Abstract

The laser damage resistance of an optical element in high power laser systems depends significantly on the surface quality of the optical substrate. In this experiment, commercially polished fused silica substrates were etched in argon plasma generated by a RF source and their surface roughness, flatness and optical properties were investigated. This method can be applied in a vacuum chamber prior to deposition of the multilayer coatings without breaking the vacuum. It was shown that by etching the resistance to 355 nm, laser radiation could be improved more than 8 times. However, it strongly related with primary substrate quality. The etching depth from 100 nm suggests the optimum performance of surface quality in terms of surface low roughness, high flatness, and high laser damage threshold. These results are of significant importance for the manufacture of high quality laser optics on fused silica substrates. As an example of an application of our technology, anti-reflective and polarizing optical interference coatings were deposited on etched substrates and the increase of their resistance to laser radiation was measured.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

It is well known that the conventional CeO2 abrasive polishing technique, which relies on a normal load applied to an abrasive particle, causes material removal and generates scratches and subsurface damage (SSD) of fused silica substrate [1–3]. Subsurface damages are defined as residual digs and scratches, some of which are filled with polishing slurry and covered with so-called Bielby layer (polished layer) [4]. These hidden and un-hidden scratches are responsible for the combination of two phenomena: light absorption due to residual polishing slurry, which is especially significant in UV wavelength of laser radiation [5–7] and enhancement of electric field distribution of laser pulses due to surface pits and micro-cracks [8, 9]. Previously, it was shown that the polishing residuals have the values from 30 ppm to 5 ppm in 50 nm depth [1] or even up to 80 nm [10] of polished surface. Multilayer coatings deposited on fused silica (FS) substrates without and with pits, precisely fabricated on the surface using femto-second laser processing, were analyzed in recent Chai and associates publication [11]. They have showed that the laser damage probability was 20% - 60% higher for multilayer coating on substrate with pits than without. Authors finally conclude that the pits on substrate surface could contribute to the occurrence of damages.

The strong effect on reduction of scratches and SSD was reached by using magnetorheological finishing process [12, 13]. However, this very complex finishing procedure essentially did not eliminate the problem of SSD. For this reason, various post-polishing techniques were suggested by many authors during the past decade: 1) wet etching in hydrofluoric acid/ammonium fluoride based solutions (HF/NH4F) [6, 14, 15], 2) leaching in concentrated nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide (HNO3/H2O2) solution [16], 3) ion etching [17, 18], 4) UV laser conditioning [19] and 5) polishing in dielectric barrier discharge inert gas plasma at atmospheric pressure [20].

Recently, it was reported about increase in laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) by a factor of 1.5 after direct dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment at atmospheric pressure [20]. Ion beam etching for 800 nm, improved LIDT of fused silica for 1.34 times [21]. In our previous research [6], the LIDT (at 355 nm laser radiation) of commercial polished FS substrates was successfully increased up to 4 times by performing HF/HNO3 acid etching. Developed etching procedure has removed the polished layer and has cleaned out the slurry containing subsurface damages, however, surface quality (roughness and flatness) were substantially impaired. The same conclusion was reported by the other authors [22] [10].

Therefore, an alternative method for removal of Bielby layer containing SSD by plasma argon etching/polishing is presented in this work. The purpose of this work is to create a simple and rapid method to enhance the surfaces of optical substrates with no surface roughness increment and no substantial surface flatness degradation. Moreover, this method should be applied under vacuum in physical vapor deposition (PVD) chamber, therefore, multilayer coatings can be deposited immediately after etching on improved FS substrates. However, we have to note, that in this research plasma etching and coating process were done in separate chambers. The explanation is in section 2C.

Hafnium oxide (HfO2) and silicon oxide (SiO2) were chosen as high and low refractive index materials for coating deposition. It was reported that in visible spectra HfO2 has refractive index more than 2 [23, 24] and SiO2 around 1.5 [25].

2. Experimental procedure

A. Substrate preparation

To guarantee clean etching, FS optical substrates (25.4 mm diameter and 5 mm thickness), were washed in four-stage ultrasonic cleaning system “UCS40” (Optimal Technologies) before etching and coating deposition. First stage included ultrasonic cleaning in alkali solution with heating and filtration; second- ultrasonic rinsing with flowing water while heating; third- rinsing with de-ionized water while heating and slowly draining; last stage was drying in 60°C environment. The cleaned samples then were placed in a special holder and moved to vacuum chamber for etching and coating process.

B. Plasma etching

FS substrates prepared in ultrasonic bath were etched by “RADIANCE” sputter cluster platform (Evatec AG), equipped with three magnetron sputter sources and radio frequency (RF) plasma source. Schematic diagram of plasma etching procedure and RADIANCE sputter platform are shown in Fig. 1. Etching procedure was performed at 0.23 Pa argon pressure and 1kW RF power. Substrate holder was rotating at the rate of 53 rpm, turn table does not rotate in this experiment. Firstly, calibration procedure was done to estimate etching rate. For this purpose, three etching procedures on polished FS substrate for the same duration were performed. Then procedures were repeated 4 times in 3 days in order to confirm plasma stability and get statistics. For measuring the etching thickness before procedure, part of substrate surface was covered by special mask. FS surface under mask was not influenced by plasma, therefore edge on the surface was created. This edge was measured by profilometer Dektak150 (Veeco). For every thickness determination, 20 scans were done. The maximum measurement error of this technique was 7%. The etching rate was determined as the ratio of the measured thickness to the etching time. Controlled by etching time the layers with thicknesses of 20 ± 1.4 nm, 50 ± 3.5 nm, 100 ± 7 nm, 200 ± 14 nm and 400 ± 28 nm were removed from the FS substrates surface.

 

Fig. 1 Side view (a) and top view (b) drawings showing the plasma etching procedure and RADIANCE sputter platform, respectively.

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C. Coatings deposition

Anti-reflective (AR<0.2%@355 AOI = 0 deg) and polarizing (Pol@355 AOI = 56 deg, Tp>95%, Rs>99.5%) coatings for 355 nm wavelength were deposited on etched and non-etched substrates by the e-beam process. Reflectance and transmittance spectra of deposited optical interference coatings (OIC‘s) are shown in Fig. 2. The motivation to use e-beam evaporation rather than sputtering process was to avoid unexpected absorption loss in coatings that may appear due to incomplete metal oxidation during sputtering [26, 27] of metal targets. Therefore, evaporation from stoichiometric SiO2 granules and HfO2 tablets (both from Umicore AG) in O2 environment was chosen to investigate FS etching performance and resistance of deposited coatings to UV laser radiation. Details of e-beam deposition setup could be found in Ref [28].

 

Fig. 2 Reflectance and transmittance spectra of anti-reflective (AR<0.2%@355 AOI = 0 deg) (a) and polarizing (Pol@355 AOI = 56 deg, Tp>95%, Rs>99.5%) (b) OIC‘s deposited on etched and non-etched FS substrates.

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The HfO2 and SiO2 were chosen as high (H) and low (L) refractive index materials respectively; both H and L had a quarter-wave optical thickness at the reference wavelength of 355 nm (H: 43.40 nm, L: 60.30 nm).

AR coating with a layer structure Substrate/0.40H1.29L/Air and polarizing coating with a structure Substrate/1.23H0.74L0.93H0.92L0.95H1L(HL)^12_0.77H1.05L0.85H0.68L/Air were deposited. The working pressure and temperature of substrates were 2 × 10−2 Pa and 300°C respectively.

D. Characterization

Transmittance spectra were measured in the 190<λ<1000 nm wavelength range using a Lambda 950 (Perkin Elmer) spectrophotometer.

Surface roughness was measured using a Dimension Edge atomic force microscope (AFM) (Bruker) in tapping mode, over a 20 × 20 μm2 scan area. In order to achieve better statistics of roughness values, four areas (20 × 20 μm2) were analyzed before and after etching of each FS sample and root mean square average of the profile height deviations (Rrms) result is reported.

FS surface flatness was analyzed by interferometric system “MarSurf FI 1040Z” (Mahr ESDI) based on peak-to-valley measurements and comparison before and after etching of each sample flatness (λ/x, λ = 633 nm) is presented.

LIDT (1-on-1 test) measurements of all FS substrates (coated and uncoated) were performed to investigate possible correlation with etching depth. 1-on-1 tests, according to slightly modified method described in ISO 21254-1 procedure [29] with micro-focusing approach. Laser setup is shown in Fig. 3.

 

Fig. 3 LIDT measuring schematics. M – mirrors, PC – computer for system control, SF – space filter, PD1 – incident beam energy registration photodiode, λ/2 – phase plate, P – polarizer, BS – beam splitter, SH – beam shutter, L1 – focusing lens, XYZ – motorized sample holder, SDM – scattering detection module: Sh – direct beam path shield, L2 – scattered light collecting lens, A – aperture, PD2 – scattered light registration photodiode.

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The third harmonic of pulsed (frequency 15 Hz) nanosecond (pulse duration of 3 ns) Nd:YAG laser (Ekspla) was used for the LIDT measurements. The space filter (SF) was applied and Gaussian beam shape was formed. Attenuator, consisting from λ/2 phase plate and polarizer (P) allowed to change pulse energy without influence to pulse duration, beam shape, etc. Short distance focusing lens (f = 20 cm, focal waist diameter w0~65µm) was chosen for sample LIDT testing in order to avoid damage of backward surface of samples due to laser beam self-focusing. Scattered light was collected by scattering detection module (SDM) using lens L2 and separated by ~0.5 mm aperture. Aperture position enabled us to choose the exact projection of laser exposed sample surface. The shielding of main beam was used by displacing ∅10 mm metal circle near lens position in order to get more precise LIDT results. In this setup, the beam transmitted through the sample without any damage or defect was fully blocked by this shield and no scattered signal was registered. When sample was positioned on damaged area, exposed light scattered widely and photodiode PD2 registered scatter signal. Dependent on sample, SDM can be used in transmission configuration at 0° angle of incidence (AOI) or reflection at any angle. In this work, SDM was in transmission configuration at 0° AOI for anti-reflective coating measurement, and reflectance configuration at 0° AOI for bare substrates, and 56° AOI for polarizing coating. All LIDT measuring system was controlled by personal computer. Automated program has controlled X-Y-Z direction of motorized sample holder, operated shutter (SH) and collected incident and scattered energy data of each pulse. Sample holder itself was adjusted at 0° for bare substrates and antireflective coating measurements and 56° for polarizing coating. Manual rotating of λ/2 phase plate allowed control of energy fluency in focused area in wide interval. For a better precision of measured data after laser exposition in a few hundred places, additional scanning of the same area was done using small exposing laser pulse energy. This method allowed us to achieve automated LIDT registration (damaged or not damaged). The results of automated evaluation of damage areas and those tested with microscope fully coincided. This method speeded up a few times the measurement procedure and enabled us to avoid mistakes.

To estimate laser beam energy in damage area, calibrated energy meter was used. The spot diameter was measured by “moving knife-edge” method using the same X-Y motorized sample holder with submicron step scanning [30, 31]. LIDT for anti-reflective coating was measured at normal incidence, polarizing coating for p polarization at 56° of incidence.

3. Results and discussion

A. Loss

For loss evaluation of FS substrates before and after etching, optical transmittance measurements were analyzed. Many authors have noticed significant decrease of transmittance in UV range after exposure to ion flux due to contamination of the surface from filament/grid erosion or other contaminants [28]. Transmittance spectra of FS substrates before and after plasma etching are compared in Fig. 4.

 

Fig. 4 Comparison of transmittance spectra of individual FS substrates before and after ion etching.

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Spectrophotometric transmittance measurements have revealed no significant increase of loss in etched FS substrates. If there are vanishingly small quantities of photo-absorbing contaminants, for example tungsten (W), which could originate from plasma source grid, this method is not enough sensitive to detect it.

B. Surface roughness and flatness

The most common deliverable of etching smooth and flat surface is degradation of its quality, i.e. increasing roughness [18] and decreasing flatness. Despite those negative aspects etching is still applied in many fields. However, etching of optical substrates, combined with those negative deliverables is unsuitable for laser optics. Therefore, it is necessary to develop soft and homogenous etching procedure to prepare high surface quality optical substrates for high LIDT OIC deposition.

Comparison of FS surface roughness and flatness values before and after etching of different depths is presented in Fig. 5. Measurements have revealed that the roughness of etched samples did not increase comparing to the initial values, within the error margins. Moreover, surface roughness values of laser grade optical substrates varied from 0.4 nm to 0.7 nm (RMS), which is acceptable for laser optics.

 

Fig. 5 Comparison of FS surface roughness (a) and flatness (b) values before and after argon plasma etching. Interferometer wavelength λ = 633 nm.

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Flatness analysis revealed, that no significant change in surface flatness after plasma etching procedure was observed.

C. Laser damage resistance

All etched FS samples have demonstrated significantly higher laser damage threshold (from ~4 to ~8 times) than the ones without etching. The LIDT (1-on-1) measurements at 355 nm wavelength, showed more than 8 times higher threshold values for (50.0 ± 3.5) nm and (100 ± 7) nm etched FS substrates respectively, compared with non-etched ones (Fig. 6). It suggests that the etching depth from around 50 nm to 200 nm, demonstrates the best performance of surface quality (in terms of RMS, flatness, and LIDT). It was previously reported, that absolute value of non-etched commercial FS substrates varies between 5 J/cm2 [19] to 22 J/cm2 [6] dependent on polishing method performed by different vendor. Therefore, we investigated LIDT of 5 different commercially available FS substrates from 4 different vendors. The measurements showed, that LIDT values (at λ = 355 nm) varied from 5.8 ± 0.4 J/cm2 to 12.6 ± 1.0 J/cm2. Substrates, used in this work, was taken from the one vendor, where LIDT varied from 5.8 ± 0.4 J/cm2 to 8.1 ± 0.7 J/cm2 with the average value 7.0 J/cm2. LIDT values difference between non-etched and etched substrates depend significantly on substrate vendor. It should be also noted, that LIDT is strongly depend on parameters of laser, such as pulse duration, repetition rate, beam size and shape, laser type, laser stability and LIDT evaluation from damage data [32, 33]. Those result suggest, that dependent on primary substrate quality, LIDT values after etching can increase from ~4 to 8 times.

 

Fig. 6 LIDT comparison of non-etched and etched FS substrates.

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The results also showed, that after etching of more than 100 nm, resistance of etched FS substrates to laser radiation started to decrease. This could be related with some tungsten contamination from ion source during exposure, because etching of 200 nm and 400 nm took much longer time, ~29 min and ~58 min respectively compared to cases of etching the thickness of 100 nm or below. It requires additional investigation.

C. OIC on non-etched and etched FS substrates

As an example of possible substrate plasma etching benefits, anti-reflective (AR<0.2%@355 AOI = 0 deg) and polarizing (Pol@ 355 AOI = 56 deg, Tp>95%, Rs>99.5%) OIC‘s were deposited on etched (100 nm depth) and non-etched FS substrates. This type of coatings has one common feature - almost all laser energy after irradiation is transferred to the substrate-coating interface, therefore positive etching effect on the OIC’s LID performance should be clearly seen. LIDT measurements have revealed, that anti-reflective and polarizing OIC‘s, deposited on etched substrates, had 2.4 and 2.0 times higher LIDT, respectively, than OIC’s deposited on non-etched substrates (Fig. 7).

 

Fig. 7 LID probability curves of anti-reflective (AR@355) and polarizing (Pol.@355) OIC’s, deposited on non-etched and etched substrates.

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Characteristic damage morphologies of non-etched and etched FS substrates, coated with AR<0.2%@355 AOI = 0 deg were investigated by optical microscope. From these observations, it is clear that the damage behavior of different samples is significantly different, as shown in Fig. 8.

 

Fig. 8 Characteristic damage morphologies of non-etched (a) and etched (b) FS substrates, coated with AR<0.2%@355 AOI = 0 deg coatings.

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The breakdown of AR samples deposited on non-etched substrates starts from point defects. This phenomenon could be clearly seen while observing sequence of damage sites, exposed with constantly increasing laser fluence. These point defects could be related to polishing particles, embedded within “Beilby” layer [2] or within the subsurface damages [1] and therefore are acting as damage precursors. To confirm this assumption completely, further deep analysis of damage behavior is necessary. Damage morphology of AR coatings made on etched FS samples had very few visible point defects. Based on those observations we hypothesize that thermal effects are mostly involved in damage processes of both, etched and non-etched samples due to absorption of laser radiation in those point defects.

4. Conclusions

LIDT (1-on-1) measurements at 355 nm wavelength, showed 8.4 times higher threshold values for bare FS substrates, having etching depth of (50 ± 3.5) nm and (100 ± 7) nm compared with non-etched samples. LIDT values difference between non-etched and etched substrates depend significantly on substrate vendor. The etching depth from around 50 nm to 200 nm enhanced performance of FS surface quality (in terms of RMS, flatness and LIDT). Anti-reflective and polarizing optical interference coatings, deposited on etched substrates, had 2.4 and 2.0 times higher LIDT than those deposited on non-etched substrates. Presented argon plasma etching principle has led to considerable LIDT improvement of uncoated and also coated FS substrates.

Funding

The research leading to these results has been partially supported by project DEMOS (Grant No. E!10232) based on Eurostars-2 program and received from Lithuanian Agency for Science, Innovation and Technology.

References and links

1. M. R. Kozlowski, J. Carr, I. D. Hutcheon, R. A. Torres, L. M. Sheehan, D. W. Camp, and M. Yan, “Depth profiling of polishing-induced contamination on fused silica surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 3244, 365–375 (1998). [CrossRef]  

2. Y. Lee, “Evaluating subsurface damage in optical glasses,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 6, 11001 (2011).

3. P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005). [CrossRef]  

4. S. Li, Z. Wang, and Y. Wu, “Relationship between subsurface damage and surface roughness of optical materials in grinding and lapping processes,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 205(1-3), 34–41 (2008). [CrossRef]  

5. L. Hongjie, H. Jin, W. Fengrui, Z. Xinda, Y. Xin, Z. Xiaoyan, S. Laixi, J. Xiaodong, S. Zhan, and Z. Wanguo, “Subsurface defects of fused silica optics and laser induced damage at 351 nm,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12204–12217 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

6. K. Juškevičius, R. Buzelis, S. Kičas, T. Tolenis, R. Drazdys, G. Batavičiūtė, E. Pupka, L. Smalakys, and A. Melninkaitis, “Investigation of subsurface damage impact on resistance of laser radiation of fused silica substrates,” Proc. SPIE 8885, 888529 (2013). [CrossRef]  

7. S. Liukaitytė, G. Batavičiūtė, E. Pupka, M. Ščiuka, I. Kraujalienė, D. Tumosa, A. Skrebutėnas, K. Juškevičius, T. Tolenis, S. Kičas, R. Drazdys, R. Buzelis, and A. Melninkaitis, “Effect of conventional fused silica preparation and deposition techniques on surface roughness, scattering, and laser damage resistance,” Proc. SPIE 8530, 853027 (2012). [CrossRef]  

8. N. Bloembergen, “Role of cracks, pores, and absorbing inclusions on laser induced damage threshold at surfaces of transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Opt. 12(4), 661–664 (1973). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

9. M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, “Influence of subsurface cracks on laser-induced surface damage,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 264–272 (2004). [CrossRef]  

10. Y. Li, Z. Yuan, J. Wang, and Q. Xu, “Laser-induced damage characteristics in fused silica surface due to mechanical and chemical defects during manufacturing processes,” Opt. Laser Technol. 91, 149–158 (2017). [CrossRef]  

11. Y. Chai, M. Zhu, Z. Bai, K. Yi, H. Wang, Y. Cui, and J. Shao, “Impact of substrate pits on laser-induced damage performance of 1064-nm high-reflective coatings,” Opt. Lett. 40(7), 1330–1333 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

12. S. Jha and V. K. Jain, “Nanofinishing Techniques,” in Micromanufacturing and Nanotechnology (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2006), pp. 171–195.

13. J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, W. A. Steele, L. L. Wong, T. I. Suratwala, and P. E. Miller, “MRF applications: measurement of process-dependent subsurface damage in optical materials using the MRF wedge technique,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599103 (2005). [CrossRef]  

14. Y. Li, H. Huang, R. Xie, H. Li, Y. Deng, X. Chen, J. Wang, Q. Xu, W. Yang, and Y. Guo, “A method for evaluating subsurface damage in optical glass,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17180–17186 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

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18. A. Belosludtsev, J. Vlček, J. Houška, and R. Čerstvý, “Reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering of ZrO2 films with gradient ZrOx interlayers on pretreated steel substrates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 35(3), 031503 (2017). [CrossRef]  

19. J. A. Menapace, B. Penetrante, D. Golini, A. F. Slomba, P. E. Miller, T. G. Parham, M. Nichols, and J. Peterson, “Combined advanced finishing and UV-laser conditioning for producing UV-damage-resistant fused-silica optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 56–68 (2002). [CrossRef]  

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21. F. Shi, Y. Zhong, Y. Dai, X. Peng, M. Xu, and T. Sui, “Investigation of surface damage precursor evolutions and laser-induced damage threshold improvement mechanism during Ion beam etching of fused silica,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20842–20854 (2016). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

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23. M. Audronis, A. Matthews, K. Juškevičius, and R. Drazdys, “Unlocking the potential of voltage control for high rate zirconium and hafnium oxide deposition by reactive magnetron sputtering,” Vacuum 107, 159–163 (2014). [CrossRef]  

24. N.-W. Pi, M. Zhang, J. Jiang, A. Belosludtsev, J. Vlček, J. Houška, and E. I. Meletis, “Microstructure of hard and optically transparent HfO2 films prepared by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering with a pulsed oxygen flow control,” Thin Solid Films 619, 239–249 (2016). [CrossRef]  

25. T. Tolenis, L. Grinevičiūtė, R. Buzelis, L. Smalakys, E. Pupka, S. Melnikas, A. Selskis, R. Drazdys, and A. Melninkaitis, “Sculptured anti-reflection coatings for high power lasers,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(4), 1249–1258 (2017). [CrossRef]  

26. S. Kičas, G. Batavičiūtė, K. Juškevičius, T. Tolenis, R. Drazdys, R. Buzelis, and A. Melninkaitis, “Characterization and application of HfO2 - SiO2 mixtures produced by ion-beam sputtering technology,” Proc. SPIE 8885, 888527 (2013).

27. D. N. Nguyen, L. Emmert, M. Mero, W. G. Rudolph, D. Patel, E. Krous, and C. S. Menoni, “The effect of annealing on the subpicosecond breakdown behavior of hafnia films,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71320N (2008). [CrossRef]  

28. G. Abromavičius, R. Buzelis, R. Drazdys, D. Perednis, and A. Skrebutėnas, “Optimization of HfO2, Al2O3 and SiO2 deposition leading to advanced UV optical coatings with low extinction,” Proc. SPIE 6596, 65961(2006). [CrossRef]  

29. ISO-11254–1, “Lasers and laser-related equipment,” in Determination of laser-induced damage threshold of optical surfaces, Part 1: 1-on-1 test, (2000).

30. J. Krüger and W. Kautek, “Ultrashort pulse laser interaction with dielectrics and polymers,” in Polymers and Light, T. K. Lippert, ed. (Berlin, Heidelberg, 2004), pp. 247–290.

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32. G. Batavičiutė, P. Grigas, L. Smalakys, and A. Melninkaitis, “Bayesian approach of laser-induced damage threshold analysis and determination of error bars,” Proc. SPIE 8530, 85301S (2012). [CrossRef]  

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References

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  1. M. R. Kozlowski, J. Carr, I. D. Hutcheon, R. A. Torres, L. M. Sheehan, D. W. Camp, and M. Yan, “Depth profiling of polishing-induced contamination on fused silica surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 3244, 365–375 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  2. Y. Lee, “Evaluating subsurface damage in optical glasses,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 6, 11001 (2011).
  3. P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Li, Z. Wang, and Y. Wu, “Relationship between subsurface damage and surface roughness of optical materials in grinding and lapping processes,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 205(1-3), 34–41 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  5. L. Hongjie, H. Jin, W. Fengrui, Z. Xinda, Y. Xin, Z. Xiaoyan, S. Laixi, J. Xiaodong, S. Zhan, and Z. Wanguo, “Subsurface defects of fused silica optics and laser induced damage at 351 nm,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12204–12217 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. K. Juškevičius, R. Buzelis, S. Kičas, T. Tolenis, R. Drazdys, G. Batavičiūtė, E. Pupka, L. Smalakys, and A. Melninkaitis, “Investigation of subsurface damage impact on resistance of laser radiation of fused silica substrates,” Proc. SPIE 8885, 888529 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. Liukaitytė, G. Batavičiūtė, E. Pupka, M. Ščiuka, I. Kraujalienė, D. Tumosa, A. Skrebutėnas, K. Juškevičius, T. Tolenis, S. Kičas, R. Drazdys, R. Buzelis, and A. Melninkaitis, “Effect of conventional fused silica preparation and deposition techniques on surface roughness, scattering, and laser damage resistance,” Proc. SPIE 8530, 853027 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  8. N. Bloembergen, “Role of cracks, pores, and absorbing inclusions on laser induced damage threshold at surfaces of transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Opt. 12(4), 661–664 (1973).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, “Influence of subsurface cracks on laser-induced surface damage,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 264–272 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  10. Y. Li, Z. Yuan, J. Wang, and Q. Xu, “Laser-induced damage characteristics in fused silica surface due to mechanical and chemical defects during manufacturing processes,” Opt. Laser Technol. 91, 149–158 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  11. Y. Chai, M. Zhu, Z. Bai, K. Yi, H. Wang, Y. Cui, and J. Shao, “Impact of substrate pits on laser-induced damage performance of 1064-nm high-reflective coatings,” Opt. Lett. 40(7), 1330–1333 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. S. Jha and V. K. Jain, “Nanofinishing Techniques,” in Micromanufacturing and Nanotechnology (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2006), pp. 171–195.
  13. J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, W. A. Steele, L. L. Wong, T. I. Suratwala, and P. E. Miller, “MRF applications: measurement of process-dependent subsurface damage in optical materials using the MRF wedge technique,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599103 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  14. Y. Li, H. Huang, R. Xie, H. Li, Y. Deng, X. Chen, J. Wang, Q. Xu, W. Yang, and Y. Guo, “A method for evaluating subsurface damage in optical glass,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17180–17186 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  16. P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
    [Crossref]
  17. V. M. Donnelly and A. Kornblit, “Plasma etching: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 31(5), 050825 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  18. A. Belosludtsev, J. Vlček, J. Houška, and R. Čerstvý, “Reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering of ZrO2 films with gradient ZrOx interlayers on pretreated steel substrates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 35(3), 031503 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  19. J. A. Menapace, B. Penetrante, D. Golini, A. F. Slomba, P. E. Miller, T. G. Parham, M. Nichols, and J. Peterson, “Combined advanced finishing and UV-laser conditioning for producing UV-damage-resistant fused-silica optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 56–68 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  20. C. Gerhard, D. Tasche, N. Munser, and H. Dyck, “Increase in nanosecond laser-induced damage threshold of sapphire windows by means of direct dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment,” Opt. Lett. 42(1), 49–52 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. F. Shi, Y. Zhong, Y. Dai, X. Peng, M. Xu, and T. Sui, “Investigation of surface damage precursor evolutions and laser-induced damage threshold improvement mechanism during Ion beam etching of fused silica,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20842–20854 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. M. Affatigato, D. H. Osborne, and R. F. Haglund., “Effect of surface roughness on the acid etching of amorphous silica,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79(3), 688–694 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  23. M. Audronis, A. Matthews, K. Juškevičius, and R. Drazdys, “Unlocking the potential of voltage control for high rate zirconium and hafnium oxide deposition by reactive magnetron sputtering,” Vacuum 107, 159–163 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  24. N.-W. Pi, M. Zhang, J. Jiang, A. Belosludtsev, J. Vlček, J. Houška, and E. I. Meletis, “Microstructure of hard and optically transparent HfO2 films prepared by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering with a pulsed oxygen flow control,” Thin Solid Films 619, 239–249 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  25. T. Tolenis, L. Grinevičiūtė, R. Buzelis, L. Smalakys, E. Pupka, S. Melnikas, A. Selskis, R. Drazdys, and A. Melninkaitis, “Sculptured anti-reflection coatings for high power lasers,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(4), 1249–1258 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  26. S. Kičas, G. Batavičiūtė, K. Juškevičius, T. Tolenis, R. Drazdys, R. Buzelis, and A. Melninkaitis, “Characterization and application of HfO2 - SiO2 mixtures produced by ion-beam sputtering technology,” Proc. SPIE 8885, 888527 (2013).
  27. D. N. Nguyen, L. Emmert, M. Mero, W. G. Rudolph, D. Patel, E. Krous, and C. S. Menoni, “The effect of annealing on the subpicosecond breakdown behavior of hafnia films,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71320N (2008).
    [Crossref]
  28. G. Abromavičius, R. Buzelis, R. Drazdys, D. Perednis, and A. Skrebutėnas, “Optimization of HfO2, Al2O3 and SiO2 deposition leading to advanced UV optical coatings with low extinction,” Proc. SPIE 6596, 65961(2006).
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  31. ISO-11146, “Lasers and laser-related equipment,” in Test methods for laser beam widths, divergence angles and beam propagation ratios. Part 1: Stigmatic and simple astigmatic beams (2005).
  32. G. Batavičiutė, P. Grigas, L. Smalakys, and A. Melninkaitis, “Bayesian approach of laser-induced damage threshold analysis and determination of error bars,” Proc. SPIE 8530, 85301S (2012).
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  33. G. Batavičiutė, P. Grigas, L. Smalakys, and A. Melninkaitis, “Revision of laser-induced damage threshold evaluation from damage probability data,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 045108 (2013).

2017 (4)

Y. Li, Z. Yuan, J. Wang, and Q. Xu, “Laser-induced damage characteristics in fused silica surface due to mechanical and chemical defects during manufacturing processes,” Opt. Laser Technol. 91, 149–158 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Belosludtsev, J. Vlček, J. Houška, and R. Čerstvý, “Reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering of ZrO2 films with gradient ZrOx interlayers on pretreated steel substrates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 35(3), 031503 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Gerhard, D. Tasche, N. Munser, and H. Dyck, “Increase in nanosecond laser-induced damage threshold of sapphire windows by means of direct dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment,” Opt. Lett. 42(1), 49–52 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Tolenis, L. Grinevičiūtė, R. Buzelis, L. Smalakys, E. Pupka, S. Melnikas, A. Selskis, R. Drazdys, and A. Melninkaitis, “Sculptured anti-reflection coatings for high power lasers,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(4), 1249–1258 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

F. Shi, Y. Zhong, Y. Dai, X. Peng, M. Xu, and T. Sui, “Investigation of surface damage precursor evolutions and laser-induced damage threshold improvement mechanism during Ion beam etching of fused silica,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20842–20854 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N.-W. Pi, M. Zhang, J. Jiang, A. Belosludtsev, J. Vlček, J. Houška, and E. I. Meletis, “Microstructure of hard and optically transparent HfO2 films prepared by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering with a pulsed oxygen flow control,” Thin Solid Films 619, 239–249 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

M. Audronis, A. Matthews, K. Juškevičius, and R. Drazdys, “Unlocking the potential of voltage control for high rate zirconium and hafnium oxide deposition by reactive magnetron sputtering,” Vacuum 107, 159–163 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

S. Kičas, G. Batavičiūtė, K. Juškevičius, T. Tolenis, R. Drazdys, R. Buzelis, and A. Melninkaitis, “Characterization and application of HfO2 - SiO2 mixtures produced by ion-beam sputtering technology,” Proc. SPIE 8885, 888527 (2013).

V. M. Donnelly and A. Kornblit, “Plasma etching: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 31(5), 050825 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Hongjie, H. Jin, W. Fengrui, Z. Xinda, Y. Xin, Z. Xiaoyan, S. Laixi, J. Xiaodong, S. Zhan, and Z. Wanguo, “Subsurface defects of fused silica optics and laser induced damage at 351 nm,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12204–12217 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Juškevičius, R. Buzelis, S. Kičas, T. Tolenis, R. Drazdys, G. Batavičiūtė, E. Pupka, L. Smalakys, and A. Melninkaitis, “Investigation of subsurface damage impact on resistance of laser radiation of fused silica substrates,” Proc. SPIE 8885, 888529 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

S. Liukaitytė, G. Batavičiūtė, E. Pupka, M. Ščiuka, I. Kraujalienė, D. Tumosa, A. Skrebutėnas, K. Juškevičius, T. Tolenis, S. Kičas, R. Drazdys, R. Buzelis, and A. Melninkaitis, “Effect of conventional fused silica preparation and deposition techniques on surface roughness, scattering, and laser damage resistance,” Proc. SPIE 8530, 853027 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Batavičiutė, P. Grigas, L. Smalakys, and A. Melninkaitis, “Bayesian approach of laser-induced damage threshold analysis and determination of error bars,” Proc. SPIE 8530, 85301S (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

S. Li, Z. Wang, and Y. Wu, “Relationship between subsurface damage and surface roughness of optical materials in grinding and lapping processes,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 205(1-3), 34–41 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. N. Nguyen, L. Emmert, M. Mero, W. G. Rudolph, D. Patel, E. Krous, and C. S. Menoni, “The effect of annealing on the subpicosecond breakdown behavior of hafnia films,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71320N (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

G. Abromavičius, R. Buzelis, R. Drazdys, D. Perednis, and A. Skrebutėnas, “Optimization of HfO2, Al2O3 and SiO2 deposition leading to advanced UV optical coatings with low extinction,” Proc. SPIE 6596, 65961(2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, W. A. Steele, L. L. Wong, T. I. Suratwala, and P. E. Miller, “MRF applications: measurement of process-dependent subsurface damage in optical materials using the MRF wedge technique,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599103 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, “Influence of subsurface cracks on laser-induced surface damage,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 264–272 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

J. A. Menapace, B. Penetrante, D. Golini, A. F. Slomba, P. E. Miller, T. G. Parham, M. Nichols, and J. Peterson, “Combined advanced finishing and UV-laser conditioning for producing UV-damage-resistant fused-silica optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 56–68 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

M. R. Kozlowski, J. Carr, I. D. Hutcheon, R. A. Torres, L. M. Sheehan, D. W. Camp, and M. Yan, “Depth profiling of polishing-induced contamination on fused silica surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 3244, 365–375 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

M. Affatigato, D. H. Osborne, and R. F. Haglund., “Effect of surface roughness on the acid etching of amorphous silica,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79(3), 688–694 (1996).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

Abromavicius, G.

G. Abromavičius, R. Buzelis, R. Drazdys, D. Perednis, and A. Skrebutėnas, “Optimization of HfO2, Al2O3 and SiO2 deposition leading to advanced UV optical coatings with low extinction,” Proc. SPIE 6596, 65961(2006).
[Crossref]

Affatigato, M.

M. Affatigato, D. H. Osborne, and R. F. Haglund., “Effect of surface roughness on the acid etching of amorphous silica,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79(3), 688–694 (1996).
[Crossref]

Audronis, M.

M. Audronis, A. Matthews, K. Juškevičius, and R. Drazdys, “Unlocking the potential of voltage control for high rate zirconium and hafnium oxide deposition by reactive magnetron sputtering,” Vacuum 107, 159–163 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bai, Z.

Bataviciute, G.

K. Juškevičius, R. Buzelis, S. Kičas, T. Tolenis, R. Drazdys, G. Batavičiūtė, E. Pupka, L. Smalakys, and A. Melninkaitis, “Investigation of subsurface damage impact on resistance of laser radiation of fused silica substrates,” Proc. SPIE 8885, 888529 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Kičas, G. Batavičiūtė, K. Juškevičius, T. Tolenis, R. Drazdys, R. Buzelis, and A. Melninkaitis, “Characterization and application of HfO2 - SiO2 mixtures produced by ion-beam sputtering technology,” Proc. SPIE 8885, 888527 (2013).

G. Batavičiutė, P. Grigas, L. Smalakys, and A. Melninkaitis, “Bayesian approach of laser-induced damage threshold analysis and determination of error bars,” Proc. SPIE 8530, 85301S (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Liukaitytė, G. Batavičiūtė, E. Pupka, M. Ščiuka, I. Kraujalienė, D. Tumosa, A. Skrebutėnas, K. Juškevičius, T. Tolenis, S. Kičas, R. Drazdys, R. Buzelis, and A. Melninkaitis, “Effect of conventional fused silica preparation and deposition techniques on surface roughness, scattering, and laser damage resistance,” Proc. SPIE 8530, 853027 (2012).
[Crossref]

Belosludtsev, A.

A. Belosludtsev, J. Vlček, J. Houška, and R. Čerstvý, “Reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering of ZrO2 films with gradient ZrOx interlayers on pretreated steel substrates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 35(3), 031503 (2017).
[Crossref]

N.-W. Pi, M. Zhang, J. Jiang, A. Belosludtsev, J. Vlček, J. Houška, and E. I. Meletis, “Microstructure of hard and optically transparent HfO2 films prepared by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering with a pulsed oxygen flow control,” Thin Solid Films 619, 239–249 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bloembergen, N.

Bude, J. D.

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[Crossref]

Buzelis, R.

T. Tolenis, L. Grinevičiūtė, R. Buzelis, L. Smalakys, E. Pupka, S. Melnikas, A. Selskis, R. Drazdys, and A. Melninkaitis, “Sculptured anti-reflection coatings for high power lasers,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(4), 1249–1258 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Juškevičius, R. Buzelis, S. Kičas, T. Tolenis, R. Drazdys, G. Batavičiūtė, E. Pupka, L. Smalakys, and A. Melninkaitis, “Investigation of subsurface damage impact on resistance of laser radiation of fused silica substrates,” Proc. SPIE 8885, 888529 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Kičas, G. Batavičiūtė, K. Juškevičius, T. Tolenis, R. Drazdys, R. Buzelis, and A. Melninkaitis, “Characterization and application of HfO2 - SiO2 mixtures produced by ion-beam sputtering technology,” Proc. SPIE 8885, 888527 (2013).

S. Liukaitytė, G. Batavičiūtė, E. Pupka, M. Ščiuka, I. Kraujalienė, D. Tumosa, A. Skrebutėnas, K. Juškevičius, T. Tolenis, S. Kičas, R. Drazdys, R. Buzelis, and A. Melninkaitis, “Effect of conventional fused silica preparation and deposition techniques on surface roughness, scattering, and laser damage resistance,” Proc. SPIE 8530, 853027 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Abromavičius, R. Buzelis, R. Drazdys, D. Perednis, and A. Skrebutėnas, “Optimization of HfO2, Al2O3 and SiO2 deposition leading to advanced UV optical coatings with low extinction,” Proc. SPIE 6596, 65961(2006).
[Crossref]

Camp, D. W.

M. R. Kozlowski, J. Carr, I. D. Hutcheon, R. A. Torres, L. M. Sheehan, D. W. Camp, and M. Yan, “Depth profiling of polishing-induced contamination on fused silica surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 3244, 365–375 (1998).
[Crossref]

Carr, C. W.

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

Carr, J.

M. R. Kozlowski, J. Carr, I. D. Hutcheon, R. A. Torres, L. M. Sheehan, D. W. Camp, and M. Yan, “Depth profiling of polishing-induced contamination on fused silica surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 3244, 365–375 (1998).
[Crossref]

Cerstvý, R.

A. Belosludtsev, J. Vlček, J. Houška, and R. Čerstvý, “Reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering of ZrO2 films with gradient ZrOx interlayers on pretreated steel substrates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 35(3), 031503 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chai, Y.

Chen, X.

Cui, Y.

Dai, Y.

Davis, P. J.

J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, W. A. Steele, L. L. Wong, T. I. Suratwala, and P. E. Miller, “MRF applications: measurement of process-dependent subsurface damage in optical materials using the MRF wedge technique,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599103 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Deng, Y.

Donnelly, V. M.

V. M. Donnelly and A. Kornblit, “Plasma etching: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 31(5), 050825 (2013).
[Crossref]

Drazdys, R.

T. Tolenis, L. Grinevičiūtė, R. Buzelis, L. Smalakys, E. Pupka, S. Melnikas, A. Selskis, R. Drazdys, and A. Melninkaitis, “Sculptured anti-reflection coatings for high power lasers,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(4), 1249–1258 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Audronis, A. Matthews, K. Juškevičius, and R. Drazdys, “Unlocking the potential of voltage control for high rate zirconium and hafnium oxide deposition by reactive magnetron sputtering,” Vacuum 107, 159–163 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Juškevičius, R. Buzelis, S. Kičas, T. Tolenis, R. Drazdys, G. Batavičiūtė, E. Pupka, L. Smalakys, and A. Melninkaitis, “Investigation of subsurface damage impact on resistance of laser radiation of fused silica substrates,” Proc. SPIE 8885, 888529 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Kičas, G. Batavičiūtė, K. Juškevičius, T. Tolenis, R. Drazdys, R. Buzelis, and A. Melninkaitis, “Characterization and application of HfO2 - SiO2 mixtures produced by ion-beam sputtering technology,” Proc. SPIE 8885, 888527 (2013).

S. Liukaitytė, G. Batavičiūtė, E. Pupka, M. Ščiuka, I. Kraujalienė, D. Tumosa, A. Skrebutėnas, K. Juškevičius, T. Tolenis, S. Kičas, R. Drazdys, R. Buzelis, and A. Melninkaitis, “Effect of conventional fused silica preparation and deposition techniques on surface roughness, scattering, and laser damage resistance,” Proc. SPIE 8530, 853027 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Abromavičius, R. Buzelis, R. Drazdys, D. Perednis, and A. Skrebutėnas, “Optimization of HfO2, Al2O3 and SiO2 deposition leading to advanced UV optical coatings with low extinction,” Proc. SPIE 6596, 65961(2006).
[Crossref]

Dyck, H.

Emmert, L.

D. N. Nguyen, L. Emmert, M. Mero, W. G. Rudolph, D. Patel, E. Krous, and C. S. Menoni, “The effect of annealing on the subpicosecond breakdown behavior of hafnia films,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71320N (2008).
[Crossref]

Feit, M. D.

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, “Influence of subsurface cracks on laser-induced surface damage,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 264–272 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fengrui, W.

Gerhard, C.

Golini, D.

J. A. Menapace, B. Penetrante, D. Golini, A. F. Slomba, P. E. Miller, T. G. Parham, M. Nichols, and J. Peterson, “Combined advanced finishing and UV-laser conditioning for producing UV-damage-resistant fused-silica optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 56–68 (2002).
[Crossref]

Grigas, P.

G. Batavičiutė, P. Grigas, L. Smalakys, and A. Melninkaitis, “Bayesian approach of laser-induced damage threshold analysis and determination of error bars,” Proc. SPIE 8530, 85301S (2012).
[Crossref]

Grineviciute, L.

Guo, Y.

Haglund, R. F.

M. Affatigato, D. H. Osborne, and R. F. Haglund., “Effect of surface roughness on the acid etching of amorphous silica,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79(3), 688–694 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hongjie, L.

Houška, J.

A. Belosludtsev, J. Vlček, J. Houška, and R. Čerstvý, “Reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering of ZrO2 films with gradient ZrOx interlayers on pretreated steel substrates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 35(3), 031503 (2017).
[Crossref]

N.-W. Pi, M. Zhang, J. Jiang, A. Belosludtsev, J. Vlček, J. Houška, and E. I. Meletis, “Microstructure of hard and optically transparent HfO2 films prepared by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering with a pulsed oxygen flow control,” Thin Solid Films 619, 239–249 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huang, H.

Hutcheon, I. D.

M. R. Kozlowski, J. Carr, I. D. Hutcheon, R. A. Torres, L. M. Sheehan, D. W. Camp, and M. Yan, “Depth profiling of polishing-induced contamination on fused silica surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 3244, 365–375 (1998).
[Crossref]

Jiang, J.

N.-W. Pi, M. Zhang, J. Jiang, A. Belosludtsev, J. Vlček, J. Houška, and E. I. Meletis, “Microstructure of hard and optically transparent HfO2 films prepared by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering with a pulsed oxygen flow control,” Thin Solid Films 619, 239–249 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jin, H.

Juškevicius, K.

M. Audronis, A. Matthews, K. Juškevičius, and R. Drazdys, “Unlocking the potential of voltage control for high rate zirconium and hafnium oxide deposition by reactive magnetron sputtering,” Vacuum 107, 159–163 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Juškevičius, R. Buzelis, S. Kičas, T. Tolenis, R. Drazdys, G. Batavičiūtė, E. Pupka, L. Smalakys, and A. Melninkaitis, “Investigation of subsurface damage impact on resistance of laser radiation of fused silica substrates,” Proc. SPIE 8885, 888529 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Kičas, G. Batavičiūtė, K. Juškevičius, T. Tolenis, R. Drazdys, R. Buzelis, and A. Melninkaitis, “Characterization and application of HfO2 - SiO2 mixtures produced by ion-beam sputtering technology,” Proc. SPIE 8885, 888527 (2013).

S. Liukaitytė, G. Batavičiūtė, E. Pupka, M. Ščiuka, I. Kraujalienė, D. Tumosa, A. Skrebutėnas, K. Juškevičius, T. Tolenis, S. Kičas, R. Drazdys, R. Buzelis, and A. Melninkaitis, “Effect of conventional fused silica preparation and deposition techniques on surface roughness, scattering, and laser damage resistance,” Proc. SPIE 8530, 853027 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kicas, S.

K. Juškevičius, R. Buzelis, S. Kičas, T. Tolenis, R. Drazdys, G. Batavičiūtė, E. Pupka, L. Smalakys, and A. Melninkaitis, “Investigation of subsurface damage impact on resistance of laser radiation of fused silica substrates,” Proc. SPIE 8885, 888529 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Kičas, G. Batavičiūtė, K. Juškevičius, T. Tolenis, R. Drazdys, R. Buzelis, and A. Melninkaitis, “Characterization and application of HfO2 - SiO2 mixtures produced by ion-beam sputtering technology,” Proc. SPIE 8885, 888527 (2013).

S. Liukaitytė, G. Batavičiūtė, E. Pupka, M. Ščiuka, I. Kraujalienė, D. Tumosa, A. Skrebutėnas, K. Juškevičius, T. Tolenis, S. Kičas, R. Drazdys, R. Buzelis, and A. Melninkaitis, “Effect of conventional fused silica preparation and deposition techniques on surface roughness, scattering, and laser damage resistance,” Proc. SPIE 8530, 853027 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kornblit, A.

V. M. Donnelly and A. Kornblit, “Plasma etching: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 31(5), 050825 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kozlowski, M. R.

M. R. Kozlowski, J. Carr, I. D. Hutcheon, R. A. Torres, L. M. Sheehan, D. W. Camp, and M. Yan, “Depth profiling of polishing-induced contamination on fused silica surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 3244, 365–375 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kraujaliene, I.

S. Liukaitytė, G. Batavičiūtė, E. Pupka, M. Ščiuka, I. Kraujalienė, D. Tumosa, A. Skrebutėnas, K. Juškevičius, T. Tolenis, S. Kičas, R. Drazdys, R. Buzelis, and A. Melninkaitis, “Effect of conventional fused silica preparation and deposition techniques on surface roughness, scattering, and laser damage resistance,” Proc. SPIE 8530, 853027 (2012).
[Crossref]

Krous, E.

D. N. Nguyen, L. Emmert, M. Mero, W. G. Rudolph, D. Patel, E. Krous, and C. S. Menoni, “The effect of annealing on the subpicosecond breakdown behavior of hafnia films,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71320N (2008).
[Crossref]

Laixi, S.

Laurence, T. A.

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

Li, S.

S. Li, Z. Wang, and Y. Wu, “Relationship between subsurface damage and surface roughness of optical materials in grinding and lapping processes,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 205(1-3), 34–41 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, Z. Yuan, J. Wang, and Q. Xu, “Laser-induced damage characteristics in fused silica surface due to mechanical and chemical defects during manufacturing processes,” Opt. Laser Technol. 91, 149–158 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, H. Huang, R. Xie, H. Li, Y. Deng, X. Chen, J. Wang, Q. Xu, W. Yang, and Y. Guo, “A method for evaluating subsurface damage in optical glass,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17180–17186 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liukaityte, S.

S. Liukaitytė, G. Batavičiūtė, E. Pupka, M. Ščiuka, I. Kraujalienė, D. Tumosa, A. Skrebutėnas, K. Juškevičius, T. Tolenis, S. Kičas, R. Drazdys, R. Buzelis, and A. Melninkaitis, “Effect of conventional fused silica preparation and deposition techniques on surface roughness, scattering, and laser damage resistance,” Proc. SPIE 8530, 853027 (2012).
[Crossref]

Matthews, A.

M. Audronis, A. Matthews, K. Juškevičius, and R. Drazdys, “Unlocking the potential of voltage control for high rate zirconium and hafnium oxide deposition by reactive magnetron sputtering,” Vacuum 107, 159–163 (2014).
[Crossref]

Meletis, E. I.

N.-W. Pi, M. Zhang, J. Jiang, A. Belosludtsev, J. Vlček, J. Houška, and E. I. Meletis, “Microstructure of hard and optically transparent HfO2 films prepared by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering with a pulsed oxygen flow control,” Thin Solid Films 619, 239–249 (2016).
[Crossref]

Melnikas, S.

Melninkaitis, A.

T. Tolenis, L. Grinevičiūtė, R. Buzelis, L. Smalakys, E. Pupka, S. Melnikas, A. Selskis, R. Drazdys, and A. Melninkaitis, “Sculptured anti-reflection coatings for high power lasers,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(4), 1249–1258 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Kičas, G. Batavičiūtė, K. Juškevičius, T. Tolenis, R. Drazdys, R. Buzelis, and A. Melninkaitis, “Characterization and application of HfO2 - SiO2 mixtures produced by ion-beam sputtering technology,” Proc. SPIE 8885, 888527 (2013).

K. Juškevičius, R. Buzelis, S. Kičas, T. Tolenis, R. Drazdys, G. Batavičiūtė, E. Pupka, L. Smalakys, and A. Melninkaitis, “Investigation of subsurface damage impact on resistance of laser radiation of fused silica substrates,” Proc. SPIE 8885, 888529 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Liukaitytė, G. Batavičiūtė, E. Pupka, M. Ščiuka, I. Kraujalienė, D. Tumosa, A. Skrebutėnas, K. Juškevičius, T. Tolenis, S. Kičas, R. Drazdys, R. Buzelis, and A. Melninkaitis, “Effect of conventional fused silica preparation and deposition techniques on surface roughness, scattering, and laser damage resistance,” Proc. SPIE 8530, 853027 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Batavičiutė, P. Grigas, L. Smalakys, and A. Melninkaitis, “Bayesian approach of laser-induced damage threshold analysis and determination of error bars,” Proc. SPIE 8530, 85301S (2012).
[Crossref]

Menapace, J. A.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[Crossref]

J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, W. A. Steele, L. L. Wong, T. I. Suratwala, and P. E. Miller, “MRF applications: measurement of process-dependent subsurface damage in optical materials using the MRF wedge technique,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599103 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. A. Menapace, B. Penetrante, D. Golini, A. F. Slomba, P. E. Miller, T. G. Parham, M. Nichols, and J. Peterson, “Combined advanced finishing and UV-laser conditioning for producing UV-damage-resistant fused-silica optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 56–68 (2002).
[Crossref]

Menoni, C. S.

D. N. Nguyen, L. Emmert, M. Mero, W. G. Rudolph, D. Patel, E. Krous, and C. S. Menoni, “The effect of annealing on the subpicosecond breakdown behavior of hafnia films,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71320N (2008).
[Crossref]

Mero, M.

D. N. Nguyen, L. Emmert, M. Mero, W. G. Rudolph, D. Patel, E. Krous, and C. S. Menoni, “The effect of annealing on the subpicosecond breakdown behavior of hafnia films,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71320N (2008).
[Crossref]

Miller, P. E.

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, W. A. Steele, L. L. Wong, T. I. Suratwala, and P. E. Miller, “MRF applications: measurement of process-dependent subsurface damage in optical materials using the MRF wedge technique,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599103 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. A. Menapace, B. Penetrante, D. Golini, A. F. Slomba, P. E. Miller, T. G. Parham, M. Nichols, and J. Peterson, “Combined advanced finishing and UV-laser conditioning for producing UV-damage-resistant fused-silica optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 56–68 (2002).
[Crossref]

Monticelli, M. V.

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

Munser, N.

Nguyen, D. N.

D. N. Nguyen, L. Emmert, M. Mero, W. G. Rudolph, D. Patel, E. Krous, and C. S. Menoni, “The effect of annealing on the subpicosecond breakdown behavior of hafnia films,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71320N (2008).
[Crossref]

Nichols, M.

J. A. Menapace, B. Penetrante, D. Golini, A. F. Slomba, P. E. Miller, T. G. Parham, M. Nichols, and J. Peterson, “Combined advanced finishing and UV-laser conditioning for producing UV-damage-resistant fused-silica optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 56–68 (2002).
[Crossref]

Norton, M. A.

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

Osborne, D. H.

M. Affatigato, D. H. Osborne, and R. F. Haglund., “Effect of surface roughness on the acid etching of amorphous silica,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79(3), 688–694 (1996).
[Crossref]

Parham, T. G.

J. A. Menapace, B. Penetrante, D. Golini, A. F. Slomba, P. E. Miller, T. G. Parham, M. Nichols, and J. Peterson, “Combined advanced finishing and UV-laser conditioning for producing UV-damage-resistant fused-silica optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 56–68 (2002).
[Crossref]

Patel, D.

D. N. Nguyen, L. Emmert, M. Mero, W. G. Rudolph, D. Patel, E. Krous, and C. S. Menoni, “The effect of annealing on the subpicosecond breakdown behavior of hafnia films,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71320N (2008).
[Crossref]

Penetrante, B.

J. A. Menapace, B. Penetrante, D. Golini, A. F. Slomba, P. E. Miller, T. G. Parham, M. Nichols, and J. Peterson, “Combined advanced finishing and UV-laser conditioning for producing UV-damage-resistant fused-silica optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 56–68 (2002).
[Crossref]

Peng, X.

Perednis, D.

G. Abromavičius, R. Buzelis, R. Drazdys, D. Perednis, and A. Skrebutėnas, “Optimization of HfO2, Al2O3 and SiO2 deposition leading to advanced UV optical coatings with low extinction,” Proc. SPIE 6596, 65961(2006).
[Crossref]

Peterson, J.

J. A. Menapace, B. Penetrante, D. Golini, A. F. Slomba, P. E. Miller, T. G. Parham, M. Nichols, and J. Peterson, “Combined advanced finishing and UV-laser conditioning for producing UV-damage-resistant fused-silica optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 56–68 (2002).
[Crossref]

Pi, N.-W.

N.-W. Pi, M. Zhang, J. Jiang, A. Belosludtsev, J. Vlček, J. Houška, and E. I. Meletis, “Microstructure of hard and optically transparent HfO2 films prepared by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering with a pulsed oxygen flow control,” Thin Solid Films 619, 239–249 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pupka, E.

T. Tolenis, L. Grinevičiūtė, R. Buzelis, L. Smalakys, E. Pupka, S. Melnikas, A. Selskis, R. Drazdys, and A. Melninkaitis, “Sculptured anti-reflection coatings for high power lasers,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(4), 1249–1258 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Juškevičius, R. Buzelis, S. Kičas, T. Tolenis, R. Drazdys, G. Batavičiūtė, E. Pupka, L. Smalakys, and A. Melninkaitis, “Investigation of subsurface damage impact on resistance of laser radiation of fused silica substrates,” Proc. SPIE 8885, 888529 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Liukaitytė, G. Batavičiūtė, E. Pupka, M. Ščiuka, I. Kraujalienė, D. Tumosa, A. Skrebutėnas, K. Juškevičius, T. Tolenis, S. Kičas, R. Drazdys, R. Buzelis, and A. Melninkaitis, “Effect of conventional fused silica preparation and deposition techniques on surface roughness, scattering, and laser damage resistance,” Proc. SPIE 8530, 853027 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rubenchik, A. M.

M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, “Influence of subsurface cracks on laser-induced surface damage,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 264–272 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rudolph, W. G.

D. N. Nguyen, L. Emmert, M. Mero, W. G. Rudolph, D. Patel, E. Krous, and C. S. Menoni, “The effect of annealing on the subpicosecond breakdown behavior of hafnia films,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71320N (2008).
[Crossref]

Šciuka, M.

S. Liukaitytė, G. Batavičiūtė, E. Pupka, M. Ščiuka, I. Kraujalienė, D. Tumosa, A. Skrebutėnas, K. Juškevičius, T. Tolenis, S. Kičas, R. Drazdys, R. Buzelis, and A. Melninkaitis, “Effect of conventional fused silica preparation and deposition techniques on surface roughness, scattering, and laser damage resistance,” Proc. SPIE 8530, 853027 (2012).
[Crossref]

Selskis, A.

Shao, J.

Sheehan, L. M.

M. R. Kozlowski, J. Carr, I. D. Hutcheon, R. A. Torres, L. M. Sheehan, D. W. Camp, and M. Yan, “Depth profiling of polishing-induced contamination on fused silica surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 3244, 365–375 (1998).
[Crossref]

Shen, N.

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[Crossref]

Shi, F.

Skrebutenas, A.

S. Liukaitytė, G. Batavičiūtė, E. Pupka, M. Ščiuka, I. Kraujalienė, D. Tumosa, A. Skrebutėnas, K. Juškevičius, T. Tolenis, S. Kičas, R. Drazdys, R. Buzelis, and A. Melninkaitis, “Effect of conventional fused silica preparation and deposition techniques on surface roughness, scattering, and laser damage resistance,” Proc. SPIE 8530, 853027 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Abromavičius, R. Buzelis, R. Drazdys, D. Perednis, and A. Skrebutėnas, “Optimization of HfO2, Al2O3 and SiO2 deposition leading to advanced UV optical coatings with low extinction,” Proc. SPIE 6596, 65961(2006).
[Crossref]

Slomba, A. F.

J. A. Menapace, B. Penetrante, D. Golini, A. F. Slomba, P. E. Miller, T. G. Parham, M. Nichols, and J. Peterson, “Combined advanced finishing and UV-laser conditioning for producing UV-damage-resistant fused-silica optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 56–68 (2002).
[Crossref]

Smalakys, L.

T. Tolenis, L. Grinevičiūtė, R. Buzelis, L. Smalakys, E. Pupka, S. Melnikas, A. Selskis, R. Drazdys, and A. Melninkaitis, “Sculptured anti-reflection coatings for high power lasers,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(4), 1249–1258 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Juškevičius, R. Buzelis, S. Kičas, T. Tolenis, R. Drazdys, G. Batavičiūtė, E. Pupka, L. Smalakys, and A. Melninkaitis, “Investigation of subsurface damage impact on resistance of laser radiation of fused silica substrates,” Proc. SPIE 8885, 888529 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Batavičiutė, P. Grigas, L. Smalakys, and A. Melninkaitis, “Bayesian approach of laser-induced damage threshold analysis and determination of error bars,” Proc. SPIE 8530, 85301S (2012).
[Crossref]

Steele, R. A.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Steele, W. A.

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[Crossref]

J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, W. A. Steele, L. L. Wong, T. I. Suratwala, and P. E. Miller, “MRF applications: measurement of process-dependent subsurface damage in optical materials using the MRF wedge technique,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sui, T.

Suratwala, T. I.

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[Crossref]

J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, W. A. Steele, L. L. Wong, T. I. Suratwala, and P. E. Miller, “MRF applications: measurement of process-dependent subsurface damage in optical materials using the MRF wedge technique,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599103 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tasche, D.

Tolenis, T.

T. Tolenis, L. Grinevičiūtė, R. Buzelis, L. Smalakys, E. Pupka, S. Melnikas, A. Selskis, R. Drazdys, and A. Melninkaitis, “Sculptured anti-reflection coatings for high power lasers,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(4), 1249–1258 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Juškevičius, R. Buzelis, S. Kičas, T. Tolenis, R. Drazdys, G. Batavičiūtė, E. Pupka, L. Smalakys, and A. Melninkaitis, “Investigation of subsurface damage impact on resistance of laser radiation of fused silica substrates,” Proc. SPIE 8885, 888529 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Kičas, G. Batavičiūtė, K. Juškevičius, T. Tolenis, R. Drazdys, R. Buzelis, and A. Melninkaitis, “Characterization and application of HfO2 - SiO2 mixtures produced by ion-beam sputtering technology,” Proc. SPIE 8885, 888527 (2013).

S. Liukaitytė, G. Batavičiūtė, E. Pupka, M. Ščiuka, I. Kraujalienė, D. Tumosa, A. Skrebutėnas, K. Juškevičius, T. Tolenis, S. Kičas, R. Drazdys, R. Buzelis, and A. Melninkaitis, “Effect of conventional fused silica preparation and deposition techniques on surface roughness, scattering, and laser damage resistance,” Proc. SPIE 8530, 853027 (2012).
[Crossref]

Torres, R. A.

M. R. Kozlowski, J. Carr, I. D. Hutcheon, R. A. Torres, L. M. Sheehan, D. W. Camp, and M. Yan, “Depth profiling of polishing-induced contamination on fused silica surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 3244, 365–375 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tumosa, D.

S. Liukaitytė, G. Batavičiūtė, E. Pupka, M. Ščiuka, I. Kraujalienė, D. Tumosa, A. Skrebutėnas, K. Juškevičius, T. Tolenis, S. Kičas, R. Drazdys, R. Buzelis, and A. Melninkaitis, “Effect of conventional fused silica preparation and deposition techniques on surface roughness, scattering, and laser damage resistance,” Proc. SPIE 8530, 853027 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vlcek, J.

A. Belosludtsev, J. Vlček, J. Houška, and R. Čerstvý, “Reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering of ZrO2 films with gradient ZrOx interlayers on pretreated steel substrates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 35(3), 031503 (2017).
[Crossref]

N.-W. Pi, M. Zhang, J. Jiang, A. Belosludtsev, J. Vlček, J. Houška, and E. I. Meletis, “Microstructure of hard and optically transparent HfO2 films prepared by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering with a pulsed oxygen flow control,” Thin Solid Films 619, 239–249 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

Wang, J.

Y. Li, Z. Yuan, J. Wang, and Q. Xu, “Laser-induced damage characteristics in fused silica surface due to mechanical and chemical defects during manufacturing processes,” Opt. Laser Technol. 91, 149–158 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, H. Huang, R. Xie, H. Li, Y. Deng, X. Chen, J. Wang, Q. Xu, W. Yang, and Y. Guo, “A method for evaluating subsurface damage in optical glass,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17180–17186 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

S. Li, Z. Wang, and Y. Wu, “Relationship between subsurface damage and surface roughness of optical materials in grinding and lapping processes,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 205(1-3), 34–41 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wanguo, Z.

Wong, L. L.

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, W. A. Steele, L. L. Wong, T. I. Suratwala, and P. E. Miller, “MRF applications: measurement of process-dependent subsurface damage in optical materials using the MRF wedge technique,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

S. Li, Z. Wang, and Y. Wu, “Relationship between subsurface damage and surface roughness of optical materials in grinding and lapping processes,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 205(1-3), 34–41 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xiaodong, J.

Xiaoyan, Z.

Xie, R.

Xin, Y.

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Xu, M.

Xu, Q.

Y. Li, Z. Yuan, J. Wang, and Q. Xu, “Laser-induced damage characteristics in fused silica surface due to mechanical and chemical defects during manufacturing processes,” Opt. Laser Technol. 91, 149–158 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, H. Huang, R. Xie, H. Li, Y. Deng, X. Chen, J. Wang, Q. Xu, W. Yang, and Y. Guo, “A method for evaluating subsurface damage in optical glass,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17180–17186 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, M.

M. R. Kozlowski, J. Carr, I. D. Hutcheon, R. A. Torres, L. M. Sheehan, D. W. Camp, and M. Yan, “Depth profiling of polishing-induced contamination on fused silica surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 3244, 365–375 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yang, W.

Yi, K.

Yuan, Z.

Y. Li, Z. Yuan, J. Wang, and Q. Xu, “Laser-induced damage characteristics in fused silica surface due to mechanical and chemical defects during manufacturing processes,” Opt. Laser Technol. 91, 149–158 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhan, S.

Zhang, M.

N.-W. Pi, M. Zhang, J. Jiang, A. Belosludtsev, J. Vlček, J. Houška, and E. I. Meletis, “Microstructure of hard and optically transparent HfO2 films prepared by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering with a pulsed oxygen flow control,” Thin Solid Films 619, 239–249 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhong, Y.

Zhu, M.

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (2)

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Affatigato, D. H. Osborne, and R. F. Haglund., “Effect of surface roughness on the acid etching of amorphous silica,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79(3), 688–694 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Process. Technol. (1)

S. Li, Z. Wang, and Y. Wu, “Relationship between subsurface damage and surface roughness of optical materials in grinding and lapping processes,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 205(1-3), 34–41 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (2)

V. M. Donnelly and A. Kornblit, “Plasma etching: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 31(5), 050825 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Belosludtsev, J. Vlček, J. Houška, and R. Čerstvý, “Reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering of ZrO2 films with gradient ZrOx interlayers on pretreated steel substrates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 35(3), 031503 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

Y. Li, Z. Yuan, J. Wang, and Q. Xu, “Laser-induced damage characteristics in fused silica surface due to mechanical and chemical defects during manufacturing processes,” Opt. Laser Technol. 91, 149–158 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (12)

S. Kičas, G. Batavičiūtė, K. Juškevičius, T. Tolenis, R. Drazdys, R. Buzelis, and A. Melninkaitis, “Characterization and application of HfO2 - SiO2 mixtures produced by ion-beam sputtering technology,” Proc. SPIE 8885, 888527 (2013).

D. N. Nguyen, L. Emmert, M. Mero, W. G. Rudolph, D. Patel, E. Krous, and C. S. Menoni, “The effect of annealing on the subpicosecond breakdown behavior of hafnia films,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71320N (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Abromavičius, R. Buzelis, R. Drazdys, D. Perednis, and A. Skrebutėnas, “Optimization of HfO2, Al2O3 and SiO2 deposition leading to advanced UV optical coatings with low extinction,” Proc. SPIE 6596, 65961(2006).
[Crossref]

G. Batavičiutė, P. Grigas, L. Smalakys, and A. Melninkaitis, “Bayesian approach of laser-induced damage threshold analysis and determination of error bars,” Proc. SPIE 8530, 85301S (2012).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, W. A. Steele, L. L. Wong, T. I. Suratwala, and P. E. Miller, “MRF applications: measurement of process-dependent subsurface damage in optical materials using the MRF wedge technique,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599103 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. A. Menapace, B. Penetrante, D. Golini, A. F. Slomba, P. E. Miller, T. G. Parham, M. Nichols, and J. Peterson, “Combined advanced finishing and UV-laser conditioning for producing UV-damage-resistant fused-silica optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 56–68 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Juškevičius, R. Buzelis, S. Kičas, T. Tolenis, R. Drazdys, G. Batavičiūtė, E. Pupka, L. Smalakys, and A. Melninkaitis, “Investigation of subsurface damage impact on resistance of laser radiation of fused silica substrates,” Proc. SPIE 8885, 888529 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Liukaitytė, G. Batavičiūtė, E. Pupka, M. Ščiuka, I. Kraujalienė, D. Tumosa, A. Skrebutėnas, K. Juškevičius, T. Tolenis, S. Kičas, R. Drazdys, R. Buzelis, and A. Melninkaitis, “Effect of conventional fused silica preparation and deposition techniques on surface roughness, scattering, and laser damage resistance,” Proc. SPIE 8530, 853027 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, “Influence of subsurface cracks on laser-induced surface damage,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 264–272 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. R. Kozlowski, J. Carr, I. D. Hutcheon, R. A. Torres, L. M. Sheehan, D. W. Camp, and M. Yan, “Depth profiling of polishing-induced contamination on fused silica surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 3244, 365–375 (1998).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

N.-W. Pi, M. Zhang, J. Jiang, A. Belosludtsev, J. Vlček, J. Houška, and E. I. Meletis, “Microstructure of hard and optically transparent HfO2 films prepared by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering with a pulsed oxygen flow control,” Thin Solid Films 619, 239–249 (2016).
[Crossref]

Vacuum (1)

M. Audronis, A. Matthews, K. Juškevičius, and R. Drazdys, “Unlocking the potential of voltage control for high rate zirconium and hafnium oxide deposition by reactive magnetron sputtering,” Vacuum 107, 159–163 (2014).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

ISO-11254–1, “Lasers and laser-related equipment,” in Determination of laser-induced damage threshold of optical surfaces, Part 1: 1-on-1 test, (2000).

J. Krüger and W. Kautek, “Ultrashort pulse laser interaction with dielectrics and polymers,” in Polymers and Light, T. K. Lippert, ed. (Berlin, Heidelberg, 2004), pp. 247–290.

ISO-11146, “Lasers and laser-related equipment,” in Test methods for laser beam widths, divergence angles and beam propagation ratios. Part 1: Stigmatic and simple astigmatic beams (2005).

G. Batavičiutė, P. Grigas, L. Smalakys, and A. Melninkaitis, “Revision of laser-induced damage threshold evaluation from damage probability data,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 045108 (2013).

Y. Lee, “Evaluating subsurface damage in optical glasses,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 6, 11001 (2011).

S. Jha and V. K. Jain, “Nanofinishing Techniques,” in Micromanufacturing and Nanotechnology (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2006), pp. 171–195.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Side view (a) and top view (b) drawings showing the plasma etching procedure and RADIANCE sputter platform, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Reflectance and transmittance spectra of anti-reflective (AR<0.2%@355 AOI = 0 deg) (a) and polarizing (Pol@355 AOI = 56 deg, Tp>95%, Rs>99.5%) (b) OIC‘s deposited on etched and non-etched FS substrates.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 LIDT measuring schematics. M – mirrors, PC – computer for system control, SF – space filter, PD1 – incident beam energy registration photodiode, λ/2 – phase plate, P – polarizer, BS – beam splitter, SH – beam shutter, L1 – focusing lens, XYZ – motorized sample holder, SDM – scattering detection module: Sh – direct beam path shield, L2 – scattered light collecting lens, A – aperture, PD2 – scattered light registration photodiode.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Comparison of transmittance spectra of individual FS substrates before and after ion etching.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Comparison of FS surface roughness (a) and flatness (b) values before and after argon plasma etching. Interferometer wavelength λ = 633 nm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 LIDT comparison of non-etched and etched FS substrates.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 LID probability curves of anti-reflective (AR@355) and polarizing (Pol.@355) OIC’s, deposited on non-etched and etched substrates.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Characteristic damage morphologies of non-etched (a) and etched (b) FS substrates, coated with AR<0.2%@355 AOI = 0 deg coatings.

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