealing method to improve KD2PO4 crystal quality: learning from high temperature phase transition,” CrystEngComm 17(25), 4705–4711 (2015).

Zhang, R.

S. X. Wang, Y. X. Zhang, and R. Zhang, “High-Order Nonlinearity of Surface Plasmon Resonance in Au Nanoparticles: Paradoxical Combination of Saturable and Reverse-Saturable Absorption,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1342–1348 (2015).

Zhang, Y. X.

S. X. Wang, Y. X. Zhang, and R. Zhang, “High-Order Nonlinearity of Surface Plasmon Resonance in Au Nanoparticles: Paradoxical Combination of Saturable and Reverse-Saturable Absorption,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1342–1348 (2015).

Zhao, J.

Zhao, Y.

Zheng, K.

Zheng, W.

Zheng, Y. G.

G. C. Xing, W. Ji, and Y. G. Zheng, “Two- and three-photon absorption of semiconductor quantum dots in the vicinity of half of lowest exciton energy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241114 (2008).

Zhou, L.

Zhu, Q. H.

X. X. Chai, Q. H. Zhu, and B. Feng, “Nonlinear absorption properties of DKDP crystal at 263 nm and 351 nm,” Opt. Mater. 64, 262–267 (2017).

Zhu, Y. Z.

Y. X. Hou, Y. Z. Zhu, and J. S. Sun, “Self-assembly and nonlinear optical properties of (μ-oxo)bis[meso-tetrakis(p-bromophenyl-porphyrinato)iron(III)],” CrystEngComm 17(25), 4699–4704 (2015).

Zu, X. T.

H. X. Deng, X. T. Zu, X. Xiang, and K. Sun, “Quantum Theory for Cold Avalanche Ionization in Solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(11), 113603 (2010).
[PubMed]

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[PubMed]

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S. O. Kucheyev, C. Bostedt, T. van Buuren, “Electronic structure of KD2xH2(1−x)PO4 studied by soft x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopies,” Phys. Rev. B 70(24), 245106 (2004).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Cutting schematic diagram of samples.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Annealing process of II-type samples.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic diagram of experimental set-up.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Transmission spectra of the samples.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 NLA curves of different cutting.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 NLA curves of different cutting.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 NLA curves of type II annealed in different temperature

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Characteristics of Tested Samples

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Table 2 Experimental Results of Transmission Spectra

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Table 3 Experimental Results of The NLA Coefficients

Equations (10)

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α( I )=α+βI
T 2PA (z,s=1)= 1 π q 0 ( z,0 ) + ln[ 1+ q 0 ( z,0 ) e t 2 ] dt
T 3PA (z,s=1)= 1 π p 0 ( z,0 ) + ln{ [ 1+ p 0 2 ( z,0 ) e 2 t 2 ] 1/2 + P 0 exp( t 2 ) } dt
q 0 ( z,t )=β I 0 ( t ) L eff /( 1+ z 2 / z 0 2 )
p 0 ( z,t )= [ 2β I 0 2 ( t ) L ef f ' / ( 1+ z 2 / z 0 2 ) 2 ] 1/2
T 2PA (z,s=1)= n=0 [ q 0 ( z,0 ) ] n ( n+1 ) 3/2 ( | q 0 <1 | )
T 3PA = m=1 ( 1 ) m1 p 0 2m2 ( z,0 ) ( 2m1 )! ( 2m1 ) 1/2 ( | q 0 <1 | )
α=ln[ T 0 / ( 1R ) 2 ]/L
β(m/W)= 240 π 2 ω n 0 2 c 2 χ I (3) (esu).
χ k (3) = 1 4 [3( χ xxxx + χ xxyy )+( χ xxxx χ xxyy )cos4φ] cos 4 θ+ 3 2 χ yyzz sin 2 2θ+ χ zzzz sin 4 θ

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